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Metadata standards and ontologies
IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction totototo DigitalDigitalDigitalDigital HumanitiesHumanitiesHumanitiesHumanities ((((BBBB----KULKULKULKUL----G0R03A)G0R03A)G0R03A)G0R03A)
Roxanne Wyns
Roxanne.Wyns@libis.kuleuven.be
2
Short intro
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
3
On the agenda
I. Introduction to standards
II. The standards landscape in DCH
III. Ontologies
IV. Standards in research
V. Best practices
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Source: dilbert.com
I. Introduction to standards
5
What is a standard?
“Put at its simplest, a standard is an agreed, repeatable way of doing
something. It is a published document that contains a technical
specification or other precise criteria designed to be used consistently
as a rule, guideline, or definition. Standards help to make life
simpler and to increase the reliability and the effectiveness of many
goods and services we use. Standards are created by bringing
together the experience and expertise of all interested parties such
as the producers, sellers, buyers, users and regulators of a particular
material, product, process or service.”
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Definition according to ‘The British Standards Institution’ (BSI),
the world’s oldest standards setting organisation (1901)
6
What is a standard? & What does it do?
WHAT
• Agreed
• Rule, guideline, definition
• Documented
• Repeatable
• Material, product, process,
service
• Involved
• Knowledge
• …
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
WHY
• Simplicity
• Consistency
• Reliability
• Interpretable
• Interoperability
• Effective
• Innovation
• Productivity
• …
7
Standards are everywhere
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
8
A world without standards…
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
9
A standardized world?
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Source: https://xkcd.com/927/
10
Types of standards
• Standards not formally recognized by a
standards setting body, but widely used and
recognized by the sector
• Standards formally recognized by a standards
setting body (e.g. ISO)
• In-house
• Community
• National
• International, nearly always approved by an
international standards setting body (e.g. ISO
8601)
• Open standards
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
11
Standards development process
1. Open meeting
2. Consensus
3. Due process
4. Open IPR
5. One World
6. Open change
7. Open documents
8. Open interface
9. Open access
10.Ongoing support
A transparent and democratic process
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Kenneth Krechmer, Open Standards Requirements, “The international
Journal of IT Standards and Standardisation Research”
12
Selecting a standard
Open IPR
Open access
On-going support
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
II. The standards landscape in DCH
14
GLAM infrastructure overview
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Coll.MS CMS
DAM/
LTP
Collection management system
- Metadata creation and management
(master files)
- Closed system (access rights)
- Metadata is pushed to public portal
DAM / LTP
- Ingest of files + metadata
- PID
- Visualisation view
er
Admin
UI
Admin
UI
Front
- end
Admin
UI
Front
- end
Public Access portal / CMS
Additional content such as
news, story's, …
Metadata
for publication
Descriptive &
administrative metadata
Physical & Digital born items
15
A shortlist of common standards
FORMATS
• Text/Data: Word, XML,
HTML, PDF, ODT, JSON …
• Syntax: RDF, XSD …
• Image: TIFF, JPEG,
JPEG2000 …
• Audio: MP3, WAV, …
• Video: AVI, MP4, MPG-1
…
• Virtual R: VRML97, X3D,
Quicktime VR …
TECHNICAL/PROTOCOL
• Search & retrieval: OAI-
MPH, SQL, Z39.50, HTTP,
FTP, RESTful, SOAP…
• Character encoding:
Unicode (UTF8) …
• PID: Handle, URI-URN,
DOI …
• AAI: SAML, XACML,
OAuth, OpenID …
• Image: IIIF …
DESCRIPTIVE
• Library: MARC, FRBR /
MARCXML, METS, MODS
…
• Museum: SPECTRUM,
CDWA, Object ID / LIDO …
• Archive: ISAD(G), ISAAR /
EAD …
• Other: MIDAS …
• General: DUBLIN CORE,
VRA, EDM …
• Document encoding: TEI
…
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
16
Heron infrastructureA standard approach
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
LIAS ingester
Lias
Uploader
Pawtucket
FTP
API
PNX
DC
API
API
DC
IIIF
SPECTRUM
TIFF
JPEG
…
LIDO
XSLT
EDM
API
17
What is metadata
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
18
Metadata @ libraries, archives and museums
• Domain specific description and export standards
• Often with (small) adaptations to fit specific needs
• Different standards according to it’s use environment
• Exports in different formats
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Collection Management Environment
20
Collection management system
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Coll.MS CMS
DAM/
LTP view
er
Admin
UI
Admin
UI
Front
- end
Admin
UI
Front
- end
Descriptive &
administrative metadata
Physical & Digital born items
Metadata
for publication
21
Libraries
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
22
Libraries
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
23
Archives
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
24
Museums
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
http://collectionstrust.org.uk/spectrum/spectrum-resources/
25
Other
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
26
LIBIS Collection management layer
• Alma for libraries
• MARC standard
• CollectiveAccess
• Flexible data model
• Standard of choice
• Museum standard:
SPECTRUM
• Scope for archives
• Archival standards such as
ISAD(G), ISAAR…
• …
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
27
Use of standards
• Most organizations use in-house or adaptations of standards to fit
their specific needs
• Risk of losing interoperability
• Appoint an information manager
• Document changes and provide a mapping to the standard
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Service environment
29
Content management system
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Coll.MS CMS
DAM/
LTP view
er
Admin
UI
Admin
UI
Front
- end
Admin
UI
Front
- end
Descriptive &
administrative metadata
Physical & Digital born items
Metadata
for publication
30
Service environment
• Meaningful access for users
• Metadata describing an object, usually includes a digital surrogate
• Subset of the metadata
• Cross-domain, usable quality for specific service, IPR information
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Discovery environment
32
Discovery environment
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Coll.MS CMS
DAM/
LTP view
er
Admin
UI
Admin
UI
Front
- end
Admin
UI
Front
- end
Descriptive &
administrative metadata
Physical & Digital born items
Metadata
for publication
33
Resource discovery standards
Moving from the local to the global level
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
• For data interoperability: harvesting, aggregation, publishing,
indexing
• Access to metadata of many objects, often from many domains
• Result set with reference to digital representation
• Maximum relevance of results
• Limited metadata
• Dublin Core (DC) (or a variant of) is the most commonly used
metadata schema in de service and discovery environment
Formats, Shema’s, Mapping, Standards, Protocols, Semantics,…
34
Data aggregation in DCH
The Europeana example
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
• Using aggregators
• Source > [Intermediate] > Target
• Protocols, tools and formats
• XML (or CSV)
• HTTP or FTP upload
• OAI-PMH, API
• Ingestion and mapping tools
35
Dublin Core (DC)
http://dublincore.org/
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Dublin Core Metadata Element Set:
1. Title
2. Creator
3. Subject
4. Description
5. Publisher
6. Contributor
7. Date
8. Type
9. Format
10. Identifier
11. Source
12. Language
13. Relation
14. Coverage
15. Rights
36
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)
http://dublincore.org/ ; http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
37
Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI)
http://dublincore.org/ ; http://dublincore.org/schemas/xmls/qdc/dcterms.xsd
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
38
MARC XML
Example of a MARC XML record
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
39
MARC XML
http://www.loc.gov/marc/
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
40
MARC XML
http://www.loc.gov/marc/bibliographic/
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
41
EAD
http://www.loc.gov/ead/
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
42
EAD
eadheader
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
43
EAD
archdesc
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
44
EAD
archdesc
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
45
EAD
http://www.loc.gov/ead/ ; http://www.loc.gov/ead/EAD3taglib/index.html
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
RLG Best Practice Guidelines for Encoded Archival Description, 2002
46
LIDO
• Validated as an official standard by ICOM/CIDOC Data Harvesting
and Interchange Working Group
• XML harvesting schema
• Documentation available on: www.lido-schema.org
Lightweight Information Describing Objects
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
47
LIDO
Main components
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
48
LIDO
• Events based on CIDOC-CRM (ISO 21127)
• An object is described according to a series of event that took place
in its lifetime
Event based structure
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
49
LIDO
Example record
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
50
LIDO
Example record
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
51
EDM
• Cross-domain model for bring together diverse collections in
Europeana
• Distinguish “provided objects” (painting, book, movie, etc.) from their
digital representations
• Distinguish object from its metadata record
• Allow multiple records for the same object, containing potentially
contradictory statements about it
• Support for objects that are composed of other objects
• Support for contextual resources, including concepts from controlled
vocabularies
Europeana Data Model
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
https://pro.europeana.eu/resources/standardization-tools/edm-documentation
52
EDM
Europeana Data Model
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
III. Ontologies
54
Ontology (information science)
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
55
Simply put
• Ontologies are rules to describe:
• Context
• Relationships
• Ex. What is an author? How does it relate to an editor/work ...
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
But what are they used for?
56
Context - The Semantic Web
• Gives structure/meaning to documents
• Extension to the current web
• URI
• HTTP
• RDF
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
https://open.hpi.de/courses/semanticweb2016
57
Moving from documents to data
DOCUMENTS
• Human readable
• Connected through links
• Links (relations) in 1 direction
• Findable through search engine (indexing)
• Difficult to interpret by software (no context)
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
DATA
• Machine readable
• Decentralized
• Exists of links
• Easy for machines to follow
• Relations in 2 directions (graph)
• Findable with own Query language (SPARQL)
Browser
Search
Engine
Agents
Search
Engine
VS
58
(hyper)LINKS
• Highlighted text on web page
• One directional
• Accessed by clicking it
• References documents
• Opens a new window, download
• Jumps to a location in the document
• Stored in a HTML document and rendered by a web browser
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
59
Linked Data
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
The link in linked data is a statement. It states a fact. We can tell a story by putting these
statements together. Computers can be made to understand these stories/graphs
60
Describing data on the Web
• RDF forms the basis of Semantic web technologies
• Universal language to describe the characteristics of a resource on
the web
• Using XML for syntax and URIs for naming
• Uses a directed graph to describe resources
• Makes statements about resources in the form of subject-predicate-
object triplets
• RDF triples provides a labelled connection using URIs to make it
possible to link data with one another
• In this way a machine is able to find the semantic relations between
data
RDF ~ Resource Description Framework
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
61
RDF triplets
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
62
Triplets identified by an URI
Uniform Resource Identifier = global unique identifier
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
63
Ontologies
• Ontologies are rules to describe:
• Context (classes)
• Relationships (properties)
• Ex. What is an author? How does it relate to an editor/work ...
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
64
Ontologies ≠ Taxonomies/Thesauri/…
• Taxonomies, Vocabularies, Thesauri, Classifications…
• Function on a different level then ontologies
• Important role in the Semantic Web and Linked Data world
• Help with the interpretation and integration of data between different datasets
• May lead to the discovery of new relationships between information
expressed in a different natural language
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
65
Thesaurus = concept, labels …
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
66
Ontology = Formal knowledge
representation scheme
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
67
Another example ~ GeoNames authority
file
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
68
Another example ~ GeoNames ontology
http://www.geonames.org/ontology/ontology_v3.1.rdf
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
69
SKOS format
• Solution for converting a “classic” thesaurus or vocabulary into a
semantically interoperable format
• Based on the RDF specification, enables migration to OWL
• Not a formal knowledge representation / ontology
• Structured according to the ISO 25964 norm dedicated to thesauri
and interoperability with other vocabularies
• Components
Concepts Documented
URIs Semantically related (BT, NT, RT)
Labelled Concept schemes
Simple Knowledge Organisation System
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
70
SKOS format
Simple Knowledge Organisation System
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Ontologies in Cultural Heritage
72
BIBFRAME
• Library of Congress
• To replace MARC
• Ongoing process
• From one record to data statements
• Integration with other standards
• Findability on the web
• New types of materials and metadata
Bibliographic Framework Initiative
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
73
CIDOC-CRM
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
• CIDOC object-oriented Conceptual Reference Model (CRM)
• Domain ontology for concepts and information in cultural heritage
and museum documentation
• International standard (ISO 21127:2014) for the controlled exchange
of cultural heritage information
• Extensible semantic framework
• Object oriented model
74
CIDOC-CRM
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
• CIDOC object-oriented Conceptual Reference Model (CRM)
• Domain ontology for concepts and information in cultural heritage
and museum documentation
• International standard (ISO 21127:2014) for the controlled exchange
of cultural heritage information
• Extensible semantic framework
• Object oriented model
Source: http://www.cidoc-crm.org/Resources/rdf-file-for-crm-core
75
FRBRoo
• Joint effort of the CIDOC-CRM and Functional Requirements for
Bibliographic Records (FRBR) international working groups
• FRBR-object oriented
• Formal ontology intended to capture and represent the underlying
semantics of bibliographic information
• Facilitate the integration, mediation, and interchange of bibliographic
and museum information
Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records - object oriented
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
76
FRBRoo
Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records - object oriented
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Source: http://83.212.168.219/FRBR_Tutorial/graph-exercises
Linked Data & Search engines
78
Schema.org
• A vocabulary (ontology) for structured data on the Internet, on web
pages, in email messages, ...
• By Google, Microsoft, Yahoo and Yandex
• Embeddable in html by:
• Microdata
• RDFa
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Source: http://schema.org/docs/full.html
79
LD to provides context to search engines
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
80
Representation of Limo object in Schema.org
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
[{
"@context": "http://schema.org",
"@type": "Book",
"@id":
"http://resolver.libis.be/IE5307748",
"name": "Physica",
"editor": {
"name": "Verheyden, Engelbertus",
"jobTitle": "Professor (1737-1804)"
},
"author": {
"@type": "Person",
"name": "Barjon, Caefarius",
"jobTitle": "Student"
}
}]
81
Representation of Limo object in Schema.org
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
IV. Standards in Research
83
Why important for you?
Research Data Lifecycle
UK Data Archive
JISC
University of Virginia Library
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
84
Why important for you?
Creating data
Creating data
• Design research
• Plan data management (formats, storage
etc.)
• Plan consent for sharing
• Locate existing data
• Collect data (experiment, observe, measure,
simulate)
• Capture and create metadata
UK Data Archive
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
85
Why important for you?
Processing data
Processing data
• Enter data, digitize, transcribe, translate
• Check, validate, clean data
• Anonymize data where necessary
• Describe data
• Manage and store data
UK Data Archive
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
86
Why important for you?
Analyzing data
Analyzing data
• Interpret data
• Derive data
• Produce research outputs
• Author publications
• Prepare data for preservation
UK Data Archive
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
87
Why important for you?
Preserving data
Preserving data
• Migrate data to best format
• Migrate data to suitable medium
• Back-up and store data
• Create metadata and documentation
• Archive data
UK Data Archive
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
88
Why important for you?
Access to data
Giving access to data
• Distribute data
• Share data
• Control access
• Establish copyright
• Promote data
UK Data Archive
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
89
Why important for you?
Re-using data
Re-using data
• Follow-up research
• New research
• Undertake research reviews
• Scrutinize findings
• Teach and learn
UK Data Archive
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
90
Sharing data to advance Science
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
91
Metadata @ Arts, Social Sciences
and Humanities
• No tradition in using
descriptive standards
• Data models according to
researchers needs
• Can be based on common
principles within the research
domain
• Increase of data sharing
thanks to VRIs (Dariah,
Clarin…)
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Source: Digital Curation Centre, metadata standards in Social Science & Humanities
92
EOSC
European Open Science Cloud
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Source: EOSC infographic Source: EOSC Declaration
V. Best practices in metadata
modeling
94
Identify standards & common practices
• Identify and use relevant metadata standards in your field
• If no metadata standards exist, explore common practices in the field
and collaborate if possible
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
95
Data modeling
• Create a data model
• Choose and use standard terminology to enable discovery
• Maintain consistent data typing
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
96
Data documentation
• Create a data dictionary
• Update data documentation on a regular basis during every step of
the lifecycle
• Document the integration of multiple datasets
• Describe the temporal extent your dataset
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
97
Data storage
• Create, manage, and document your data storage system
• Document and store data using stable file formats
• Describe the overall organization of your dataset
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
98
Data access and reuse
• Describe the dataset, incl. rights, versions, processing tools,…
• Provide the organization structure of your dataset
• Include a metadata specifications document in each dataset
• Deposit your dataset in a domain specific of institutional repository
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
99
Discover more
• Digitisation: Standards Landscape for European Museums, Archives, Libraries
• Digital Curation Centre Resources on Social Sciences and Humanities
• European Open Science Cloud Declaration
• FAIR data principles
• Data one, Best practices in RDM
• Research Data management at KU Leuven
• LIBIS Services for researchers
• Ontologies for Cultural Heritage
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
100
Thank you! Questions?
Roxanne Wyns - Roxanne.Wyns@kuleuven.be
Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
Source: http://jennriley.com/metadatamap/

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Introduction to Digital Humanities: Metadata standards and ontologies

  • 1. Metadata standards and ontologies IntroductionIntroductionIntroductionIntroduction totototo DigitalDigitalDigitalDigital HumanitiesHumanitiesHumanitiesHumanities ((((BBBB----KULKULKULKUL----G0R03A)G0R03A)G0R03A)G0R03A) Roxanne Wyns Roxanne.Wyns@libis.kuleuven.be
  • 2. 2 Short intro Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 3. 3 On the agenda I. Introduction to standards II. The standards landscape in DCH III. Ontologies IV. Standards in research V. Best practices Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies Source: dilbert.com
  • 4. I. Introduction to standards
  • 5. 5 What is a standard? “Put at its simplest, a standard is an agreed, repeatable way of doing something. It is a published document that contains a technical specification or other precise criteria designed to be used consistently as a rule, guideline, or definition. Standards help to make life simpler and to increase the reliability and the effectiveness of many goods and services we use. Standards are created by bringing together the experience and expertise of all interested parties such as the producers, sellers, buyers, users and regulators of a particular material, product, process or service.” Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies Definition according to ‘The British Standards Institution’ (BSI), the world’s oldest standards setting organisation (1901)
  • 6. 6 What is a standard? & What does it do? WHAT • Agreed • Rule, guideline, definition • Documented • Repeatable • Material, product, process, service • Involved • Knowledge • … Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies WHY • Simplicity • Consistency • Reliability • Interpretable • Interoperability • Effective • Innovation • Productivity • …
  • 7. 7 Standards are everywhere Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 8. 8 A world without standards… Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 9. 9 A standardized world? Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies Source: https://xkcd.com/927/
  • 10. 10 Types of standards • Standards not formally recognized by a standards setting body, but widely used and recognized by the sector • Standards formally recognized by a standards setting body (e.g. ISO) • In-house • Community • National • International, nearly always approved by an international standards setting body (e.g. ISO 8601) • Open standards Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 11. 11 Standards development process 1. Open meeting 2. Consensus 3. Due process 4. Open IPR 5. One World 6. Open change 7. Open documents 8. Open interface 9. Open access 10.Ongoing support A transparent and democratic process Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies Kenneth Krechmer, Open Standards Requirements, “The international Journal of IT Standards and Standardisation Research”
  • 12. 12 Selecting a standard Open IPR Open access On-going support Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 13. II. The standards landscape in DCH
  • 14. 14 GLAM infrastructure overview Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies Coll.MS CMS DAM/ LTP Collection management system - Metadata creation and management (master files) - Closed system (access rights) - Metadata is pushed to public portal DAM / LTP - Ingest of files + metadata - PID - Visualisation view er Admin UI Admin UI Front - end Admin UI Front - end Public Access portal / CMS Additional content such as news, story's, … Metadata for publication Descriptive & administrative metadata Physical & Digital born items
  • 15. 15 A shortlist of common standards FORMATS • Text/Data: Word, XML, HTML, PDF, ODT, JSON … • Syntax: RDF, XSD … • Image: TIFF, JPEG, JPEG2000 … • Audio: MP3, WAV, … • Video: AVI, MP4, MPG-1 … • Virtual R: VRML97, X3D, Quicktime VR … TECHNICAL/PROTOCOL • Search & retrieval: OAI- MPH, SQL, Z39.50, HTTP, FTP, RESTful, SOAP… • Character encoding: Unicode (UTF8) … • PID: Handle, URI-URN, DOI … • AAI: SAML, XACML, OAuth, OpenID … • Image: IIIF … DESCRIPTIVE • Library: MARC, FRBR / MARCXML, METS, MODS … • Museum: SPECTRUM, CDWA, Object ID / LIDO … • Archive: ISAD(G), ISAAR / EAD … • Other: MIDAS … • General: DUBLIN CORE, VRA, EDM … • Document encoding: TEI … Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 16. 16 Heron infrastructureA standard approach Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies LIAS ingester Lias Uploader Pawtucket FTP API PNX DC API API DC IIIF SPECTRUM TIFF JPEG … LIDO XSLT EDM API
  • 17. 17 What is metadata Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 18. 18 Metadata @ libraries, archives and museums • Domain specific description and export standards • Often with (small) adaptations to fit specific needs • Different standards according to it’s use environment • Exports in different formats Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 20. 20 Collection management system Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies Coll.MS CMS DAM/ LTP view er Admin UI Admin UI Front - end Admin UI Front - end Descriptive & administrative metadata Physical & Digital born items Metadata for publication
  • 21. 21 Libraries Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 22. 22 Libraries Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 23. 23 Archives Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 24. 24 Museums Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies http://collectionstrust.org.uk/spectrum/spectrum-resources/
  • 25. 25 Other Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 26. 26 LIBIS Collection management layer • Alma for libraries • MARC standard • CollectiveAccess • Flexible data model • Standard of choice • Museum standard: SPECTRUM • Scope for archives • Archival standards such as ISAD(G), ISAAR… • … Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 27. 27 Use of standards • Most organizations use in-house or adaptations of standards to fit their specific needs • Risk of losing interoperability • Appoint an information manager • Document changes and provide a mapping to the standard Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 29. 29 Content management system Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies Coll.MS CMS DAM/ LTP view er Admin UI Admin UI Front - end Admin UI Front - end Descriptive & administrative metadata Physical & Digital born items Metadata for publication
  • 30. 30 Service environment • Meaningful access for users • Metadata describing an object, usually includes a digital surrogate • Subset of the metadata • Cross-domain, usable quality for specific service, IPR information Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 32. 32 Discovery environment Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies Coll.MS CMS DAM/ LTP view er Admin UI Admin UI Front - end Admin UI Front - end Descriptive & administrative metadata Physical & Digital born items Metadata for publication
  • 33. 33 Resource discovery standards Moving from the local to the global level Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies • For data interoperability: harvesting, aggregation, publishing, indexing • Access to metadata of many objects, often from many domains • Result set with reference to digital representation • Maximum relevance of results • Limited metadata • Dublin Core (DC) (or a variant of) is the most commonly used metadata schema in de service and discovery environment Formats, Shema’s, Mapping, Standards, Protocols, Semantics,…
  • 34. 34 Data aggregation in DCH The Europeana example Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies • Using aggregators • Source > [Intermediate] > Target • Protocols, tools and formats • XML (or CSV) • HTTP or FTP upload • OAI-PMH, API • Ingestion and mapping tools
  • 35. 35 Dublin Core (DC) http://dublincore.org/ Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies Dublin Core Metadata Element Set: 1. Title 2. Creator 3. Subject 4. Description 5. Publisher 6. Contributor 7. Date 8. Type 9. Format 10. Identifier 11. Source 12. Language 13. Relation 14. Coverage 15. Rights
  • 36. 36 Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) http://dublincore.org/ ; http://dublincore.org/documents/dcmi-terms/ Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 37. 37 Dublin Core Metadata Initiative (DCMI) http://dublincore.org/ ; http://dublincore.org/schemas/xmls/qdc/dcterms.xsd Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 38. 38 MARC XML Example of a MARC XML record Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 39. 39 MARC XML http://www.loc.gov/marc/ Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 41. 41 EAD http://www.loc.gov/ead/ Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 42. 42 EAD eadheader Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 43. 43 EAD archdesc Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 44. 44 EAD archdesc Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 45. 45 EAD http://www.loc.gov/ead/ ; http://www.loc.gov/ead/EAD3taglib/index.html Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies RLG Best Practice Guidelines for Encoded Archival Description, 2002
  • 46. 46 LIDO • Validated as an official standard by ICOM/CIDOC Data Harvesting and Interchange Working Group • XML harvesting schema • Documentation available on: www.lido-schema.org Lightweight Information Describing Objects Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 47. 47 LIDO Main components Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 48. 48 LIDO • Events based on CIDOC-CRM (ISO 21127) • An object is described according to a series of event that took place in its lifetime Event based structure Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 49. 49 LIDO Example record Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 50. 50 LIDO Example record Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 51. 51 EDM • Cross-domain model for bring together diverse collections in Europeana • Distinguish “provided objects” (painting, book, movie, etc.) from their digital representations • Distinguish object from its metadata record • Allow multiple records for the same object, containing potentially contradictory statements about it • Support for objects that are composed of other objects • Support for contextual resources, including concepts from controlled vocabularies Europeana Data Model Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies https://pro.europeana.eu/resources/standardization-tools/edm-documentation
  • 52. 52 EDM Europeana Data Model Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 54. 54 Ontology (information science) Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 55. 55 Simply put • Ontologies are rules to describe: • Context • Relationships • Ex. What is an author? How does it relate to an editor/work ... Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies But what are they used for?
  • 56. 56 Context - The Semantic Web • Gives structure/meaning to documents • Extension to the current web • URI • HTTP • RDF Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies https://open.hpi.de/courses/semanticweb2016
  • 57. 57 Moving from documents to data DOCUMENTS • Human readable • Connected through links • Links (relations) in 1 direction • Findable through search engine (indexing) • Difficult to interpret by software (no context) Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies DATA • Machine readable • Decentralized • Exists of links • Easy for machines to follow • Relations in 2 directions (graph) • Findable with own Query language (SPARQL) Browser Search Engine Agents Search Engine VS
  • 58. 58 (hyper)LINKS • Highlighted text on web page • One directional • Accessed by clicking it • References documents • Opens a new window, download • Jumps to a location in the document • Stored in a HTML document and rendered by a web browser Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 59. 59 Linked Data Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies The link in linked data is a statement. It states a fact. We can tell a story by putting these statements together. Computers can be made to understand these stories/graphs
  • 60. 60 Describing data on the Web • RDF forms the basis of Semantic web technologies • Universal language to describe the characteristics of a resource on the web • Using XML for syntax and URIs for naming • Uses a directed graph to describe resources • Makes statements about resources in the form of subject-predicate- object triplets • RDF triples provides a labelled connection using URIs to make it possible to link data with one another • In this way a machine is able to find the semantic relations between data RDF ~ Resource Description Framework Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 61. 61 RDF triplets Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 62. 62 Triplets identified by an URI Uniform Resource Identifier = global unique identifier Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 63. 63 Ontologies • Ontologies are rules to describe: • Context (classes) • Relationships (properties) • Ex. What is an author? How does it relate to an editor/work ... Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 64. 64 Ontologies ≠ Taxonomies/Thesauri/… • Taxonomies, Vocabularies, Thesauri, Classifications… • Function on a different level then ontologies • Important role in the Semantic Web and Linked Data world • Help with the interpretation and integration of data between different datasets • May lead to the discovery of new relationships between information expressed in a different natural language Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 65. 65 Thesaurus = concept, labels … Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 66. 66 Ontology = Formal knowledge representation scheme Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 67. 67 Another example ~ GeoNames authority file Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 68. 68 Another example ~ GeoNames ontology http://www.geonames.org/ontology/ontology_v3.1.rdf Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 69. 69 SKOS format • Solution for converting a “classic” thesaurus or vocabulary into a semantically interoperable format • Based on the RDF specification, enables migration to OWL • Not a formal knowledge representation / ontology • Structured according to the ISO 25964 norm dedicated to thesauri and interoperability with other vocabularies • Components Concepts Documented URIs Semantically related (BT, NT, RT) Labelled Concept schemes Simple Knowledge Organisation System Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 70. 70 SKOS format Simple Knowledge Organisation System Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 72. 72 BIBFRAME • Library of Congress • To replace MARC • Ongoing process • From one record to data statements • Integration with other standards • Findability on the web • New types of materials and metadata Bibliographic Framework Initiative Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 73. 73 CIDOC-CRM Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies • CIDOC object-oriented Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) • Domain ontology for concepts and information in cultural heritage and museum documentation • International standard (ISO 21127:2014) for the controlled exchange of cultural heritage information • Extensible semantic framework • Object oriented model
  • 74. 74 CIDOC-CRM Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies • CIDOC object-oriented Conceptual Reference Model (CRM) • Domain ontology for concepts and information in cultural heritage and museum documentation • International standard (ISO 21127:2014) for the controlled exchange of cultural heritage information • Extensible semantic framework • Object oriented model Source: http://www.cidoc-crm.org/Resources/rdf-file-for-crm-core
  • 75. 75 FRBRoo • Joint effort of the CIDOC-CRM and Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR) international working groups • FRBR-object oriented • Formal ontology intended to capture and represent the underlying semantics of bibliographic information • Facilitate the integration, mediation, and interchange of bibliographic and museum information Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records - object oriented Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 76. 76 FRBRoo Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records - object oriented Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies Source: http://83.212.168.219/FRBR_Tutorial/graph-exercises
  • 77. Linked Data & Search engines
  • 78. 78 Schema.org • A vocabulary (ontology) for structured data on the Internet, on web pages, in email messages, ... • By Google, Microsoft, Yahoo and Yandex • Embeddable in html by: • Microdata • RDFa Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies Source: http://schema.org/docs/full.html
  • 79. 79 LD to provides context to search engines Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 80. 80 Representation of Limo object in Schema.org Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies [{ "@context": "http://schema.org", "@type": "Book", "@id": "http://resolver.libis.be/IE5307748", "name": "Physica", "editor": { "name": "Verheyden, Engelbertus", "jobTitle": "Professor (1737-1804)" }, "author": { "@type": "Person", "name": "Barjon, Caefarius", "jobTitle": "Student" } }]
  • 81. 81 Representation of Limo object in Schema.org Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 82. IV. Standards in Research
  • 83. 83 Why important for you? Research Data Lifecycle UK Data Archive JISC University of Virginia Library Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 84. 84 Why important for you? Creating data Creating data • Design research • Plan data management (formats, storage etc.) • Plan consent for sharing • Locate existing data • Collect data (experiment, observe, measure, simulate) • Capture and create metadata UK Data Archive Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 85. 85 Why important for you? Processing data Processing data • Enter data, digitize, transcribe, translate • Check, validate, clean data • Anonymize data where necessary • Describe data • Manage and store data UK Data Archive Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 86. 86 Why important for you? Analyzing data Analyzing data • Interpret data • Derive data • Produce research outputs • Author publications • Prepare data for preservation UK Data Archive Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 87. 87 Why important for you? Preserving data Preserving data • Migrate data to best format • Migrate data to suitable medium • Back-up and store data • Create metadata and documentation • Archive data UK Data Archive Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 88. 88 Why important for you? Access to data Giving access to data • Distribute data • Share data • Control access • Establish copyright • Promote data UK Data Archive Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 89. 89 Why important for you? Re-using data Re-using data • Follow-up research • New research • Undertake research reviews • Scrutinize findings • Teach and learn UK Data Archive Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 90. 90 Sharing data to advance Science Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 91. 91 Metadata @ Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities • No tradition in using descriptive standards • Data models according to researchers needs • Can be based on common principles within the research domain • Increase of data sharing thanks to VRIs (Dariah, Clarin…) Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies Source: Digital Curation Centre, metadata standards in Social Science & Humanities
  • 92. 92 EOSC European Open Science Cloud Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies Source: EOSC infographic Source: EOSC Declaration
  • 93. V. Best practices in metadata modeling
  • 94. 94 Identify standards & common practices • Identify and use relevant metadata standards in your field • If no metadata standards exist, explore common practices in the field and collaborate if possible Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 95. 95 Data modeling • Create a data model • Choose and use standard terminology to enable discovery • Maintain consistent data typing Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 96. 96 Data documentation • Create a data dictionary • Update data documentation on a regular basis during every step of the lifecycle • Document the integration of multiple datasets • Describe the temporal extent your dataset Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 97. 97 Data storage • Create, manage, and document your data storage system • Document and store data using stable file formats • Describe the overall organization of your dataset Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 98. 98 Data access and reuse • Describe the dataset, incl. rights, versions, processing tools,… • Provide the organization structure of your dataset • Include a metadata specifications document in each dataset • Deposit your dataset in a domain specific of institutional repository Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 99. 99 Discover more • Digitisation: Standards Landscape for European Museums, Archives, Libraries • Digital Curation Centre Resources on Social Sciences and Humanities • European Open Science Cloud Declaration • FAIR data principles • Data one, Best practices in RDM • Research Data management at KU Leuven • LIBIS Services for researchers • Ontologies for Cultural Heritage Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies
  • 100. 100 Thank you! Questions? Roxanne Wyns - Roxanne.Wyns@kuleuven.be Introduction to DH - Metadata standards and ontologies Source: http://jennriley.com/metadatamap/