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1
Basic Safety Orientation
Training
• Hazard Communication
• Respirators
• Personal Protective
Equipment
• Hearing Conservation
• Fall Protection
• Lockout Tagout
• Confined Space
• Fire / Fire Extinguishers
• Basic First Aid (not
certified training)
• Blood Borne Pathogens
• Heat/Cold Stress
• Good Safety Practices
2
Hazard Communication
• “The Right To Know”
• Chemical Hazards
• Written Program
• Training
• Container Labels
• Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS)
• Inventory List
3
Chemical Hazards
• Flammable/Explosion
– Flash point
– LEL
• Toxic/Poison
– Acute / Chronic
– Local / Systemic
– Routes of entry
• Reactive
• Corrosive
4
Container Labels
• Shipping Labels
• Manufacturer’s
Warnings
• NFPA(National Fire Protection
Association) Diamond /
HMIS (Hazardous Material
Identification System) Labels
• Health, Fire, and
Reactive Hazards
5
NFPA Diamond
6
Material Safety Data Sheets
• Identity of Material and Manufacturer
• Hazardous Ingredients
• Physical and Chemical Characteristics
• Fire and Explosion Hazard Data
• Reactivity Data
• Health Hazard Data (Limits, Symptoms, etc.)
• Precautions for Safe Handling
• Control Measures and First Aid
7
Respiratory Hazards
• Toxic
– Dusts, fumes, and mists (particulate)
– Gases and vapors
• Oxygen deficiency or enrichment
• Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health
(IDLH)
8
Respiratory (Occupational)
Exposure Limits
• Permissible Exposure Limit - OSHA PEL
• Threshold Limit Value – ACGIH (American Conference of
Industrial Hygienists) TLV
• Time-Weighted-Average - TWA
• Short Term Exposure Limit - STEL
• Ceiling Limit - TLV-C or PEL-C
• “Skin” notation
• Protection for a Working Lifetime
9
Respiratory Protection
• Air-Purifying (APR)
– Dust Mask
– Half Face
– Full Face
– Powered Air-Purifying
Respirators (PAPR)
• Supplied Air (SAR)
– Air-line
• Hood style
• Facepiece style
– Half Face
– Full Face
• Escape provisions
– Self Contained
Breathing Apparatus
(SCBA)
10
Respirator Protection Factors
(PF)
• Air-Purifying (APR)1
– Dust Mask - 10
– Half Face - 10
– Full Face - 50
– Powered Air-Purifying
Respirators (PAPR) -
100
1-
Negative pressure in facepiece
• Supplied Air (SAR)2
– Air-line
• Hood style - 100
• Facepiece style - 1000
• Escape provisions -
>10,000
– Self Contained
Breathing Apparatus
(SCBA) - >10,000
2-
Positive Pressure in facepiece
11
Limitations
• Air-Purifying (APR)
– Concentration of
contaminant (PF)
– Oxygen level (19.5%-
23.5%)
– Cartridge useful life
– Warning properties
(some substances can’t
be detected or are too
toxic)
• Supplied Air (SAR)
– Concentration of
contaminant (PF)
– Must provide “Grade
D” air source
– More cumbersome /
unwieldy
– Mobility (air line style)
– Length of work time
(SCBA style)
12
Respirator Program Elements
• Written Procedures
• Selection of Respirators
• Training of Users
• Fit-Testing
– Initial
– Annual
– Changing brand
• Cleaning and Storage
• Maintenance
• Inspection
• Work Area Surveillance
• Medical Fitness
• Program Auditing
• Using Certified
Respirators
• NO BEARDS
• No Glasses with Full Face
13
Personal Protective Equipment
• Required when engineering or
administrative controls are inadequate.
• Must be properly selected and worn.
• Training is required.
• Pre-Job analysis
– Hazard Assessment
14
Head Protection
• Hard Hats (Safety Helmets)
– Class A - Limited voltage protection
– Class B - High voltage protection
– Class C - No voltage protection
– Class D - Firefighter’s helmet
• Bump Caps
– Not recommended
15
Eye and Face Protection
• Safety Glasses (minimum requirement)
• Goggles - better protection for chemicals,
splashes, dusts, or projectiles.
• Face Shield - better for splashes or
projectiles
• Chemical Splash Hood
– shoulder length or longer
16
Hand and Foot Protection
• Gloves / sleeves
– General duty
• Cotton, leather
– Sharp objects
• Leather, kevlar
– Cuts
• Kevlar
– Chemical
• Multiple types
• Shoes / Boots
– Steel toe
• Compression,
puncture
– Metatarsal guards
• Protects top of foot
behind toe
– Chemical resistant
• Prevents contact
with chemicals
17
Chemical Protective Clothing
• Qualities
– Puncture resistance
– Wear resistance
– Tactility
– Degradation
– Permeation
• Types
– Full Encapsulating
suit
– Splash suit
– Coveralls
– Hoods
– Gloves
– Boots
– Boot / Shoe covers
18
Protective Clothing Materials
• Tyvek (white suits)
– dusts, dirt, grease
• Saranex
– coated tyvek, better for
mild chemicals
• Polyethylene
– alternative to tyvek
• PVC
– rain suits, splash suits
– moderate chemicals
• Neoprene
– acids, caustics, solvents
• Butyl rubber
– resists gases
• Nomex
– flame protection
• Kevlar
– cut protection
• MANY OTHERS
19
Levels of Protection
• Level A
– full encapsulating suit
– SCBA or SAR
– Gloves, boots, hat, etc.
as needed
• Level B
– Chemical Suit (CPC)
– SCBA or SAR
– Gloves, boots, hat, etc.
as needed
• Level C
– Chemical Suit (CPC)
– Air purifying respirator
– Gloves, boots, hat, etc.
as needed
• Level D
– Work uniform
– Hard hat
– Safety glasses
– Gloves, etc. as needed
20
Hearing Conservation
• Hearing Loss
– Disease
– Age
– Excessive Noise
• workplace
• environmental
• recreational
• Other Effects of Noise
– Elevated blood pressure, stress, sleeplessness
21
Noise Levels
• Measured in decibels
(dB)
– Whisper- 10-20 dB
– Speech- 60 dB
– Noisy Office- 80 dB
– Lawnmower- 95 dB
– Passing Truck- 100 dB
– Jet Engine- 150 dB
• OSHA Limit (PEL) -
85 dB
22
Noise Exposure
• Continuous
– constant level over time
• Intermittent
– levels vary over an area or start and stop
• Impact
– sharp burst of sound (nail gun, hammer)
23
Hearing Protectors
• Ear Plugs - preferred (NRR*
20-30 dB)
• Ear Muffs - 2nd choice (NRR 15-30 dB)
• Double Hearing Protectors (plugs and muffs)
(NRR 30-40 dB) used for levels over 115 dB
(*
NRR = Noise Reduction Rating - an approximate decibel
reduction provided by the protector in lab conditions.
Subtract 7 dB for approximate “real world” attenuation)
24
Audiometric Testing
• Initial Testing - Baseline for reference
• Annual Testing - periodic monitoring
• Performed when exposure exceeds OSHA
limit
• Assures protection is adequate
• Evaluation is age-adjusted
25
Fall Protection
• Any open edge higher than six (6) feet
– Guardrail System
– Safety Net System
– Personal Fall Arrest System
• Any fixed ladder higher than 20 feet
– Ladder Safety Device (with body harness)
– Safety Cage with offset landings every 30 feet
26
Personal Fall Arrest System
• Full Body Harness
• Lanyard (regular or retractable)
• Shock Absorber
• Locking Snap Hooks (no single action)
• Lifeline (as needed)
• Anchorage
– Must hold 5000 lbs.
27
Fall Clearance (not a sale!)
28
Scaffolding
• Erected by
“Competent Person”
• Sound, rigid footing
• No overloading
• Scaffold Grade
Planking
• Railings / toeboards
• Tie-Off if no railing
• Access ladders
• Get down from
“rolling” scaffold to
move it
• No portable ladders on
scaffolding
29
Portable Ladders
• Use only approved
ladders
• Inspect before use
• Use both hands
• One person only
• Firm, level footing
• Do not use as platform
or scaffold
• Use fall arrest if > 6 ft.
working from ladder
• Secure top of extension
ladders
• Extend 3 feet above
access or working level
• Use 4:1 lean ratio
30
Aerial Lifts
• Secure lanyard to anchor point
• Never use a ladder from a lift
• Don’t over extend boom lifts
• Follow manufacturer’s safety notices
31
Lockout/Tagout
• Control of Hazardous Energy
– Electrical
– Mechanical
– Thermal
– Pressure
– Chemical
– Kinetic / Gravity
• Prevention of injuries caused by release of
Hazardous Energy
32
Lockout
• Lock device applied to energy control point
• A positive means to secure isolation point
• Individual reponsible for own lock & key
• Preferred method
33
Tagout
• Tag device applied to energy control point
• Used in conjunction with Lockout
• Used when Lockout not feasible
• Name, date, time, purpose, etc.
34
Performing Lockout/Tagout
• Preparation
– Identify the energy source(s)
– Determine how to control the energy
– Dissipate residual energy
– Block components subject to movement
• Shutdown Equipment
– Follow normal stopping procedures
– Allow motion to stop
35
Applying Lockout/Tagout
• Close or shut off all energy sources
• Apply locks and/or tags
• Verify isolation - “Try”
– Try the switch
– Try the start button
• Contractors may need assistance or
procedures to identify all energy sources
36
Removing Lockout/Tagout
• Remove tools and equipment
• Replace guards and covers
• Check for all clear
• Remove your locks and tags
• Other locks & tags may remain
• Notify responsible party of completion
37
Confined (Permit) Space Entry
• OSHA Definition
– Limited means of entry or exit
– Not intended for human occupancy
– May / could contain a hazardous atmosphere
– Contains engulfment or entrapment hazards
– Contains other hazards
• Tanks, vessels, storage hoppers, pipelines,
manholes, tankers, bins, excavations, etc.
38
Atmospheric Hazards
• Oxygen Deficiency / Enrichment - below
19.5% or above 23.5%
• Flammable / Explosive - LEL above 5%
• Toxic - above PEL, unknown, or IDLH
• Control with testing, ventilation, and/or
PPE
39
Other Hazards
• Hazardous Energy - Lockout / Tagout
– Electrical, Thermal, Mechanical, Pressure,
Chemical
• Entrapment - plan for avoidance and retrieval
• Engulfment - plan for avoidance and retrieval
• Rescue - plan for retrieval, must have
Attendant and communications
40
Confined Space Permits
• Facility issued
• Contractor issued
• Supervisor prepares
• Sign In / Out
• Atmospheric testing
• Hazard controls
• Renew when expired
41
Entrants, Attendants and
Supervisors
• Entrants
– Enter the space
– Perform the work
– Exit on Attendant’s
orders
• Supervisor
– Perform air monitoring
– Control other hazards
– Complete permit
• Attendants
– Be present continuously
– Maintain headcount
– Maintain contact with
entrants
– Orders evacuation,
activates rescue
– Prevent unauthorized
entry
42
Confined SpaceVentilation
• Positive - blowing air into the space,
exhaust is through openings
• Negative - pulling air out of the space,
exhaust is through blower
• Explosion-proof equipment if needed
• Purging / Inerting - inert gas (nitrogen,
carbon dioxide, argon) used to replace
oxygen atmosphere in space for HOT work
43
Special Equipment - Confined
Space Entry
• Full Body Harness – often required
• Lifeline (Retrieval Line)
• Mechanical Retrieval System - required for
vertical entries exceeding five (5) feet
• Fall Protection Anchorage
• Testing meters
– Oxygen
– Combustible gas
– Toxic chemicals
44
• Elements of Combustion (Fire Triangle)
• All required for a fire to occur.
• Trend is to include “Chemical Reaction” as
fourth element (Fire Tetrahedron).
Elements of Fire
45
Fire Properties & Chemistry
• Solids do not burn. Gases burn.
• Fuel must release gases/vapors
– may require heating. (Ray
Bradbury – Fahrenheit 451)
• Fuel gases must mix /w Oxygen
in proper proportion (Lean /
Rich - Flammable Range).
• Must be a source of ignition.
46
Fire Terms
• Flash Point
• Flammable Range
(Lean/Rich)
• LEL/UEL (LFL/UFL)
• Ignition Temperature
• Flammable vs. Combustible
liquids
• Bonding and Grounding
47
Classes of Fires
48
Classes of Fires
49
Fire Extinguishant Materials
• Water - class A only - cools /removes heat
• Dry Chemical - class A, B, or C - interferes with
chemical reaction
• Carbon Dioxide - class A, B, or C (usually C) -
removes Oxygen / smothers fire
• Halon – (being phased out - ozone) class A, B, or
C (usually C) - removes Oxygen / smothers fire
• Metl-X - class D only - specialized dry chemical
for metal fires
• Foam – Class B, holds down vapors
50
Fire Extinguisher Features
• Operating lever
• Locking pin
• Pressure gauge
• Discharge nozzle
• Label
– type of extinguisher
(A,B,C,D)
– instructions
51
Fire Extinguisher Use
• Select correct extinguisher for class of fire
• Pull the locking pin
• Aim at base of fire
• Squeeze and hold the discharge lever
• Sweep from side to side
• CAUTION - monitor the area, the fire
could re-ignite
• Always notify supervisor of extinguisher
use so it can be replaced or recharged and
the fire investigated
52
Basic First Aid
• Shock
– Lay victim down
– Keep victim warm
– Keep victim calm
– Get assistance
• Bleeding
– Use clean bandage
– Apply pressure
– Elevate wound
• Burns
– 1st Degree - redness only,
flush with cool water
– 2nd Degree - blisters,
place damp bandage, use
no ointments
– 3rd Degree - white or
charred, use dry bandage
– 2nd or 3rd - get medical
attention
53
Basic First Aid, cont.
• Fractures
– Closed fractures - (no
protruding bones),
immobilize
– Open fractures -
immobilize, control
bleeding
• Head and Neck Injuries
– DO NOT MOVE
VICTIM
• Chemical Burns
– Flush with water for 15
minutes minimum
• Bites and Stings
– Be aware of bee sting
allergies
– Poisonous bites - seek
medical attention
54
Bloodborne Pathogens
• Aids
• Hepatitis
– Hep-B vaccines for designated persons
• No contact with blood or body fluids
• Wear protective equipment, especially
gloves & safety glasses
• Hospital / Laboratory Waste - “Red Bag”
• Sharps disposal
55
Temperature Stress - Cold
• Dress in layers
• Limit exposed skin
• Frostbite - localized frozen tissue
– Do not rub area, limit motion, warm slowly
• Hypothermia - lowered body temperature
– Remove wet clothing, use dry blankets
• Seek medical attention
56
Temperature Stress - Heat
• Sunburn - keep skin covered
• Heat Cramps - drink dilute “Gatorade”
• Heat Exhaustion - heavy sweating, cool
skin
– Cool victim, seek medical attention if vomiting
• Heat Stroke - medical emergency
– Hot, dry skin, rapid then weakening pulse
– Cool victim immediately
57
Good Safety Practices
• Inspect work area daily
• Be an observer - stay alert
• Housekeeping, Housekeeping, Housekeeping
• Use your best safety device - THINK
• If you’re not sure - ASK someone!!
• Report Injuries/Incidents/Illnesses
• Report safety issues to the safety committee

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Basic safety orientation training

  • 1. 1 Basic Safety Orientation Training • Hazard Communication • Respirators • Personal Protective Equipment • Hearing Conservation • Fall Protection • Lockout Tagout • Confined Space • Fire / Fire Extinguishers • Basic First Aid (not certified training) • Blood Borne Pathogens • Heat/Cold Stress • Good Safety Practices
  • 2. 2 Hazard Communication • “The Right To Know” • Chemical Hazards • Written Program • Training • Container Labels • Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) • Inventory List
  • 3. 3 Chemical Hazards • Flammable/Explosion – Flash point – LEL • Toxic/Poison – Acute / Chronic – Local / Systemic – Routes of entry • Reactive • Corrosive
  • 4. 4 Container Labels • Shipping Labels • Manufacturer’s Warnings • NFPA(National Fire Protection Association) Diamond / HMIS (Hazardous Material Identification System) Labels • Health, Fire, and Reactive Hazards
  • 6. 6 Material Safety Data Sheets • Identity of Material and Manufacturer • Hazardous Ingredients • Physical and Chemical Characteristics • Fire and Explosion Hazard Data • Reactivity Data • Health Hazard Data (Limits, Symptoms, etc.) • Precautions for Safe Handling • Control Measures and First Aid
  • 7. 7 Respiratory Hazards • Toxic – Dusts, fumes, and mists (particulate) – Gases and vapors • Oxygen deficiency or enrichment • Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH)
  • 8. 8 Respiratory (Occupational) Exposure Limits • Permissible Exposure Limit - OSHA PEL • Threshold Limit Value – ACGIH (American Conference of Industrial Hygienists) TLV • Time-Weighted-Average - TWA • Short Term Exposure Limit - STEL • Ceiling Limit - TLV-C or PEL-C • “Skin” notation • Protection for a Working Lifetime
  • 9. 9 Respiratory Protection • Air-Purifying (APR) – Dust Mask – Half Face – Full Face – Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPR) • Supplied Air (SAR) – Air-line • Hood style • Facepiece style – Half Face – Full Face • Escape provisions – Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA)
  • 10. 10 Respirator Protection Factors (PF) • Air-Purifying (APR)1 – Dust Mask - 10 – Half Face - 10 – Full Face - 50 – Powered Air-Purifying Respirators (PAPR) - 100 1- Negative pressure in facepiece • Supplied Air (SAR)2 – Air-line • Hood style - 100 • Facepiece style - 1000 • Escape provisions - >10,000 – Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) - >10,000 2- Positive Pressure in facepiece
  • 11. 11 Limitations • Air-Purifying (APR) – Concentration of contaminant (PF) – Oxygen level (19.5%- 23.5%) – Cartridge useful life – Warning properties (some substances can’t be detected or are too toxic) • Supplied Air (SAR) – Concentration of contaminant (PF) – Must provide “Grade D” air source – More cumbersome / unwieldy – Mobility (air line style) – Length of work time (SCBA style)
  • 12. 12 Respirator Program Elements • Written Procedures • Selection of Respirators • Training of Users • Fit-Testing – Initial – Annual – Changing brand • Cleaning and Storage • Maintenance • Inspection • Work Area Surveillance • Medical Fitness • Program Auditing • Using Certified Respirators • NO BEARDS • No Glasses with Full Face
  • 13. 13 Personal Protective Equipment • Required when engineering or administrative controls are inadequate. • Must be properly selected and worn. • Training is required. • Pre-Job analysis – Hazard Assessment
  • 14. 14 Head Protection • Hard Hats (Safety Helmets) – Class A - Limited voltage protection – Class B - High voltage protection – Class C - No voltage protection – Class D - Firefighter’s helmet • Bump Caps – Not recommended
  • 15. 15 Eye and Face Protection • Safety Glasses (minimum requirement) • Goggles - better protection for chemicals, splashes, dusts, or projectiles. • Face Shield - better for splashes or projectiles • Chemical Splash Hood – shoulder length or longer
  • 16. 16 Hand and Foot Protection • Gloves / sleeves – General duty • Cotton, leather – Sharp objects • Leather, kevlar – Cuts • Kevlar – Chemical • Multiple types • Shoes / Boots – Steel toe • Compression, puncture – Metatarsal guards • Protects top of foot behind toe – Chemical resistant • Prevents contact with chemicals
  • 17. 17 Chemical Protective Clothing • Qualities – Puncture resistance – Wear resistance – Tactility – Degradation – Permeation • Types – Full Encapsulating suit – Splash suit – Coveralls – Hoods – Gloves – Boots – Boot / Shoe covers
  • 18. 18 Protective Clothing Materials • Tyvek (white suits) – dusts, dirt, grease • Saranex – coated tyvek, better for mild chemicals • Polyethylene – alternative to tyvek • PVC – rain suits, splash suits – moderate chemicals • Neoprene – acids, caustics, solvents • Butyl rubber – resists gases • Nomex – flame protection • Kevlar – cut protection • MANY OTHERS
  • 19. 19 Levels of Protection • Level A – full encapsulating suit – SCBA or SAR – Gloves, boots, hat, etc. as needed • Level B – Chemical Suit (CPC) – SCBA or SAR – Gloves, boots, hat, etc. as needed • Level C – Chemical Suit (CPC) – Air purifying respirator – Gloves, boots, hat, etc. as needed • Level D – Work uniform – Hard hat – Safety glasses – Gloves, etc. as needed
  • 20. 20 Hearing Conservation • Hearing Loss – Disease – Age – Excessive Noise • workplace • environmental • recreational • Other Effects of Noise – Elevated blood pressure, stress, sleeplessness
  • 21. 21 Noise Levels • Measured in decibels (dB) – Whisper- 10-20 dB – Speech- 60 dB – Noisy Office- 80 dB – Lawnmower- 95 dB – Passing Truck- 100 dB – Jet Engine- 150 dB • OSHA Limit (PEL) - 85 dB
  • 22. 22 Noise Exposure • Continuous – constant level over time • Intermittent – levels vary over an area or start and stop • Impact – sharp burst of sound (nail gun, hammer)
  • 23. 23 Hearing Protectors • Ear Plugs - preferred (NRR* 20-30 dB) • Ear Muffs - 2nd choice (NRR 15-30 dB) • Double Hearing Protectors (plugs and muffs) (NRR 30-40 dB) used for levels over 115 dB (* NRR = Noise Reduction Rating - an approximate decibel reduction provided by the protector in lab conditions. Subtract 7 dB for approximate “real world” attenuation)
  • 24. 24 Audiometric Testing • Initial Testing - Baseline for reference • Annual Testing - periodic monitoring • Performed when exposure exceeds OSHA limit • Assures protection is adequate • Evaluation is age-adjusted
  • 25. 25 Fall Protection • Any open edge higher than six (6) feet – Guardrail System – Safety Net System – Personal Fall Arrest System • Any fixed ladder higher than 20 feet – Ladder Safety Device (with body harness) – Safety Cage with offset landings every 30 feet
  • 26. 26 Personal Fall Arrest System • Full Body Harness • Lanyard (regular or retractable) • Shock Absorber • Locking Snap Hooks (no single action) • Lifeline (as needed) • Anchorage – Must hold 5000 lbs.
  • 28. 28 Scaffolding • Erected by “Competent Person” • Sound, rigid footing • No overloading • Scaffold Grade Planking • Railings / toeboards • Tie-Off if no railing • Access ladders • Get down from “rolling” scaffold to move it • No portable ladders on scaffolding
  • 29. 29 Portable Ladders • Use only approved ladders • Inspect before use • Use both hands • One person only • Firm, level footing • Do not use as platform or scaffold • Use fall arrest if > 6 ft. working from ladder • Secure top of extension ladders • Extend 3 feet above access or working level • Use 4:1 lean ratio
  • 30. 30 Aerial Lifts • Secure lanyard to anchor point • Never use a ladder from a lift • Don’t over extend boom lifts • Follow manufacturer’s safety notices
  • 31. 31 Lockout/Tagout • Control of Hazardous Energy – Electrical – Mechanical – Thermal – Pressure – Chemical – Kinetic / Gravity • Prevention of injuries caused by release of Hazardous Energy
  • 32. 32 Lockout • Lock device applied to energy control point • A positive means to secure isolation point • Individual reponsible for own lock & key • Preferred method
  • 33. 33 Tagout • Tag device applied to energy control point • Used in conjunction with Lockout • Used when Lockout not feasible • Name, date, time, purpose, etc.
  • 34. 34 Performing Lockout/Tagout • Preparation – Identify the energy source(s) – Determine how to control the energy – Dissipate residual energy – Block components subject to movement • Shutdown Equipment – Follow normal stopping procedures – Allow motion to stop
  • 35. 35 Applying Lockout/Tagout • Close or shut off all energy sources • Apply locks and/or tags • Verify isolation - “Try” – Try the switch – Try the start button • Contractors may need assistance or procedures to identify all energy sources
  • 36. 36 Removing Lockout/Tagout • Remove tools and equipment • Replace guards and covers • Check for all clear • Remove your locks and tags • Other locks & tags may remain • Notify responsible party of completion
  • 37. 37 Confined (Permit) Space Entry • OSHA Definition – Limited means of entry or exit – Not intended for human occupancy – May / could contain a hazardous atmosphere – Contains engulfment or entrapment hazards – Contains other hazards • Tanks, vessels, storage hoppers, pipelines, manholes, tankers, bins, excavations, etc.
  • 38. 38 Atmospheric Hazards • Oxygen Deficiency / Enrichment - below 19.5% or above 23.5% • Flammable / Explosive - LEL above 5% • Toxic - above PEL, unknown, or IDLH • Control with testing, ventilation, and/or PPE
  • 39. 39 Other Hazards • Hazardous Energy - Lockout / Tagout – Electrical, Thermal, Mechanical, Pressure, Chemical • Entrapment - plan for avoidance and retrieval • Engulfment - plan for avoidance and retrieval • Rescue - plan for retrieval, must have Attendant and communications
  • 40. 40 Confined Space Permits • Facility issued • Contractor issued • Supervisor prepares • Sign In / Out • Atmospheric testing • Hazard controls • Renew when expired
  • 41. 41 Entrants, Attendants and Supervisors • Entrants – Enter the space – Perform the work – Exit on Attendant’s orders • Supervisor – Perform air monitoring – Control other hazards – Complete permit • Attendants – Be present continuously – Maintain headcount – Maintain contact with entrants – Orders evacuation, activates rescue – Prevent unauthorized entry
  • 42. 42 Confined SpaceVentilation • Positive - blowing air into the space, exhaust is through openings • Negative - pulling air out of the space, exhaust is through blower • Explosion-proof equipment if needed • Purging / Inerting - inert gas (nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon) used to replace oxygen atmosphere in space for HOT work
  • 43. 43 Special Equipment - Confined Space Entry • Full Body Harness – often required • Lifeline (Retrieval Line) • Mechanical Retrieval System - required for vertical entries exceeding five (5) feet • Fall Protection Anchorage • Testing meters – Oxygen – Combustible gas – Toxic chemicals
  • 44. 44 • Elements of Combustion (Fire Triangle) • All required for a fire to occur. • Trend is to include “Chemical Reaction” as fourth element (Fire Tetrahedron). Elements of Fire
  • 45. 45 Fire Properties & Chemistry • Solids do not burn. Gases burn. • Fuel must release gases/vapors – may require heating. (Ray Bradbury – Fahrenheit 451) • Fuel gases must mix /w Oxygen in proper proportion (Lean / Rich - Flammable Range). • Must be a source of ignition.
  • 46. 46 Fire Terms • Flash Point • Flammable Range (Lean/Rich) • LEL/UEL (LFL/UFL) • Ignition Temperature • Flammable vs. Combustible liquids • Bonding and Grounding
  • 49. 49 Fire Extinguishant Materials • Water - class A only - cools /removes heat • Dry Chemical - class A, B, or C - interferes with chemical reaction • Carbon Dioxide - class A, B, or C (usually C) - removes Oxygen / smothers fire • Halon – (being phased out - ozone) class A, B, or C (usually C) - removes Oxygen / smothers fire • Metl-X - class D only - specialized dry chemical for metal fires • Foam – Class B, holds down vapors
  • 50. 50 Fire Extinguisher Features • Operating lever • Locking pin • Pressure gauge • Discharge nozzle • Label – type of extinguisher (A,B,C,D) – instructions
  • 51. 51 Fire Extinguisher Use • Select correct extinguisher for class of fire • Pull the locking pin • Aim at base of fire • Squeeze and hold the discharge lever • Sweep from side to side • CAUTION - monitor the area, the fire could re-ignite • Always notify supervisor of extinguisher use so it can be replaced or recharged and the fire investigated
  • 52. 52 Basic First Aid • Shock – Lay victim down – Keep victim warm – Keep victim calm – Get assistance • Bleeding – Use clean bandage – Apply pressure – Elevate wound • Burns – 1st Degree - redness only, flush with cool water – 2nd Degree - blisters, place damp bandage, use no ointments – 3rd Degree - white or charred, use dry bandage – 2nd or 3rd - get medical attention
  • 53. 53 Basic First Aid, cont. • Fractures – Closed fractures - (no protruding bones), immobilize – Open fractures - immobilize, control bleeding • Head and Neck Injuries – DO NOT MOVE VICTIM • Chemical Burns – Flush with water for 15 minutes minimum • Bites and Stings – Be aware of bee sting allergies – Poisonous bites - seek medical attention
  • 54. 54 Bloodborne Pathogens • Aids • Hepatitis – Hep-B vaccines for designated persons • No contact with blood or body fluids • Wear protective equipment, especially gloves & safety glasses • Hospital / Laboratory Waste - “Red Bag” • Sharps disposal
  • 55. 55 Temperature Stress - Cold • Dress in layers • Limit exposed skin • Frostbite - localized frozen tissue – Do not rub area, limit motion, warm slowly • Hypothermia - lowered body temperature – Remove wet clothing, use dry blankets • Seek medical attention
  • 56. 56 Temperature Stress - Heat • Sunburn - keep skin covered • Heat Cramps - drink dilute “Gatorade” • Heat Exhaustion - heavy sweating, cool skin – Cool victim, seek medical attention if vomiting • Heat Stroke - medical emergency – Hot, dry skin, rapid then weakening pulse – Cool victim immediately
  • 57. 57 Good Safety Practices • Inspect work area daily • Be an observer - stay alert • Housekeeping, Housekeeping, Housekeeping • Use your best safety device - THINK • If you’re not sure - ASK someone!! • Report Injuries/Incidents/Illnesses • Report safety issues to the safety committee

Editor's Notes

  1. NFPA=National Fire Protection Association HMIS=Hazardous Material Identification System
  2. Tetrahedron is a 3-D triangle – a triangle base pyramid.
  3. 1 - Fire occurs in the vapor/gaseous state. 2 - Fahrenheit 451 refers to the FLASH POINT TEMPERATURE of paper. - When it is hot enough to release enough fuel gases for a fire to start. (Book/movie about censorship – book burning.) 3 - Flammable Range (Lean/Rich) – when there is an appropriate fuel/air mixture for combustion I.e. not too lean (too little fuel), not too rich (too much fuel) 4 - Ignition sources – Static electrical spark, match, pilot light, welding (any spark producing activity), etc.
  4. 1 - Flash Point – minimum temperature a fuel must be heated before it will ignite 2 - Flammable Range (Lean/Rich) – when there is an appropriate fuel/air mixture for combustion I.e. not too lean (too little fuel), not too rich (too much fuel) 3 - LEL/UEL (LFL/UFL) – Lower Explosive (Flammability) Limit / Upper Explosive (Flammability) Limit. These are the upper and lower limits of the Flammable Range. 4 - Ignition Temperature – How hot the ignition source has to be – usually higher than the flash point. 5 - Flammable vs. Combustible liquids – Flammable liquids have flash points less than 100F for OSHA rules, 140F for DOT rules, and 140F for EPA Hazardous Waste rules (EPA uses the term “ignitable” instead of “flammable”). Combustible liquids have flash points higher than those. Flammable liquids are at or above flash point at normal/ambient temperatures. 6 - Bonding and Grounding – refers to procedures to dissipate static electricity during handling or transfer of flammable/combustible liquids. Bonding means to electrically bond 2 containers. Grounding means to electrically connecting them to ground.
  5. Class A – most common fire. A burning house is a class A fire. Class B – at home would occur with household chemicals (paint, strippers, solvent cleaners, etc.) or fuels (gasoline, oils, etc.) or in the kitchen with grease.
  6. Class C – danger from live electricity. GET POWER TURNED OFF. Class D – many metals will burn magnesium, aluminum, metallic sodium, are examples. Metal burns easier if it is in powder form or chips. Putting water on a metal fire is very dangerous – it may explode.
  7. Halon – Is a chloro-fluorocarbon (CFC), concerns about ozone layer depletion. Foam – Usually used by professional fire fighters.