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Using the Emergent Methodology of Domain Analysis to Answer Complex Questions  Lindsey Nelson, School of Engineering Education, Purdue University Alice L. Pawley, School of Engineering Education, Purdue University
complex questions situated in a social environment answered differently by different people open-ended connected to other questions 1							emergent		domain analysiscomplex questions
complex questions situated in a social environment answered differently by different people open-ended connected to other questions everywhere in engineering education research  1							emergent		domain analysiscomplex questions
complex questions What is change in engineering education? What knowledge characterizes engineering? How do engineering education researchers conduct research? How does engineering culture shape engineering teaching? What is engineering design? What are best practices to encourage diversity? The Research Agenda for the New Discipline of Engineering Education. 2006. 2							emergent		domain analysiscomplex questions
answering complex questions situated in a social environment people behavior 3							emergent		domain analysiscomplex questions
answering complex questions situated in a social environment people behavior How is design understood within engineering education? 3							emergent		domain analysiscomplex questions
answering complex questions situated in a social environment people behavior How is design understood within engineering education? Why is innovation valued by engineering? 3							emergent		domain analysiscomplex questions
answering complex questions situated in a social environment people behavior How is design understood within engineering education? Why is innovation valued by engineering? How do engineering education researchersresearch gender?   3							emergent		domain analysiscomplex questions
domain analysis Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 4 Iterative Steps Locate a social environment to observe Decide what evidence already present in the environment helps you answer your question Identify the inter-relationships between the evidence Organize these relationships according to a question tree Spradley, James. 1980. Participant observation. How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 4							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
domain analysis Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 4 Iterative Steps Locate a social environment to observe Decide what evidence already present in the environment helps you answer your question Identify the inter-relationships between the evidence Organize these relationships according to a question tree Spradley, James. 1980. Participant observation. How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 4							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
domain analysis Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 4 Iterative Steps Locate a social environment to observe Decide what evidence already present in the environment helps you answer your question Identify the inter-relationships between the evidence Organize these relationships according to a question tree Spradley, James. 1980. Participant observation. How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 4							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
domain analysis Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 4 Iterative Steps Locate a social environment to observe Decide what evidence already present in the environment helps you answer your question Identify the inter-relationships between the evidence Organize these relationships according to a question tree Spradley, James. 1980. Participant observation. How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 4							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
1. choose a social situation Questions to ask How can I draw a boundary around my inquiry? How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 5							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
1. choose a social situation Questions to ask How can I draw a boundary around my inquiry? Will I see what I am hoping to see multiple times? How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 5							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
1. choose a social situation Questions to ask How can I draw a boundary around my inquiry? Will I see what I am hoping to see multiple times? Do I have access to the environment? How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 5							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
1. choose a social situation Questions to ask How can I draw a boundaryaround my inquiry? Will I see what I am hoping to see multiple times? Do I have access to the environment? Will my participation be discreet? Who do I need to ask if I wanted access? How might I participate within the environment? How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 5							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
1. choose a social situation Questions to ask How can I draw a boundaryaround my inquiry? Will I see what I am hoping to see multiple times? Do I have access to the environment? Will my participation be discreet? Who do I need to ask if I wanted access? How might I participate within the environment? How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 5							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
2. identify evidence use “common sense” what features do you notice? but go deeper 	 Space Activity Object Time Feeling Actors Act Event Goal How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 6							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
2. identify evidence use “common sense” what features do you notice? but go deeper 	 Space Activity Object Time Feeling Actors Event Act Goal How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 6							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
3. identify inter-relationships Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 9 types of inter-relationships Strict Inclusion: X is a kind of Y Spatial: X is a part of Y Cause-effect: X is the result of Y Rationale: X is a reason for doing Y Location-for-action: X is a place to do Y Function: X is used for Y Means-End: X is a way to do Y Sequence: X is a step in Y Attribution: X is a characteristic of Y How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 7							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
3. identify inter-relationships Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 9 types of inter-relationships Strict Inclusion: X is a kind of Y Spatial: X is a part of Y Cause-effect: X is the result of Y Rationale: X is a reason for doing Y Location-for-action: X is a place to do Y Function: X is used for Y Means-End: X is a way to do Y Sequence: X is a step in Y Attribution: X is a characteristic of Y How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 7							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
3. identify inter-relationships Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 9 types of inter-relationships Strict Inclusion: X is a kind of Y Spatial: X is a part of Y Cause-effect: X is the result of Y Rationale: X is a reason for doing Y Location-for-action: X is a place to do Y Function: X is used for Y Means-End: X is a way to do Y Sequence: X is a step in Y Attribution: X is a characteristic of Y How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 7							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
3. identify inter-relationships Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 9 types of inter-relationships Strict Inclusion: X is a kind of Y Spatial: X is a part of Y Cause-effect: X is the result of Y Rationale: X is a reason for doing Y Location-for-action: X is a place to do Y Function: X is used for Y Means-End: X is a way to do Y Sequence: X is a step in Y Attribution: X is a characteristic of Y How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 7							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
3. identify inter-relationships Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 9 types of inter-relationships Strict Inclusion: X is a kind of Y Spatial: X is a part of Y Cause-effect: X is the result of Y Rationale: X is a reason for doing Y Location-for-action: X is a place to do Y Function: X is used for Y Means-End: X is a way to do Y Sequence: X is a step in Y Attribution: X is a characteristic of Y How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 7							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
3. identify inter-relationships Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 9 types of inter-relationships Strict Inclusion: X is a kind of Y Spatial: X is a part of Y Cause-effect: X is the result of Y Rationale: X is a reason for doing Y Location-for-action: X is a place to do Y Function: X is used for Y Means-End: X is a way to do Y Sequence: X is a step in Y Attribution: X is a characteristic of Y How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 7							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
3. identify inter-relationships Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 9 types of inter-relationships Strict Inclusion: X is a kind of Y Spatial: X is a part of Y Cause-effect: X is the result of Y Rationale: X is a reason for doing Y Location-for-action: X is a place to do Y Function: X is used for Y Means-End: X is a way to do Y Sequence: X is a step in Y Attribution: X is a characteristic of Y How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 7							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
3. identify inter-relationships Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 9 types of inter-relationships Strict Inclusion: X is a kind of Y Spatial: X is a part of Y Cause-effect: X is the result of Y Rationale: X is a reason for doing Y Location-for-action: X is a place to do Y Function: X is used for Y Means-End: X is a way to do Y Sequence: X is a step in Y Attribution: X is a characteristic of Y What characteristics are common among researchers conducting research at the intersection of gender and engineering education? How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 7							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
4. construct a question tree begin with your complex question describe your initial observations rely on inter-relationships explain your sense-making path  How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 8							emergent	domain analysiscomplex questions
reflections on the method How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 9							emergentdomain analysis	complex questions
reflections on the method strongly iterative avenue for rich description of social situation requires systematic gathering of evidence valuable for identifying things present and absent easily grows out of scope can inform future practice How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 9							emergentdomain analysis	complex questions
reflections on the method strongly iterative avenue for rich description of social situation requires systematic gathering of evidence valuable for identifying things present and absent easily grows out of scope can inform future practice How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 9							emergentdomain analysis	complex questions
reflections on the method strongly iterative avenue for rich description of social situation requires systematic gathering of evidence valuable for identifying things present and absent easily grows out of scope can inform future practice How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 9							emergentdomain analysis	complex questions
reflections on the method strongly iterative avenue for rich description of social situation requires systematic gathering of evidence valuable for identifying things present and absent easily grows out of scope can inform future practice How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 9							emergentdomain analysis	complex questions
our findings How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? Engineering education researchers rely on a demographic definition of gender. Most research cites underrepresentation as motivation to conduct gender research. Engineering education researchers incorporate very few theoretical frameworks when researching gender. In preparation, Journal of Engineering Education 10							emergentdomain analysis	complex questions
our recommendations How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 1. Identify other theoretically appropriate reasons to conduct research around gender 2. Explore how engineers and engineering perform masculinities and feminities 3. Translate and test theories of gender from other disciplines within specific engineering contexts 4. Incorporate gender and other forms of diversity in “holistic, integrated engineering education” In preparation, Journal of Engineering Education 11							emergentdomain analysis	complex questions
Domain analysisQuestions, questions and questionsDirections emergeLocate site to workRemember study’s purposeVery importantConnect the questionsDeepen our understandingAnd locate the gapsMain goal of methodPractical and relevantRecommendations
Using the Emergent Methodology of Domain Analysis to Answer Complex Questions  Lindsey Nelson				Alice L. Pawley lnelson@purdue.eduapawley@purdue.edu feministengineering.org

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ASEE 2010: Using the Emergent Methodology of Domain Analysis to Answer Complex Research Questions.

  • 1. Using the Emergent Methodology of Domain Analysis to Answer Complex Questions Lindsey Nelson, School of Engineering Education, Purdue University Alice L. Pawley, School of Engineering Education, Purdue University
  • 2. complex questions situated in a social environment answered differently by different people open-ended connected to other questions 1 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 3. complex questions situated in a social environment answered differently by different people open-ended connected to other questions everywhere in engineering education research 1 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 4. complex questions What is change in engineering education? What knowledge characterizes engineering? How do engineering education researchers conduct research? How does engineering culture shape engineering teaching? What is engineering design? What are best practices to encourage diversity? The Research Agenda for the New Discipline of Engineering Education. 2006. 2 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 5. answering complex questions situated in a social environment people behavior 3 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 6. answering complex questions situated in a social environment people behavior How is design understood within engineering education? 3 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 7. answering complex questions situated in a social environment people behavior How is design understood within engineering education? Why is innovation valued by engineering? 3 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 8. answering complex questions situated in a social environment people behavior How is design understood within engineering education? Why is innovation valued by engineering? How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 3 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 9. domain analysis Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 4 Iterative Steps Locate a social environment to observe Decide what evidence already present in the environment helps you answer your question Identify the inter-relationships between the evidence Organize these relationships according to a question tree Spradley, James. 1980. Participant observation. How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 4 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 10. domain analysis Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 4 Iterative Steps Locate a social environment to observe Decide what evidence already present in the environment helps you answer your question Identify the inter-relationships between the evidence Organize these relationships according to a question tree Spradley, James. 1980. Participant observation. How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 4 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 11. domain analysis Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 4 Iterative Steps Locate a social environment to observe Decide what evidence already present in the environment helps you answer your question Identify the inter-relationships between the evidence Organize these relationships according to a question tree Spradley, James. 1980. Participant observation. How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 4 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 12. domain analysis Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 4 Iterative Steps Locate a social environment to observe Decide what evidence already present in the environment helps you answer your question Identify the inter-relationships between the evidence Organize these relationships according to a question tree Spradley, James. 1980. Participant observation. How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 4 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 13. 1. choose a social situation Questions to ask How can I draw a boundary around my inquiry? How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 5 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 14. 1. choose a social situation Questions to ask How can I draw a boundary around my inquiry? Will I see what I am hoping to see multiple times? How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 5 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 15. 1. choose a social situation Questions to ask How can I draw a boundary around my inquiry? Will I see what I am hoping to see multiple times? Do I have access to the environment? How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 5 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 16. 1. choose a social situation Questions to ask How can I draw a boundaryaround my inquiry? Will I see what I am hoping to see multiple times? Do I have access to the environment? Will my participation be discreet? Who do I need to ask if I wanted access? How might I participate within the environment? How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 5 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 17. 1. choose a social situation Questions to ask How can I draw a boundaryaround my inquiry? Will I see what I am hoping to see multiple times? Do I have access to the environment? Will my participation be discreet? Who do I need to ask if I wanted access? How might I participate within the environment? How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 5 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 18. 2. identify evidence use “common sense” what features do you notice? but go deeper Space Activity Object Time Feeling Actors Act Event Goal How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 6 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 19. 2. identify evidence use “common sense” what features do you notice? but go deeper Space Activity Object Time Feeling Actors Event Act Goal How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 6 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 20. 3. identify inter-relationships Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 9 types of inter-relationships Strict Inclusion: X is a kind of Y Spatial: X is a part of Y Cause-effect: X is the result of Y Rationale: X is a reason for doing Y Location-for-action: X is a place to do Y Function: X is used for Y Means-End: X is a way to do Y Sequence: X is a step in Y Attribution: X is a characteristic of Y How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 7 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 21. 3. identify inter-relationships Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 9 types of inter-relationships Strict Inclusion: X is a kind of Y Spatial: X is a part of Y Cause-effect: X is the result of Y Rationale: X is a reason for doing Y Location-for-action: X is a place to do Y Function: X is used for Y Means-End: X is a way to do Y Sequence: X is a step in Y Attribution: X is a characteristic of Y How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 7 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 22. 3. identify inter-relationships Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 9 types of inter-relationships Strict Inclusion: X is a kind of Y Spatial: X is a part of Y Cause-effect: X is the result of Y Rationale: X is a reason for doing Y Location-for-action: X is a place to do Y Function: X is used for Y Means-End: X is a way to do Y Sequence: X is a step in Y Attribution: X is a characteristic of Y How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 7 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 23. 3. identify inter-relationships Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 9 types of inter-relationships Strict Inclusion: X is a kind of Y Spatial: X is a part of Y Cause-effect: X is the result of Y Rationale: X is a reason for doing Y Location-for-action: X is a place to do Y Function: X is used for Y Means-End: X is a way to do Y Sequence: X is a step in Y Attribution: X is a characteristic of Y How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 7 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 24. 3. identify inter-relationships Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 9 types of inter-relationships Strict Inclusion: X is a kind of Y Spatial: X is a part of Y Cause-effect: X is the result of Y Rationale: X is a reason for doing Y Location-for-action: X is a place to do Y Function: X is used for Y Means-End: X is a way to do Y Sequence: X is a step in Y Attribution: X is a characteristic of Y How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 7 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 25. 3. identify inter-relationships Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 9 types of inter-relationships Strict Inclusion: X is a kind of Y Spatial: X is a part of Y Cause-effect: X is the result of Y Rationale: X is a reason for doing Y Location-for-action: X is a place to do Y Function: X is used for Y Means-End: X is a way to do Y Sequence: X is a step in Y Attribution: X is a characteristic of Y How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 7 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 26. 3. identify inter-relationships Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 9 types of inter-relationships Strict Inclusion: X is a kind of Y Spatial: X is a part of Y Cause-effect: X is the result of Y Rationale: X is a reason for doing Y Location-for-action: X is a place to do Y Function: X is used for Y Means-End: X is a way to do Y Sequence: X is a step in Y Attribution: X is a characteristic of Y How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 7 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 27. 3. identify inter-relationships Spradley (1980) Spradley’s 9 types of inter-relationships Strict Inclusion: X is a kind of Y Spatial: X is a part of Y Cause-effect: X is the result of Y Rationale: X is a reason for doing Y Location-for-action: X is a place to do Y Function: X is used for Y Means-End: X is a way to do Y Sequence: X is a step in Y Attribution: X is a characteristic of Y What characteristics are common among researchers conducting research at the intersection of gender and engineering education? How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 7 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 28. 4. construct a question tree begin with your complex question describe your initial observations rely on inter-relationships explain your sense-making path How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 8 emergent domain analysiscomplex questions
  • 29. reflections on the method How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 9 emergentdomain analysis complex questions
  • 30. reflections on the method strongly iterative avenue for rich description of social situation requires systematic gathering of evidence valuable for identifying things present and absent easily grows out of scope can inform future practice How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 9 emergentdomain analysis complex questions
  • 31. reflections on the method strongly iterative avenue for rich description of social situation requires systematic gathering of evidence valuable for identifying things present and absent easily grows out of scope can inform future practice How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 9 emergentdomain analysis complex questions
  • 32. reflections on the method strongly iterative avenue for rich description of social situation requires systematic gathering of evidence valuable for identifying things present and absent easily grows out of scope can inform future practice How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 9 emergentdomain analysis complex questions
  • 33. reflections on the method strongly iterative avenue for rich description of social situation requires systematic gathering of evidence valuable for identifying things present and absent easily grows out of scope can inform future practice How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 9 emergentdomain analysis complex questions
  • 34. our findings How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? Engineering education researchers rely on a demographic definition of gender. Most research cites underrepresentation as motivation to conduct gender research. Engineering education researchers incorporate very few theoretical frameworks when researching gender. In preparation, Journal of Engineering Education 10 emergentdomain analysis complex questions
  • 35. our recommendations How do engineering education researchersresearch gender? 1. Identify other theoretically appropriate reasons to conduct research around gender 2. Explore how engineers and engineering perform masculinities and feminities 3. Translate and test theories of gender from other disciplines within specific engineering contexts 4. Incorporate gender and other forms of diversity in “holistic, integrated engineering education” In preparation, Journal of Engineering Education 11 emergentdomain analysis complex questions
  • 36. Domain analysisQuestions, questions and questionsDirections emergeLocate site to workRemember study’s purposeVery importantConnect the questionsDeepen our understandingAnd locate the gapsMain goal of methodPractical and relevantRecommendations
  • 37. Using the Emergent Methodology of Domain Analysis to Answer Complex Questions Lindsey Nelson Alice L. Pawley lnelson@purdue.eduapawley@purdue.edu feministengineering.org

Editor's Notes

  1. Space- physical placeActor- people involvedGoal- things people are trying to accomplishObject- physical things present (words on the page)Time- sequencing through timeAct- single action that people do “Ask an interview question” Activity- set of related acts “Annual retreat for new female faculty” “Give a lecture series about diversity issues”, “Use an appropriate technology in teaching”Event- a set of related activities “Mentoring programs”Feeling- emotions expressed