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Institutional	
  Ethnography	
  as	
  a	
  
    Method	
  to	
  Understand	
  the	
  
    Career	
  and	
  Parental	
  Leave	
  
    Experiences	
  of	
  STEM	
  Faculty	
  
    Members	
  
                                                                                                        	
  
    June	
  2011	
  
    118th	
  ASEE	
  Annual	
  Conference	
  &	
  Exposition	
  
    Vancouver,	
  BC,	
  Canada	
  
    	
  
   Mercado	
  Santiago,	
  M.,	
  Pawley,	
  A.	
  L.,	
  Hoegh,	
  J.,	
  &	
  Banerjee,	
  D.	
  
   Purdue	
  University	
  

www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                            1	
  
Plan	
  
   1.  Introduction	
  
   2.  Institutional	
  Ethnography	
  Research	
  
       Methodology	
  
   3.  Giddens’	
  Theory	
  of	
  Structuration	
  
   4.  Methods	
  
   5.  Demographics	
  	
  
   6.  Preliminary	
  Themes	
  
   7.  Preliminary	
  Recommendations	
  


www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                             2	
  
Introduction	
  *	
  
      Women	
  and	
  ethnic	
  minorities	
  remain	
  
       underrepresented	
  in	
  STEM	
  faculty	
  
       positions	
  both	
  compared	
  to	
  the	
  
       population	
  of	
  faculty	
  members	
  within	
  
       United	
  States	
  and	
  to	
  the	
  general	
  US	
  
       population.	
  
      There	
  is	
  a	
  need	
  to	
  understand	
  how	
  
       policies	
  structure	
  institutions	
  that	
  
       result	
  in	
  women	
  and	
  people	
  of	
  color’s	
  
       underrepresentation	
  in	
  academia.	
  
    	
  
           *.	
  Gibbons,	
  M.T.	
  (2010).	
  Engineering	
  by	
  the	
  numbers.	
  Retrieved	
  from	
  	
  
                    	
  	
  h;p://wwwtemp.asee.org/publicaEons/profiles/upload/2009ProfileEngOverview.pdf	
  
           *.	
  NaEonal	
  Science	
  FoundaEon.	
  (2009).	
  Women,	
  Minori3es,	
  and	
  Persons	
  with	
  Disabili3es	
  in	
  Science	
  and	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  
           	
  	
  	
  	
  Engineering.	
  Arlington,	
  VA:	
  NaEonal	
  Science	
  FoundaEon.	
  
www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                                                                                                  3	
  
Introduction	
  
    Goal	
  of	
  the	
  study:	
  	
  
        ◦  Identify	
  the	
  disconnects	
  between	
  
           peoples’	
  experiences	
  of	
  the	
  parental	
  
           leave	
  policy	
  and	
  the	
  structures	
  of	
  the	
  
           policy.	
  
    Why	
  our	
  goal	
  is	
  important?	
  
        ◦  To	
  improve	
  our	
  policy	
  and	
  
           procedures	
  
        ◦  Demonstrate	
  how	
  this	
  research	
  method	
  
           can	
  help	
  university	
  administrators	
  
           improve	
  the	
  labor	
  context	
  of	
  STEM	
  
           faculty	
  members.	
  
www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                4	
  
Introduction	
  
  Research	
  Question	
  
    How	
  does	
  the	
  parental	
  leave	
  policy	
  
    and	
  procedures	
  shape	
  STEM	
  faculty	
  
    members’	
  experiences	
  in	
  ways	
  that	
  
    affect	
  their	
  personal	
  and	
  career	
  life?	
  




www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                      5	
  
Institutional	
  Ethnography	
  
Research	
  Methodology*	
  
          Starts	
  from	
  the	
  experiences	
  of	
  
           people	
  in	
  the	
  institution’s	
  processes	
  
          Lived	
  experiences	
  of	
  employees	
  help	
  
           researchers	
  identify:	
  
               how	
  social	
  relations	
  structure	
  the	
  
                bigger	
  institutional	
  system	
  	
  
               how	
  policy	
  structures	
  affect	
  
                employees’	
  career	
  and	
  life	
  experiences	
  
  	
  
           *.	
  Smith,	
  D.	
  E.	
  (2005).	
  Ins3tu3onal	
  ethnography:	
  A	
  sociology	
  for	
  people.	
  Lanham,	
  MD:	
  AltaMira	
  Press.	
  	
  
           *.	
   Campbell,	
   M,	
   &	
   Gregor,	
   F.	
   (2004).	
   Mapping	
   social	
   	
   	
   rela3ons:	
   A	
   primer	
   in	
   doing	
   ins3tu3onal	
  
           ethnography.	
   	
  Walnut	
  Creek,	
  CA:	
  AltaMira	
  Press.	
  
www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                                                                                                     6	
  
Eligible	
  faculty	
  
          member	
                                                       	
                                                    Department	
  head	
  

                                    Parental	
  Leave	
  Policy	
  and	
  procedures	
  	
  
                                              (and	
  other	
  policies	
  and	
  procedures)	
  

                                                                                Internal/	
  
                                    Childcare	
           Teaching	
                             Service	
  (e.g.,	
  
                                                                                 External	
  
                                    facilities	
            load	
                               committees)	
  
                                                                                deadlines	
  
                                    Work-­family	
  
                                     policies	
  of	
                           Research	
      Sick	
  leave	
  
                                                          Advisees	
  
                                      external	
                                  lab	
           policy	
  
                                       grants	
  




Business	
  ofDice	
  	
                                                                                                    (Others:	
  	
  
administrative(s)	
                                                                                         senior	
  faculty	
  members,	
  mentors,	
  
                                                           Central	
  administration	
                          staff	
  members,	
  childcare	
  
                                                                 personnel	
                                          administrators,	
  etc)	
  
Structuration	
  Theory*	
  
    Social	
  systems	
  exist	
  only	
  because	
  of	
  
        the	
  repeated	
  enactment	
  of	
  
        structures	
  (rules	
  and	
  procedures)	
  
        through	
  social	
  practices.e	
  
    Social	
  structures	
  are	
  also	
  dual:	
  they	
  
        not	
  just	
  shape	
  people’s	
  experiences,	
  
        but	
  also	
  people’s	
  actions	
  reconstruct	
  
        or	
  shape	
  structures.e	
  
   	
  
      *.	
  Sewell,	
  W.	
  H.	
  (1992).	
  A	
  theory	
  of	
  structure:	
  Duality,	
  agency,	
  and	
  transformaEon.	
  The	
  American	
  	
  
      	
  	
  	
  	
  	
  Journal	
  of	
  Sociology,	
  98(1),	
  1-­‐29.	
  	
  


www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                                                                                 8	
  
Structuration	
  Theory	
  
      •  In	
  this	
  study,	
  the	
  parental	
  leave	
  
           policy	
  is	
  our	
  main	
  social	
  system,	
  
           situated	
  along	
  with	
  the	
  other	
  
           structures	
  that	
  work	
  together	
  with	
  it	
  
           (such	
  as	
  FMLA,	
  sick	
  leave,	
  unpaid	
  
           leave,	
  etc.).	
  	
                         Actors	
  

      	
  
(	
  rules	
  and	
  	
             Parental	
                       Actors	
  
procedures	
  )	
                                                            aE o n   	
  >	
  
                                    Leave	
                     <	
  structur
                                    Policy	
  
                                  (and	
  other	
  	
  
                                                              <	
  structuraEon	
  >	
  
                                   policies)	
                                                    Actors	
  

                             (	
  social	
  system	
  )	
  
www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                                     9	
  
Methods	
  
    Semi-­‐structured	
  interviews	
  
     conducted	
  between	
  2009	
  and	
  2010.	
  
    Recruitment	
  mostly	
  through	
  
     snowball	
  sampling	
  and	
  grassroots	
  
    Broad	
  themes	
  were	
  identiaied	
  airst	
  
     and	
  then	
  we	
  compiled	
  those	
  that	
  
     were	
  equivalent	
  (using	
  NViVo).	
  
    Still	
  collecting	
  data.	
  25	
  cases	
  so	
  far.	
  
      	
  
www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                           10	
  
Demographics	
  
   Num.	
             Area	
                 Position	
                 Category	
              Gender	
  
     A1	
         Engineering	
         Assistant	
  professor	
     Administrator	
            Female	
  
     A2	
          Non-­‐STEM	
            Full	
  professor	
       Administrator	
            Female	
  
     A3	
          Non-­‐STEM	
                  Staff	
                    User	
              Female	
  
     A4	
       University-­‐Wide	
              Staff	
             Administrator	
             Male	
  
                                                                      *2	
  Admins.	
  in	
      Both	
  
     A5	
       University-­‐Wide	
              Staff	
  
                                                                      one	
  interview	
        Female	
  
     A6	
         Engineering	
         Assistant	
  professor	
            User	
              Female	
  
     A7	
         Engineering	
         Assistant	
  professor	
          Eligible	
             Male	
  
     A8	
            Science	
             Full	
  professor	
       Administrator	
             Male	
  
     A9	
            Science	
          Assistant	
  professor	
            User	
              Female	
  
    A10	
          Non-­‐STEM	
         Associate	
  professor	
            User	
              Female	
  
    A11	
            Science	
          Associate	
  professor	
            User	
               Male	
  
    A12	
          Non-­‐STEM	
         Assistant	
  professor	
            User	
              Female	
  
 Eng = 3; Non-STEM = 4; Science = 3; University-Wide admins = 3 (A5 had 2 admins)
www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                                   11	
  
Themes	
  
 Childcare	
  

 Access	
  to	
  information	
  about	
  parental	
  leave	
  

 Faculty	
  members	
  continue	
  their	
  work	
  even	
  on	
  
 leave	
  

 Additional	
  themes	
  
    The	
  need	
  to	
  improve	
  adoption	
  beneaits	
  
    The	
  way	
  that	
  the	
  policy	
  is	
  written	
  
    Adjusting	
  pregnancy	
  timing	
  to	
  better	
  manage	
  teaching	
  load	
  



www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                12	
  
Childcare	
  
  A9	
  /	
  Science	
  /	
  Assistant	
  Professor	
  /	
  Female	
  /	
  User	
  
  Interviewer:	
   So	
   tell	
   me	
   a	
   little	
   about	
   your-­‐-­‐	
   how	
   you	
   arranged	
   for	
  
  childcare	
  [?]	
  
  	
  
  Participant:	
  	
  Oh	
  yeah.	
  So	
  I	
  signed	
  up-­‐-­‐	
  here’s	
  something	
  that	
  is	
  a	
  big	
  
  problem	
  at	
  Institute	
  1.	
  On	
  campus	
  childcare	
  is-­-­‐	
  I	
  think	
  I	
  made	
  an	
  
  analogy	
   that	
   it’s	
   like	
   unicorns	
   and	
   rainbows.	
   [Laughs]	
   It’s	
   like	
   it	
  
  doesn’t-­‐-­‐	
   it	
   supposedly	
   exists,	
   but	
   there	
   are	
   something	
   like	
   24	
  
  spots	
  total	
  for	
  how	
  many	
  people	
  on	
  this	
  campus?	
  
  	
  




www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                                                 13	
  
Childcare	
  
  A7	
  /Engineering/	
  Assistant	
  Professor	
  /Male/Eligible	
  
  Interviewer:	
   Have	
   you	
   utilized	
   any	
   of	
   Institute	
   1's-­‐-­‐	
   or	
   have	
   you	
  
  found	
  any	
  of	
  Institute	
  1's	
  services	
  to	
  help	
  aind	
  childcare?	
  
  	
  
  Participant:	
   We	
   are	
   certainly	
   aware	
   of	
   all	
   the	
   different	
   Institute	
   1	
  
  options	
  for	
  childcare.	
  Most	
  of	
  the	
  ones	
  we’ve	
  looked	
  at,	
  because	
  we	
  
  just	
  need	
  part	
  time	
  care,	
  are	
  prohibitively	
  expensive.	
  So	
  we’re	
  sort	
  
  of	
   exploring	
   alternatives.	
   Because	
   we	
   really	
   only	
   need	
   care	
  
  maybe	
  a	
  few	
  half	
  days	
  a	
  week.	
  




www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                                            14	
  
Themes	
  
 Childcare	
  

 Access	
  to	
  information	
  about	
  parental	
  leave	
  

 Faculty	
  member	
  continue	
  their	
  work	
  even	
  on	
  
 leave	
  

 Additional	
  themes	
  
    The	
  need	
  to	
  improve	
  adoption	
  beneaits	
  
    The	
  way	
  that	
  the	
  policy	
  is	
  written	
  
    Adjusting	
  pregnancy	
  timing	
  to	
  better	
  manage	
  teaching	
  load	
  



www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                15	
  
Access	
  to	
  information	
  about	
  
 parental	
  leave	
  
 A9	
  /	
  Science	
  /	
  Assistant	
  Professor	
  /	
  Female	
  /	
  User	
  
 Participant:	
   My	
   experience	
   with	
   the	
   Dept	
   ADMIN	
   website	
   in	
  
 general	
   is	
   that	
   it’s	
   not	
   very	
   useful.	
   [Laughs]	
   But	
   it	
   tends	
   to	
   send	
  
 you	
   around	
   in	
   circles	
   and	
   not	
   give	
   you	
   the	
   information	
   you	
   need	
  
 and	
   just,	
   you	
   end	
   up	
   having	
   to	
   call	
   somebody	
   over	
   there	
   or	
   go	
   over	
  
 there	
  anyway.	
  




www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                                                    16	
  
Access	
  to	
  information	
  about	
  
 parental	
  leave	
  
 A6	
  /	
  Engineering	
  /	
  Assistant	
  Professor	
  /	
  Female	
  /	
  
 User	
  
 Interviewer:	
  A	
  quick	
  question.	
  You	
  had	
  referred	
  to	
  the	
  handbook.	
  Is	
  
 that	
  a	
  written	
  document	
  that	
  you	
  have,	
  like	
  a	
  book	
  or	
  is	
  it	
  an	
  online	
  
 [?]...	
  
 	
  
 Participant:	
  So	
  I	
  have	
  mine.	
  The	
  written	
  one	
  sometimes	
  I’ll	
  aind	
  that	
  
 I’m	
   doing	
   web	
   searches	
   and	
   I’ll	
   think	
   I	
   aind	
   things	
   that	
   are	
   either	
  
 excerpts	
   from	
   this	
   or	
   at	
   least	
   very,	
   very	
   similar	
   online,	
   too.	
   But	
   I	
  
 generally	
   Dind	
   the	
   Institute	
   1	
   website	
   a	
   little	
   bit	
   difDicult	
   to	
  
 navigate	
  in	
  Dinding	
  information.	
  So	
  if	
  I’m	
  trying	
  to	
  aind	
  information	
  
 from	
  the	
  Institute	
  1	
  website,	
  I	
  will	
  do	
  a	
  [Web	
  search].	
  I	
  will	
  go	
  to	
  [Web	
  
 portal];	
   I	
   will	
   type	
   in	
   Institute	
   1,	
   and	
   then	
   whatever	
   I’m	
   looking	
   for.	
  
 And	
  sometimes	
  I	
  aind	
  it	
  and	
  sometimes	
  I	
  don’t.	
  [Laughs]	
  so	
  then	
  I’ll	
  
 look	
  at	
  things	
  like	
  this	
  handbook	
  or	
  just	
  talk	
  to	
  people.	
  

www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                                                     17	
  
Themes	
  
 Childcare	
  

 Access	
  to	
  information	
  about	
  parental	
  leave	
  

 Faculty	
  members	
  continue	
  their	
  work	
  even	
  on	
  
 leave	
  

 Additional	
  themes	
  
    The	
  need	
  to	
  improve	
  adoption	
  beneaits	
  
    The	
  way	
  that	
  the	
  policy	
  is	
  written	
  
    Adjusting	
  pregnancy	
  timing	
  to	
  better	
  manage	
  teaching	
  load	
  



www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                18	
  
Faculty	
  members	
  continue	
  their	
  
 work	
  on	
  leave	
  
 A6	
  /	
  Engineering	
  /	
  Assistant	
  Professor	
  /	
  Female	
  /	
  
 User	
  
 Participant:	
   When	
   you	
   think	
   about	
   the	
   different	
   pieces,	
   there’s	
   the       	
  
 research,	
  the	
  teaching	
  and	
  there’s	
  the	
  service.	
  And	
  so,	
  again,	
  with	
  the      	
  
 kind	
  of	
  service	
  category,	
  I	
  wasn’t	
  attending	
  the	
  faculty	
  meetings	
  until         	
  
 about	
  [month].	
  Wasn’t	
  attending	
  committee	
  meetings,	
  gave	
  occasional                      	
  
 input	
   to	
   people	
   about	
   that,	
   though.	
   And	
   then	
   the	
   other	
   piece	
   of   	
  
 service	
  is	
  kind	
  of	
  external	
  to	
  the	
  Institute	
  1	
  community.	
  So	
  reviewing       	
  
 conference	
  papers,	
  reviewing	
  journal	
  papers.	
  I	
  was	
  doing	
  that	
  stuff.	
  I          	
  
 had	
  people	
  contact	
  me	
  and	
  say,	
  “Can	
  you	
  review	
  this	
  paper	
  please?”	
  I      	
  
 said,	
   “oh.	
   OK.”	
   And	
   so	
   the	
   only	
   other	
   way	
   it	
   would	
   be	
   different
                                                                                                               	
  
 from	
  a	
  normal	
  semester	
  where	
  I	
  wasn’t	
  teaching	
  was	
  just	
  that	
  I               	
  
 was	
  at	
  home	
  more.	
  Doing	
  the	
  work	
  at	
  home.	
  



www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                                            19	
  
Faculty	
  members	
  continue	
  their	
  
 work	
  on	
  leave	
  
 A7	
  /	
  Engineering	
  /	
  Assistant	
  Professor	
  /	
  Male	
  /	
  
 Eligible	
  
 Participant:	
   I	
   was	
   concerned	
   about	
   Dinding	
   people	
   to	
   Dill	
   in.	
   I        	
  
 mean,	
   I	
   had	
   made	
   the	
   decision	
   at	
   the	
   beginning	
   of	
   the	
   semester	
   I
                                                                                                                	
  
 could	
   have	
   requested	
   from	
   the	
   department	
   to	
   not	
   have	
   a	
   teaching        	
  
 commitment	
   this	
   semester.	
   I	
   made	
   the	
   decision	
   in	
   discussion	
   with	
   my    	
  
 wife	
   that	
   I	
   would	
   teach	
   this	
   semester.	
   One	
   of	
   the	
   reasons	
   was      	
  
 because	
   I	
   was	
   somewhat	
   drawn	
   to	
   the	
   teaching	
   assignment.	
   It’s              	
  
 also	
  a	
  sequence	
  course.	
  




www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                                             20	
  
Faculty	
  members	
  continue	
  their	
  
 work	
  on	
  leave	
  
 A7	
  /	
  Engineering	
  /	
  Assistant	
  Professor	
  /	
  Male	
  /	
  
 Eligible	
  
 Interviewer:	
   So	
   how	
   did	
   you	
   manage	
   your	
   other	
   work	
   outside	
   of	
  
 teaching	
  during	
  that	
  time?	
  
 	
  
 Participant:	
  What	
  I	
  tried	
  to	
  do	
  really	
  was	
  for	
  the	
  various	
  research	
  
 projects	
   I	
   was	
   working	
   on,	
   I	
   really	
   tried	
   to	
   get	
   them	
   all	
   sort	
   of-­-­‐	
   a	
  
 good	
   way	
   to	
   describe	
   it…	
   I	
   tried	
   to	
   get	
   the	
   house	
   in	
   order	
   as	
   we	
  
 were	
   getting	
   closer	
   and	
   closer	
   to	
   the	
   baby.	
   To	
   the	
   due	
   date.	
   So	
   for	
  
 instance,	
  making	
  sure	
  that	
  all	
  my	
  research	
  assistants	
  had	
  a	
  list	
  of	
  
 tasks	
   to	
   work	
   on	
   while	
   I	
   was	
   gone	
   or	
   while	
   I	
   wasn’t	
   in	
   as	
  
 communication	
   as	
   much.	
   [….]	
   I	
   had	
   colleagues	
   who	
   were	
   waiting	
   on	
  
 things	
   from	
   me…I	
   tried	
   to	
   get	
   all	
   that	
   in	
   order.	
   So	
   I	
   didn’t	
   have	
   it	
  
 hanging	
  over	
  my	
  head	
  after	
  our	
  [child]	
  was	
  born.	
  


www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                                                              21	
  
Themes	
  
 Childcare	
  

 Access	
  to	
  information	
  about	
  parental	
  leave	
  

 Faculty	
  member	
  continue	
  their	
  work	
  even	
  on	
  
 leave	
  

 Additional	
  themes	
  
    The	
  need	
  to	
  improve	
  adoption	
  beneaits	
  
    The	
  way	
  that	
  the	
  policy	
  is	
  written	
  
    Adjusting	
  pregnancy	
  timing	
  to	
  better	
  manage	
  teaching	
  load	
  



www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                22	
  
The	
  Need	
  to	
  Improve	
  Adoption	
  
 Beneaits	
  
 A5	
  /	
  University-­Wide	
  /	
  Two	
  administrators	
  in	
  one	
  
 interview	
  /	
  Both	
  female	
  
 Participant	
  1:	
  I	
  think	
  the	
  one	
  thing	
  that	
  we	
  do	
  hear	
  from	
  time	
  to	
  time	
  
 in	
   relationship	
   to	
   this	
   is	
   that	
   we	
   do	
   not	
   have	
   paid	
   adoption	
  
 beneDits.	
   We	
   don’t	
   have	
   any.	
   So	
   that	
   does	
   come	
   up	
   from	
   time	
   to	
   time.	
  
 Not	
  necessarily	
  in	
  relationship	
  to	
  this	
  paid	
  parental,	
  but	
  in	
  the	
  area	
  of	
  
 parental	
  leave	
  and	
  needs	
  for	
  family.	
  
 	
  
 Interviewer:	
  What	
  would	
  be-­‐-­‐	
  I	
  guess	
  what	
  are	
  adoption	
  beneaits?	
  
 	
  
 Participant	
   1:	
   You	
   can	
   offer	
   beneaits	
   for	
   the	
   [fees]	
   that	
   somebody	
  
 would	
  pay.	
  There’s	
  travel	
  and	
  fees	
  and	
  that	
  kind	
  of	
  thing.	
  And	
  there	
  
 are	
   programs	
   and	
   there	
   are,	
   you	
   know,	
   a	
   lot	
   of	
   employers	
   that	
  
 offer	
   some	
   tax	
   beneDits	
   for	
   some	
   level	
   of	
   adoption	
   beneDits	
   that	
  
 you	
  would	
  provide.	
  

www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                                                      23	
  
The	
  Way	
  that	
  the	
  Policy	
  is	
  
 Written	
  
 A1	
  /	
  Engineering	
  /	
  Assistant	
  Professor	
  /	
  Female	
  /	
  
 Administrator	
  
 Participant:	
   Institute	
   2	
   [institution	
   of	
   comparison]	
   one	
   is	
   very,	
  
   like,	
   written	
   for	
   [eighth]	
   graders	
   and	
   its,	
   like	
   if	
   you	
   are	
   this	
  
   person	
   in	
   this	
   circumstance	
   this	
   is	
   what	
   you	
   do	
   to,	
   this	
   is	
   the	
   policy,	
  
   this	
   is	
   what	
   is	
   expected.	
   And	
   ours	
   is	
   written	
   for	
   people	
   from	
  
   another	
   planet	
   (Interviewer:	
   laughs),	
   for	
   people	
   from	
   another	
  
   planet.	
  




www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                                                       24	
  
Adjusting	
  Pregnancy	
  to	
  Manage	
  
 Teaching	
  Load	
  
 A8	
  /	
  Science	
  /	
  Full	
  Professor	
  /	
  Male	
  /	
  Administrator	
  
 Participant:	
  So	
  for	
  example,	
  the	
  STEM	
  department	
  is	
  dominantly,	
  as	
  a                   	
  
 research	
  department,	
  I	
  mean,	
  a	
  very	
  large	
  component	
  of	
  what	
  we	
  do                   	
  
 is	
   research,	
   and	
   therefore,	
   our	
   teaching	
   loads	
   is	
   not	
   as	
   heavy	
   as	
   say	
  
 they	
   may	
   be	
   in	
   liberal	
   arts,	
   and	
   so,	
   but	
   even	
   in	
   Dept	
   STEM,	
   women	
  
 were	
   adjusting	
   their	
   pregnancies	
   to	
   try	
   and	
   give	
   birth	
   over	
   the              	
  
 summer	
   when	
   we	
   don't	
   teach	
   in	
   the	
   summer.	
   We	
   just	
   teach	
   in	
   the       	
  
 spring	
   and	
   the	
   fall	
   and	
   then	
   summer	
   our	
   salaries	
   are	
   covered	
   by          	
  
 our	
  research	
  funds	
  and	
  so	
  forth.	
  
 	
  




www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                                                   25	
  
Summary	
  
 Childcare	
  
 Access	
  to	
  information	
  about	
  parental	
  leave	
  
 Faculty	
  member	
  continue	
  their	
  work	
  even	
  on	
  
 leave	
  
 Additional	
  themes	
  




  Policy	
  as	
  written	
  doesn’t	
  meet	
  faculty	
  members’	
  needs	
  
                           for	
  leave	
  or	
  childcare	
  
                                            	
  
   Faculty	
  make	
  accommodations	
  to	
  go	
  around	
  policy;	
  
                    The	
  policy	
  remains	
  inadequate	
  
www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                         26	
  
Update	
  post	
  ASEE	
  paper	
  
  •  Focus	
  on	
  interviewing	
  department	
  
     heads.	
  
  •  Race	
  and	
  ethnicity	
  demographics	
  
     information.	
  
  •  Working	
  paper	
  that	
  analyses	
  the	
  
     experiences	
  of	
  ten	
  faculty	
  members	
  
     who	
  took	
  the	
  leave	
  (or	
  who	
  were	
  
     eligible).	
  	
  
       –  We	
  will	
  submit	
  it	
  this	
  year	
  to	
  JWMSE	
  


www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                27	
  
Policy-­‐Related	
  Recommendations	
  
  •  Research	
  about	
  the	
  labor	
  context	
  of	
  
     STEM	
  faculty	
  members	
  should	
  
     inform	
  policy-­related	
  decisions.	
  	
  	
  
  •  Explore	
  other	
  universities’	
  policies	
  
     on	
  modiDied	
  duties.	
  	
  
  •  Faculty	
  members	
  should	
  seek	
  
     permission	
  from	
  their	
  department	
  
     heads	
  to	
  enact	
  their	
  leave	
  
     intermittently.	
  
www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                    28	
  
Other	
  Recommendations	
  
  •  Mechanism	
  in	
  the	
  policy	
  should	
  be	
  
     included	
  to	
  ensure	
  that	
  faculty	
  
     members	
  can	
  Dind	
  childcare	
  services	
  
     on	
  campus	
  before	
  returning	
  to	
  work.	
  	
  
       –  There	
  is	
  an	
  urgent	
  need	
  of	
  childcare	
  
          services	
  for	
  infants	
  less	
  than	
  one	
  year	
  
          old.	
  




www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                29	
  
Acknowledgements	
  
   This	
  research	
  is	
  based	
  upon	
  work	
  
   supported	
  by	
  the	
  National	
  Science	
  
   Foundation	
  under	
  Grant	
  No.	
  HRD	
  
   0811194.	
  Any	
  opinions,	
  aindings	
  and	
  
   conclusions	
  or	
  recommendations	
  
   expressed	
  in	
  this	
  material	
  are	
  those	
  of	
  
   the	
  authors	
  and	
  do	
  not	
  necessarily	
  
   realect	
  the	
  views	
  of	
  the	
  National	
  Science	
  
   Foundation.	
  

www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                           30	
  
Thanks	
  for	
  your	
  attention	
  	
  
                              	
  
                      Questions?	
  
                                                	
  
                                                	
  
                           ADVANCE	
  Research	
  Team	
  
                Purdue	
  Center	
  for	
  Faculty	
  Success	
  
             Hall	
  for	
  Discovery	
  and	
  Learning	
  Research	
  
              207	
  S.	
  Martin	
  Jischke	
  Drive,	
  Suite	
  228	
  
                            West	
  Lafayette,	
  IN	
  47907	
  	
  	
  
                                (765)	
  494-­‐9335	
  
                                          	
  
       Presentation	
  prepared	
  and	
  given	
  by	
  the	
  Research	
  Assistant	
  	
  
           Marisol	
  Mercado	
  Santiago	
  (mercado@purdue.edu)	
  
www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                      31	
  
References	
  
  a.	
  Gibbons,	
  M.T.	
  (2010).	
  Engineering	
  by	
  the	
  numbers.	
  Retrieved	
  from	
  	
  
            	
  http://wwwtemp.asee.org/publications/proailes/upload/2009ProaileEngOverview.pdf	
  
  b.	
  National	
  Science	
  Foundation,	
  Division	
  of	
  Science	
  Resources	
  Statistics.	
  (2009).	
  Women,	
  	
  
       	
         	
   Minorities,	
   and	
   Persons	
   with	
   Disabilities	
   in	
   Science	
   and	
   Engineering.	
   Arlington,	
   VA:	
  
            	
  National	
  Science	
   	
  Foundation.	
  
  c.	
  Smith,	
  D.	
  E.	
  (2005).	
  Institutional	
  ethnography:	
  A	
  sociology	
  for	
  people.	
  Lanham,	
  MD:	
  AltaMira	
  	
  
       	
    	
  Press.	
  	
  
  d.	
  Campbell,	
  M,	
  &	
  Gregor,	
  F.	
  (2004).	
  Mapping	
  social	
  	
  	
  relations:	
  A	
  primer	
  in	
  doing	
  institutional	
  	
  
             	
  ethnography.	
  Walnut	
  Creek,	
  CA:	
  AltaMira	
  Press.	
  
  e.	
  Sewell,	
  W.	
  H.	
  (1992).	
  A	
  theory	
  of	
  structure:	
  Duality,	
  agency,	
  and	
  transformation.	
  The	
  	
  
             	
  American	
  Journal	
  of	
  Sociology,	
  98(1),	
  1-­‐29.	
  	
  
  f.	
  Giddens,	
  A.	
  (1986).	
  The	
  constitution	
  of	
  society:	
  Outline	
  of	
  the	
  theory	
  of	
  structuration.	
  Berkeley,	
  	
  
             	
  CA:	
  University	
  of	
  California	
  Press.	
  
  g.	
  Sullivan,	
  B.,	
  Hollenshead,	
  C.,	
  &	
  Smith,	
  G.	
  (2004).	
  Developing	
  and	
  implementing	
  work-­‐family	
  	
  
             	
  policies	
  for	
  faculty	
  [Electronic	
  version].	
  Academe,	
  90(6).	
  Retrieved	
  from	
  	
  
             	
  http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/pubsres/academe/2004/ND/Feat/04ndsulli.htm	
  
  	
  
  	
  
  	
  


www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/                                                                                                                                   32	
  

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Institutional Ethnography as a Method to Understand the Career and Parental Leave Experiences of STEM Faculty Members

  • 1. Institutional  Ethnography  as  a   Method  to  Understand  the   Career  and  Parental  Leave   Experiences  of  STEM  Faculty   Members     June  2011   118th  ASEE  Annual  Conference  &  Exposition   Vancouver,  BC,  Canada     Mercado  Santiago,  M.,  Pawley,  A.  L.,  Hoegh,  J.,  &  Banerjee,  D.   Purdue  University   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 1  
  • 2. Plan   1.  Introduction   2.  Institutional  Ethnography  Research   Methodology   3.  Giddens’  Theory  of  Structuration   4.  Methods   5.  Demographics     6.  Preliminary  Themes   7.  Preliminary  Recommendations   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 2  
  • 3. Introduction  *     Women  and  ethnic  minorities  remain   underrepresented  in  STEM  faculty   positions  both  compared  to  the   population  of  faculty  members  within   United  States  and  to  the  general  US   population.     There  is  a  need  to  understand  how   policies  structure  institutions  that   result  in  women  and  people  of  color’s   underrepresentation  in  academia.     *.  Gibbons,  M.T.  (2010).  Engineering  by  the  numbers.  Retrieved  from        h;p://wwwtemp.asee.org/publicaEons/profiles/upload/2009ProfileEngOverview.pdf   *.  NaEonal  Science  FoundaEon.  (2009).  Women,  Minori3es,  and  Persons  with  Disabili3es  in  Science  and                  Engineering.  Arlington,  VA:  NaEonal  Science  FoundaEon.   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 3  
  • 4. Introduction   Goal  of  the  study:     ◦  Identify  the  disconnects  between   peoples’  experiences  of  the  parental   leave  policy  and  the  structures  of  the   policy.   Why  our  goal  is  important?   ◦  To  improve  our  policy  and   procedures   ◦  Demonstrate  how  this  research  method   can  help  university  administrators   improve  the  labor  context  of  STEM   faculty  members.   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 4  
  • 5. Introduction   Research  Question   How  does  the  parental  leave  policy   and  procedures  shape  STEM  faculty   members’  experiences  in  ways  that   affect  their  personal  and  career  life?   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 5  
  • 6. Institutional  Ethnography   Research  Methodology*    Starts  from  the  experiences  of   people  in  the  institution’s  processes    Lived  experiences  of  employees  help   researchers  identify:     how  social  relations  structure  the   bigger  institutional  system       how  policy  structures  affect   employees’  career  and  life  experiences     *.  Smith,  D.  E.  (2005).  Ins3tu3onal  ethnography:  A  sociology  for  people.  Lanham,  MD:  AltaMira  Press.     *.   Campbell,   M,   &   Gregor,   F.   (2004).   Mapping   social       rela3ons:   A   primer   in   doing   ins3tu3onal   ethnography.    Walnut  Creek,  CA:  AltaMira  Press.   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 6  
  • 7. Eligible  faculty   member     Department  head   Parental  Leave  Policy  and  procedures     (and  other  policies  and  procedures)   Internal/   Childcare   Teaching   Service  (e.g.,   External   facilities   load   committees)   deadlines   Work-­family   policies  of   Research   Sick  leave   Advisees   external   lab   policy   grants   Business  ofDice     (Others:     administrative(s)   senior  faculty  members,  mentors,   Central  administration   staff  members,  childcare   personnel   administrators,  etc)  
  • 8. Structuration  Theory*    Social  systems  exist  only  because  of   the  repeated  enactment  of   structures  (rules  and  procedures)   through  social  practices.e    Social  structures  are  also  dual:  they   not  just  shape  people’s  experiences,   but  also  people’s  actions  reconstruct   or  shape  structures.e     *.  Sewell,  W.  H.  (1992).  A  theory  of  structure:  Duality,  agency,  and  transformaEon.  The  American              Journal  of  Sociology,  98(1),  1-­‐29.     www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 8  
  • 9. Structuration  Theory   •  In  this  study,  the  parental  leave   policy  is  our  main  social  system,   situated  along  with  the  other   structures  that  work  together  with  it   (such  as  FMLA,  sick  leave,  unpaid   leave,  etc.).     Actors     (  rules  and     Parental   Actors   procedures  )   aE o n  >   Leave   <  structur Policy   (and  other     <  structuraEon  >   policies)   Actors   (  social  system  )   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 9  
  • 10. Methods    Semi-­‐structured  interviews   conducted  between  2009  and  2010.    Recruitment  mostly  through   snowball  sampling  and  grassroots    Broad  themes  were  identiaied  airst   and  then  we  compiled  those  that   were  equivalent  (using  NViVo).    Still  collecting  data.  25  cases  so  far.     www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 10  
  • 11. Demographics   Num.   Area   Position   Category   Gender   A1   Engineering   Assistant  professor   Administrator   Female   A2   Non-­‐STEM   Full  professor   Administrator   Female   A3   Non-­‐STEM   Staff   User   Female   A4   University-­‐Wide   Staff   Administrator   Male   *2  Admins.  in   Both   A5   University-­‐Wide   Staff   one  interview   Female   A6   Engineering   Assistant  professor   User   Female   A7   Engineering   Assistant  professor   Eligible   Male   A8   Science   Full  professor   Administrator   Male   A9   Science   Assistant  professor   User   Female   A10   Non-­‐STEM   Associate  professor   User   Female   A11   Science   Associate  professor   User   Male   A12   Non-­‐STEM   Assistant  professor   User   Female   Eng = 3; Non-STEM = 4; Science = 3; University-Wide admins = 3 (A5 had 2 admins) www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 11  
  • 12. Themes   Childcare   Access  to  information  about  parental  leave   Faculty  members  continue  their  work  even  on   leave   Additional  themes     The  need  to  improve  adoption  beneaits     The  way  that  the  policy  is  written     Adjusting  pregnancy  timing  to  better  manage  teaching  load   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 12  
  • 13. Childcare   A9  /  Science  /  Assistant  Professor  /  Female  /  User   Interviewer:   So   tell   me   a   little   about   your-­‐-­‐   how   you   arranged   for   childcare  [?]     Participant:    Oh  yeah.  So  I  signed  up-­‐-­‐  here’s  something  that  is  a  big   problem  at  Institute  1.  On  campus  childcare  is-­-­‐  I  think  I  made  an   analogy   that   it’s   like   unicorns   and   rainbows.   [Laughs]   It’s   like   it   doesn’t-­‐-­‐   it   supposedly   exists,   but   there   are   something   like   24   spots  total  for  how  many  people  on  this  campus?     www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 13  
  • 14. Childcare   A7  /Engineering/  Assistant  Professor  /Male/Eligible   Interviewer:   Have   you   utilized   any   of   Institute   1's-­‐-­‐   or   have   you   found  any  of  Institute  1's  services  to  help  aind  childcare?     Participant:   We   are   certainly   aware   of   all   the   different   Institute   1   options  for  childcare.  Most  of  the  ones  we’ve  looked  at,  because  we   just  need  part  time  care,  are  prohibitively  expensive.  So  we’re  sort   of   exploring   alternatives.   Because   we   really   only   need   care   maybe  a  few  half  days  a  week.   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 14  
  • 15. Themes   Childcare   Access  to  information  about  parental  leave   Faculty  member  continue  their  work  even  on   leave   Additional  themes     The  need  to  improve  adoption  beneaits     The  way  that  the  policy  is  written     Adjusting  pregnancy  timing  to  better  manage  teaching  load   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 15  
  • 16. Access  to  information  about   parental  leave   A9  /  Science  /  Assistant  Professor  /  Female  /  User   Participant:   My   experience   with   the   Dept   ADMIN   website   in   general   is   that   it’s   not   very   useful.   [Laughs]   But   it   tends   to   send   you   around   in   circles   and   not   give   you   the   information   you   need   and   just,   you   end   up   having   to   call   somebody   over   there   or   go   over   there  anyway.   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 16  
  • 17. Access  to  information  about   parental  leave   A6  /  Engineering  /  Assistant  Professor  /  Female  /   User   Interviewer:  A  quick  question.  You  had  referred  to  the  handbook.  Is   that  a  written  document  that  you  have,  like  a  book  or  is  it  an  online   [?]...     Participant:  So  I  have  mine.  The  written  one  sometimes  I’ll  aind  that   I’m   doing   web   searches   and   I’ll   think   I   aind   things   that   are   either   excerpts   from   this   or   at   least   very,   very   similar   online,   too.   But   I   generally   Dind   the   Institute   1   website   a   little   bit   difDicult   to   navigate  in  Dinding  information.  So  if  I’m  trying  to  aind  information   from  the  Institute  1  website,  I  will  do  a  [Web  search].  I  will  go  to  [Web   portal];   I   will   type   in   Institute   1,   and   then   whatever   I’m   looking   for.   And  sometimes  I  aind  it  and  sometimes  I  don’t.  [Laughs]  so  then  I’ll   look  at  things  like  this  handbook  or  just  talk  to  people.   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 17  
  • 18. Themes   Childcare   Access  to  information  about  parental  leave   Faculty  members  continue  their  work  even  on   leave   Additional  themes     The  need  to  improve  adoption  beneaits     The  way  that  the  policy  is  written     Adjusting  pregnancy  timing  to  better  manage  teaching  load   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 18  
  • 19. Faculty  members  continue  their   work  on  leave   A6  /  Engineering  /  Assistant  Professor  /  Female  /   User   Participant:   When   you   think   about   the   different   pieces,   there’s   the   research,  the  teaching  and  there’s  the  service.  And  so,  again,  with  the   kind  of  service  category,  I  wasn’t  attending  the  faculty  meetings  until   about  [month].  Wasn’t  attending  committee  meetings,  gave  occasional   input   to   people   about   that,   though.   And   then   the   other   piece   of   service  is  kind  of  external  to  the  Institute  1  community.  So  reviewing   conference  papers,  reviewing  journal  papers.  I  was  doing  that  stuff.  I   had  people  contact  me  and  say,  “Can  you  review  this  paper  please?”  I   said,   “oh.   OK.”   And   so   the   only   other   way   it   would   be   different   from  a  normal  semester  where  I  wasn’t  teaching  was  just  that  I   was  at  home  more.  Doing  the  work  at  home.   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 19  
  • 20. Faculty  members  continue  their   work  on  leave   A7  /  Engineering  /  Assistant  Professor  /  Male  /   Eligible   Participant:   I   was   concerned   about   Dinding   people   to   Dill   in.   I   mean,   I   had   made   the   decision   at   the   beginning   of   the   semester   I   could   have   requested   from   the   department   to   not   have   a   teaching   commitment   this   semester.   I   made   the   decision   in   discussion   with   my   wife   that   I   would   teach   this   semester.   One   of   the   reasons   was   because   I   was   somewhat   drawn   to   the   teaching   assignment.   It’s   also  a  sequence  course.   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 20  
  • 21. Faculty  members  continue  their   work  on  leave   A7  /  Engineering  /  Assistant  Professor  /  Male  /   Eligible   Interviewer:   So   how   did   you   manage   your   other   work   outside   of   teaching  during  that  time?     Participant:  What  I  tried  to  do  really  was  for  the  various  research   projects   I   was   working   on,   I   really   tried   to   get   them   all   sort   of-­-­‐   a   good   way   to   describe   it…   I   tried   to   get   the   house   in   order   as   we   were   getting   closer   and   closer   to   the   baby.   To   the   due   date.   So   for   instance,  making  sure  that  all  my  research  assistants  had  a  list  of   tasks   to   work   on   while   I   was   gone   or   while   I   wasn’t   in   as   communication   as   much.   [….]   I   had   colleagues   who   were   waiting   on   things   from   me…I   tried   to   get   all   that   in   order.   So   I   didn’t   have   it   hanging  over  my  head  after  our  [child]  was  born.   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 21  
  • 22. Themes   Childcare   Access  to  information  about  parental  leave   Faculty  member  continue  their  work  even  on   leave   Additional  themes     The  need  to  improve  adoption  beneaits     The  way  that  the  policy  is  written     Adjusting  pregnancy  timing  to  better  manage  teaching  load   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 22  
  • 23. The  Need  to  Improve  Adoption   Beneaits   A5  /  University-­Wide  /  Two  administrators  in  one   interview  /  Both  female   Participant  1:  I  think  the  one  thing  that  we  do  hear  from  time  to  time   in   relationship   to   this   is   that   we   do   not   have   paid   adoption   beneDits.   We   don’t   have   any.   So   that   does   come   up   from   time   to   time.   Not  necessarily  in  relationship  to  this  paid  parental,  but  in  the  area  of   parental  leave  and  needs  for  family.     Interviewer:  What  would  be-­‐-­‐  I  guess  what  are  adoption  beneaits?     Participant   1:   You   can   offer   beneaits   for   the   [fees]   that   somebody   would  pay.  There’s  travel  and  fees  and  that  kind  of  thing.  And  there   are   programs   and   there   are,   you   know,   a   lot   of   employers   that   offer   some   tax   beneDits   for   some   level   of   adoption   beneDits   that   you  would  provide.   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 23  
  • 24. The  Way  that  the  Policy  is   Written   A1  /  Engineering  /  Assistant  Professor  /  Female  /   Administrator   Participant:   Institute   2   [institution   of   comparison]   one   is   very,   like,   written   for   [eighth]   graders   and   its,   like   if   you   are   this   person   in   this   circumstance   this   is   what   you   do   to,   this   is   the   policy,   this   is   what   is   expected.   And   ours   is   written   for   people   from   another   planet   (Interviewer:   laughs),   for   people   from   another   planet.   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 24  
  • 25. Adjusting  Pregnancy  to  Manage   Teaching  Load   A8  /  Science  /  Full  Professor  /  Male  /  Administrator   Participant:  So  for  example,  the  STEM  department  is  dominantly,  as  a   research  department,  I  mean,  a  very  large  component  of  what  we  do   is   research,   and   therefore,   our   teaching   loads   is   not   as   heavy   as   say   they   may   be   in   liberal   arts,   and   so,   but   even   in   Dept   STEM,   women   were   adjusting   their   pregnancies   to   try   and   give   birth   over   the   summer   when   we   don't   teach   in   the   summer.   We   just   teach   in   the   spring   and   the   fall   and   then   summer   our   salaries   are   covered   by   our  research  funds  and  so  forth.     www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 25  
  • 26. Summary   Childcare   Access  to  information  about  parental  leave   Faculty  member  continue  their  work  even  on   leave   Additional  themes   Policy  as  written  doesn’t  meet  faculty  members’  needs   for  leave  or  childcare     Faculty  make  accommodations  to  go  around  policy;   The  policy  remains  inadequate   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 26  
  • 27. Update  post  ASEE  paper   •  Focus  on  interviewing  department   heads.   •  Race  and  ethnicity  demographics   information.   •  Working  paper  that  analyses  the   experiences  of  ten  faculty  members   who  took  the  leave  (or  who  were   eligible).     –  We  will  submit  it  this  year  to  JWMSE   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 27  
  • 28. Policy-­‐Related  Recommendations   •  Research  about  the  labor  context  of   STEM  faculty  members  should   inform  policy-­related  decisions.       •  Explore  other  universities’  policies   on  modiDied  duties.     •  Faculty  members  should  seek   permission  from  their  department   heads  to  enact  their  leave   intermittently.   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 28  
  • 29. Other  Recommendations   •  Mechanism  in  the  policy  should  be   included  to  ensure  that  faculty   members  can  Dind  childcare  services   on  campus  before  returning  to  work.     –  There  is  an  urgent  need  of  childcare   services  for  infants  less  than  one  year   old.   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 29  
  • 30. Acknowledgements   This  research  is  based  upon  work   supported  by  the  National  Science   Foundation  under  Grant  No.  HRD   0811194.  Any  opinions,  aindings  and   conclusions  or  recommendations   expressed  in  this  material  are  those  of   the  authors  and  do  not  necessarily   realect  the  views  of  the  National  Science   Foundation.   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 30  
  • 31. Thanks  for  your  attention       Questions?       ADVANCE  Research  Team   Purdue  Center  for  Faculty  Success   Hall  for  Discovery  and  Learning  Research   207  S.  Martin  Jischke  Drive,  Suite  228   West  Lafayette,  IN  47907       (765)  494-­‐9335     Presentation  prepared  and  given  by  the  Research  Assistant     Marisol  Mercado  Santiago  (mercado@purdue.edu)   www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 31  
  • 32. References   a.  Gibbons,  M.T.  (2010).  Engineering  by  the  numbers.  Retrieved  from      http://wwwtemp.asee.org/publications/proailes/upload/2009ProaileEngOverview.pdf   b.  National  Science  Foundation,  Division  of  Science  Resources  Statistics.  (2009).  Women,         Minorities,   and   Persons   with   Disabilities   in   Science   and   Engineering.   Arlington,   VA:    National  Science    Foundation.   c.  Smith,  D.  E.  (2005).  Institutional  ethnography:  A  sociology  for  people.  Lanham,  MD:  AltaMira        Press.     d.  Campbell,  M,  &  Gregor,  F.  (2004).  Mapping  social      relations:  A  primer  in  doing  institutional      ethnography.  Walnut  Creek,  CA:  AltaMira  Press.   e.  Sewell,  W.  H.  (1992).  A  theory  of  structure:  Duality,  agency,  and  transformation.  The      American  Journal  of  Sociology,  98(1),  1-­‐29.     f.  Giddens,  A.  (1986).  The  constitution  of  society:  Outline  of  the  theory  of  structuration.  Berkeley,      CA:  University  of  California  Press.   g.  Sullivan,  B.,  Hollenshead,  C.,  &  Smith,  G.  (2004).  Developing  and  implementing  work-­‐family      policies  for  faculty  [Electronic  version].  Academe,  90(6).  Retrieved  from      http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/pubsres/academe/2004/ND/Feat/04ndsulli.htm         www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 32