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Assessing	
  Sustainability	
  Knowledge	
  (ASK):	
  Development	
  of	
  a	
  framework	
  to	
  assess	
  
                                                                                                engineering	
  undergraduate	
  students’	
  knowledge	
  of	
  sustainability	
  concepts
                                                                                                Alice	
  L.	
  Pawley,*	
  Ranjani	
  Rao,	
  Monica	
  E.	
  Cardella,	
  Stephen	
  R.	
  Hoffmann, †	
  Matthew	
  W.	
  Ohland
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      This	
   material	
   is	
   based	
   upon	
   work	
  
                                                                                                School	
  of	
  Engineering	
  Education,	
  Purdue	
  University.	
  1300	
  Neil	
  Armstrong	
  Hall	
  of	
  Engineering,	
  701	
  W.	
  Stadium	
  Dr,	
  West	
  Lafayette	
  IN	
  47907
                                                                                                †Division	
  of	
  Environmental	
  and	
  Ecological	
  Engineering,	
  Purdue	
  University.	
  322	
  Potter	
  Engineering	
  Center,	
  500	
  Central	
  Drive,	
  West	
  Lafayette	
  IN	
  47907                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             supported	
   by	
   the	
   National	
   Science	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Foundation	
   under	
   Grant	
   No.	
  
                                                                                                *Please	
  direct	
  comments	
  to	
  apawley@purdue.edu.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            EEC-­‐0935066.


Abstract
1.	
  What	
  need	
  are	
  you	
  addressing?                                                                            2.	
  What	
  approach	
  are	
  you	
  using	
  to	
  address	
  this	
  need?	
                                                                                                                 3.	
  What	
  are	
   the	
   potential	
  beneGits	
  of	
  your	
  work?	
  Who	
   are	
                                                                    4.	
  What	
  have	
  you	
  learned	
  so	
  far?                                                                          5.	
   What	
   are	
   the	
   products	
   of	
   your	
   research	
   so	
   far?	
   How	
  
Engineering	
   students	
   will	
   need	
   to	
   have	
   expertise	
   in	
                                          We	
   are	
  using	
   a	
  composite	
  of	
   four	
   data	
   sources	
  to	
   develop	
  the	
                                                                                             the	
  target	
  audiences?	
                                                                                                                                  We	
   are	
   working	
   to	
   create	
   an	
   initial	
   synthesized	
   framework	
                                 are	
  you	
  ensuring	
  they	
  will	
  have	
  an	
  impact?	
  
sustainability	
   to	
   become	
   effective	
   engineering	
   professionals.	
  
                                                                                  	
                                       framework:	
  published	
  statements	
  of	
  sustainability	
   principles	
                                                                                                                    The	
   target	
   audience	
   includes	
   traditionally-­‐trained	
                                                                                         that	
   can	
   guide	
   faculty	
   untrained	
   in	
   sustainability	
   how	
   to	
                                 We	
   have	
   presented	
   at	
   2010	
  FIE	
   conference,	
  have	
   a	
   paper	
  in	
  
However,	
   most	
   engineering	
   faculty	
   have	
   little	
   professional	
                                       and	
  peer-­‐reviewed	
  literature;	
  a	
  survey	
  of	
   engineering	
  course	
                                                                                                            engineering	
   faculty	
   teaching	
   traditional	
   core	
   engineering	
                                                                                assess	
   sustainability	
   knowledge	
   in	
   their	
   traditional	
                                                  review	
   for	
   2011	
   ASEE,	
   and	
   will	
   present	
   at	
   the	
   2011	
   IEEE	
  
training	
   in	
   sustainability,	
   and	
   may	
   lack	
   a	
   common	
                                            titles	
   and	
  descriptions	
  that	
  explicitly	
  mention	
  sustainability;	
                                                                                                              courses.	
  	
  We	
  hope	
   our	
  work	
   will	
  help	
   these	
  faculty	
  develop	
   a	
                                                            undergraduate	
   engineering	
   courses.	
   Our	
   initial	
   Pindings	
                                               International	
   Symposium	
   on	
   Sustainable	
   Systems	
   and	
  
understanding	
   of	
   what	
   should	
   constitute	
   sustainability	
                                               interviews	
   with	
   undergraduate	
   engineering	
   students	
   about	
                                                                                                                    sense	
   about	
   how	
   to	
   incorporate	
   sustainability	
   (including	
                                                                             indicate	
   that	
   our	
   framework	
   will	
   be	
   less	
   content-­‐oriented,	
                                  Technology.	
   	
  We	
  are	
  preparing	
  manuscripts	
  for	
  JEE,	
  one	
   using	
  
education	
   for	
   engineers.	
   	
   This	
   research	
   proposes	
   a	
                                           sustainability;	
   and	
   conversations	
   with	
   experts	
   in	
   the	
                                                                                                                   what	
   to	
   incorporate,	
   and	
   how	
   to	
   assess	
   it)	
   into	
   non-­‐                                                                     and	
  more	
  epistemological	
  in	
  focus,	
  than	
  we	
  had	
  expected,.	
  It	
                                   ecofeminism	
   as	
   a	
   theoretical	
   framework	
   for	
   understanding	
  
framework	
   to	
   structure	
   and	
   assess	
   sustainability	
                                                     sustainability	
   education,	
   environmental	
   studies,	
   and	
                                                                                                                            environmentally	
   focused	
   courses,	
   to	
   help	
   all	
   engineering	
                                                                             may	
  be	
  less	
  important	
   for	
  students	
  learn	
   particular	
  technical	
                                   existing	
   sustainability	
   education	
   efforts,	
   and	
   a	
   second	
  
knowledge	
  in	
  undergraduate	
  engineering	
  students.                                                               engineering	
  education	
  areas.	
                                                                                                                                                              students	
   develop	
   a	
   basic	
   familiarity	
   with	
   sustainability-­‐                                                                            tools	
   and	
   skills,	
   and	
   more	
   important	
   they	
   have	
   a	
   shift	
   in	
                         comparing	
  published	
  principles	
  of	
  sustainability	
  with	
  current	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             related	
  technical	
  content.                                                                                                                               mindset	
  towards	
  seeing	
  all	
  aspects	
  of	
  sustainability	
  as	
  core	
  to	
                                course	
   material.	
   We	
   will	
   also	
   prepare	
   a	
   discussion	
   of	
   our	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            their	
   work,	
   and	
   begin	
   to	
   problematize	
   their	
   association	
   of	
                                overall	
   framework	
   after	
   our	
   May	
   workshop,	
   and	
   in	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            engineering	
  with	
  the	
  production	
  of	
  new	
  "things."                                                          partnership	
  with	
  our	
  workshop	
  participants.



A.	
  Literature	
  coding	
  and	
  analysis                                                                                   B.	
  Content	
  analysis	
  of	
  sustainability	
  pand	
  descriptions	
  and	
  sustainability	
  principles
                                                                                                                                        Content	
  analysis	
  of	
  course	
  titles	
   rinciples	
  and	
  engineering	
  course	
  information                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            C.	
  Interviews	
  with	
  undergrad.	
  students
We	
   collected	
   a	
   comprehensive	
   body	
   of	
   literature	
   on	
   or	
   related	
   to	
                      For	
  the	
  former,	
  we	
  compiled	
  a	
  list	
  of	
  XX	
  statements	
  (-­‐-­‐>),	
  then	
  coded	
  them	
  for	
  content	
  and	
  key	
  ideas.	
                                                                                                                                                                 The	
  initial	
  set	
  of	
  published	
  statements	
  of	
  principles	
  was	
  collected	
  through	
  a	
                            An	
   additional	
   second	
   data	
   is	
   a	
   set	
   of	
   transcripts	
   from	
   interviews	
  
sustainability	
  in	
  engineering	
  education:	
                                                                             Figure:	
  Left:	
  Course	
  title	
  and	
                                                                                                                             STATEMENTS OF PRINCIPLES
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ENGINEERING            GOVT'L      INDUST.        EDUC.wide-­‐net	
  approach,	
  including	
  a	
  general	
  web	
  search	
  for	
  “principles	
  of	
  sustainable	
                          undergraduate	
  engineering	
  students	
  about	
  what	
  they	
  think	
  sustainability	
  
  • searched	
  in	
  Web	
  of	
  Science,	
  then	
  searched	
  on	
  relevant	
  authors	
  to	
                            description.	
  U	
  or	
  UG=undergrad;	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    FOCUS               FOCUS        FOCUS         FOCUS

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  engineering,”	
  standard	
  literature	
  search	
  tools	
  with	
  similar	
  search	
  terms,	
  and	
                                  has	
   to	
   do	
   with	
   engineering.	
   We	
   are	
   in	
   the	
   process	
   of	
   getting	
   these	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Green Engineering
                                                                                                                                G=graduate;	
  D=dual.	
  	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Green Chemistry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              transcribed,	
  and	
  then	
  will	
  use	
  our	
  existing	
  set	
  of	
  content	
   and	
  theme	
  codes	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Royal Academy
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Design for Env.
         find	
  new	
  authors,	
  new	
  references,	
  and	
  new	
  journals                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  through	
  references	
  cited	
  in	
  our	
  broader	
  literature	
  review	
  on	
  sustainable	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Earth Charter
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         !"!#$%&$'%(%#)*#+,-,!*$&.*%.,$!*/01.,!2




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Natural Step
                                                                                                                                                                                               ENGINEERING COURSES
                                                                                                                                Each	
  box=1	
  course                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       from	
  the	
  literature	
  coding	
  to	
  structure	
  their	
  analysis.	
  	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ahwahnee




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Barcelona
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Hannover
  • compiled	
   a	
   body	
   of	
   approximately	
   150	
   papers	
   relevant	
   to	
   the	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Sandestin
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  engineering,	
  yielding	
  15	
  sets	
  (below)	
  and	
  sorted	
  into	
  four	
  contexts	
  (L).	
  In	
  total,	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Chameau




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Interface
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Bellagio




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ITESM
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ceres
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 WIDTH OF ONE COURSE -->                     <--

         topic,	
   searching	
   comprehensively	
   the	
   Journal	
   of	
   Engineering	
                                  Right:	
  Published	
  statement.	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               the	
  fifteen	
  sets	
  included	
  160	
  individual	
  principles.	
  	
  We	
  then	
  surveyed	
  half	
  of	
  the	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         #345676894:*,9;6389<=974:*,9>69==369>*?84:@
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              D.Workshop	
  with	
  sustainability	
  experts
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         GD              U

         Education,	
  the	
  International	
  Journal	
  of	
  Engineering	
  Education,	
  the	
                              Each	
  box	
  represents	
  1	
  principle,	
                                                                     !"#$%&'(%)*+,+%&'("-.(/$"0%/(1$,)2("-.(/34"-5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    60+4+-"%$'(4+-+4+7$'("-.8)9(4"-":$(;"<%$
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             G         D
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              4           3                    2       2          sets	
  of	
  principles	
  to	
  collect	
  emergent	
  broad	
  themes.	
  	
  For	
  the	
  course	
  content	
  
         European	
   Journal	
   of	
   Engineering	
  Education,	
  and	
  the	
  International	
                             except	
  where	
  noted.                                                                                  1=$<+:-(#)95($-$9:&2$#>+,+$-%(%9"-<?)9%"%+)-("-.(.+<%9+@3%+)-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     G   D                 U                                                                                                                  5                                   analysis,	
  data	
  presented	
  here	
  represents	
  only	
  courses	
  offered	
  within	
  the	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1=$<+:-(#)95($-$9:&($#>+,+$-,&'(,)-<$9A"%+)-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             G               D                       U                                                                                                            2                                                                                                                                                                                           Our	
  third	
  data	
  source	
  is	
  based	
  on	
  conversations	
   with	
  experts	
  in	
  the	
  
         Journal	
  of	
  Sustainability	
  in	
  Higher	
  Education.	
  	
                                                                                                                                                                                                             G          D          U               B<$()#(9$-$;"@0$(#$$.<%),C<("-.(9$<)39,$<(1-)-2$-$9:&5                                                                             respective	
  Colleges	
  of	
  Engineering	
  (or	
  equivalent-­‐title).	
  We	
  relied	
  on	
  published	
  
                                                                                                                                                       Universities	
  included	
                                                                                    G                             U                                                D)003%+)-(?9$A$-%+)-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  (either	
  print	
  or	
  web)	
  text	
  in	
  title	
  or	
  description	
  that	
  self-­‐identifies	
  as	
                             sustainability	
   education,	
   environmental	
   studies,	
   and	
   engineering	
  
We	
  conducted	
  a	
  grounded	
  theory	
  (Corbin	
  &	
  Strauss,	
  2008)	
  analysis	
  of	
                                            in	
  course	
  content	
  analysis
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         G           D                                   U                                             B<$()#(9$-$;"@0$()9(-"%39"0($-$9:&(>0);<
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   E??9)?9+"%$(3<$(9"%$<(1$F:F'(#)9("<<+4+0"%+)-'(9$:$-$9"%+)-'(.$A$0)?4$-%()#()?%+)-<52                                                                                                                                                                                                      education	
   areas.	
  These	
   conversations	
  are	
   taking	
   place	
  over	
  spring	
  
42	
   articles	
   chosen	
   from	
   a	
   large	
   database	
   of	
   over	
   150	
   articles.	
   Two	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  !A=B6C6B*%7=<@*78*D387=B7*83*%<A38;=
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  sustainability	
  related,	
  explicitly	
  using	
  one	
  or	
  more	
  of	
  the	
  terms	
  sustainability,	
  
                                                                                                                                                             Arizona	
  State	
  University                                                                                                                    U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2011,	
  culminating	
  in	
  a	
  face-­‐to-­‐face	
  workshop	
  in	
  May	
  2011.	
  
coders	
   open	
   coded	
   the	
   articles,	
   making	
   at	
   least	
   4	
   passes	
   over	
   each	
                             California	
  Institute	
  of	
  Technology
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 G           D                       UG                                        G$<)39,$(,)-<$9A"%+)-                                              2                                               sustainable,	
  sustainable	
  engineering,	
  or	
  sustainable	
  development.	
  Related	
  terms	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              G                    D9)%$,%+)-()#(@+)<?/$9$("-.($,)0):+,"0(<&<%$4<                                                                              Table 1: Summary and details about the formal statements of principles of sustainability.
                                                                                                                                      California	
  Poly.	
  State	
  U.,	
  San	
  Luis	
  Obispo                                                                                                           GU           D9)4)%+)-()#(/34"-(;$0#"9$'(@"<+,(/34"-(-$$.<'("-.(H3"0+%&()#(0+#$                              2                                       (e.g.,	
  green	
  or	
  environmental)	
  are	
  not	
  included	
  in	
  the	
  analysis,	
  unless	
  the	
  authors	
  
article	
  (first	
  as	
  an	
  overall	
  reading	
  of	
  each	
  article,	
  second	
   taking	
  detailed	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        D9)%$,%+)-()#($-A+9)-4$-%"0(#$"%39$<
                                                                                                                                              California	
  State	
  Poly.	
  U.,	
  Pomona                                                                                                                    G                            6-A+9)-4$-%"0(+4?9)A$4$-%                                                                                             of	
  the	
  texts	
  paired	
  those	
  terms	
  with	
  a	
  form	
  of	
  sustainability.	
  Use	
  of	
  the	
  
memos	
   or	
  notes	
  on	
   each	
  article	
  both	
   at	
   the	
  global	
  level	
   as	
  well	
  as	
   the	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Number of
                                                                                                                                                      Carnegie	
  Mellon	
  University                                                                                                                                                      D9)%$,%+)-()#(;"%$9(9$<)39,$<                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Braden	
  Allenby,	
                                             Jim	
  Mihelcic,	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Reference
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             G               D                        UG




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     principles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         ,7E6B@*495*?F6569>*'=:6=G@                                                                                               other	
  definitions	
  of	
  word	
  sustain	
  and	
  its	
  forms	
  were	
  manually	
  excluded.
paragraph	
  by	
   paragraph	
   level,	
  third	
  in	
  discussion	
   with	
   the	
  other	
  coder,	
                                                            Cornell	
  University
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         G               U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               U                                I-%$9:$-$9"%+)-"0($H3+%&                                                                                      2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Arizona	
  State	
                                               University	
  of	
  
and	
  fourth	
  to	
  recode	
  the	
  article	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  discussion).	
  	
  After	
  reading	
                                Georgia	
  Institute	
  of	
  Technology                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Published	
  formal	
  statements	
  of	
  principles	
  of	
                                                                                                                University                                                       South	
  Florida




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Year
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              D$9<)-"0($.3,"%+)-"0(A"03$<(                                                                                    2 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 G+:/%()#(,)2$*+<%$-,$(1$,)("-.(/34"-5("-.(,)29$<?$,%                                                  3
                                                                                                                                                                Iowa	
  State	
  University                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              sustainability
about	
  40	
  papers,	
  they	
  felt	
   they	
  had	
  reached	
  saturation	
   as	
   no	
  new	
  codes	
                                        James	
  Madison	
  University
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               U                  =$)-%)0):+,"0(?9+-,+?0$<()#($-:+-$$9+-:(?9)#$<<+)-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           D$9<)-"0($%/+,"0(9$<?)-<+@+0+%&12+$<5                                                                              3

were	
  being	
  identified.	
   	
   This	
   process	
   generated	
   10	
   themes	
   which	
  deal	
                                                    Kansas	
  State	
  University                                                                                                                    U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  !?+9+%3"0(+4?)9%"-,$
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 D9$,"3%+)-"9&(?9+-,+?0$
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Focus on engineering and/or technical context of sustainability
                                                                                                                                            Massachusetts	
  Inst.	
  of	
  Technology                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          J.-L. Chameau, Dean,               Keynote presentation on “Criteria of
with	
   broader	
   socio-­‐econo-­‐environ-­‐mental	
   contexts	
   in	
   which	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      I-%$9.$?$-.$-,$(1$,)("-.(/34"-5
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 J)-$<%&()#(?9",%+,$'("0+:-4$-%()#(?9+-,+?0$("-.(",%+)-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Georgia Tech College of            sustainable technologies,” at ASEE                       1999        10          [9]
                                                                                                                                            Michigan	
  Technological	
  University
engineering	
  is	
  practiced	
  and	
  taught.	
                                                                                          Missouri	
  Univ.	
  of	
  Science	
  and	
  Tech.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         G           D                       U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 G         U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         !8B64:*495*!8B6=74:*$@A=B7@
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  =$4),9",&'(<),+"0($H3+%&'(K3<%+,$'("-.(/34"-(9+:/%<                                                  4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Engineering                        Engineering Deans Institute
  1. Sustainability	
  in	
  opposition	
  to	
  status	
  quo	
  in	
  industry;	
                                                                                North	
  Carolina	
  A&T                                                                                              D               U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                L0$"9(4)-+%)9+-:'(9$?)9%+-:'("-.(</"9+-:()#(+-#)94"%+)-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                !%"C$/)0.$9($-:":$4$-%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               2                                                                   United Nations Environment Programme
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Andy	
  Lau,	
                                                  Jean	
  MacGregor,	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Design for Environment             and Canadian Natural Resources Council,                 ~1995         7        [10]
  2. The	
  super-­‐engineer	
  versus	
  the	
  traditional	
  engineer;	
                                                                    North	
  Carolina	
  State	
  University                                                                                                                                                           M?$-(,)443-+,"%+)-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             L30%39"0("-.(0),"0(";"9$-$<<                                                                                                                                          focus on industry and manufacturing design
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Penn	
  State	
                                                 Washington	
  Center	
  
                                                                                                                                                                Ohio	
  State	
  University                                                                                                   G            U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      for	
  Improving	
  the	
  
  3. Sustainability	
  as	
  normalized	
  or	
  soft;	
                                                                                            Pennsylvania	
  State	
  University
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 60+4+-"%+)-()#(?)A$9%&
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Principles of Green                                                                                                                                                   University
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      D/&<+,"0(<?",$<(.$<+:-$.(#)9(<),+"0(.+A$9<+%&                                           2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   American Chemical Society                                1998        12        [11]                                                                                                                Quality	
  of	
  
  4. Engineers	
  as	
  problem	
  definers	
  or	
  problem	
  solvers;	
                                                                    Polytechnic	
  Univ.	
  of	
  Puerto	
  Rico                                                                                                                     U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          =$<+:-(#)9()?$-(<?",$'(?3@0+,(<?",$
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               6-/"-,$(#)94"0($.3,"%+)-
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              2                                                 Chemistry
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Undergraduate	
  
  5. Convention	
  vs	
  modernity	
  in	
  engineering	
  practice	
  and	
  education;	
                                                                            Purdue	
  University                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Principles of Green                Journal article, authors = P.T. Anastas and
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     D               U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                N)-2A+)0$-,$("-.(?$",$
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                O0)@"0+7"%+)-(";"9$-$<<                                                                                                         Engineering                        J. B. Zimmerman
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            2003        12        [12]                                                                                                                Education,	
  
  6. Connections	
  with	
  diversity	
  and	
  feminist	
  engineering;	
                                                                                 San	
  Jose	
  State	
  University                                                                                    G                   U                                  I-%$9",%+)-()#($-:+-$$9+-:("-.(<),+$%&                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Evergreen	
  State	
  
                                                                                                                                                                   Stanford	
  University                                                            G                   D                       U                                          D"9%+,+?"%+)-(+-(?)0+,&24"C+-:                                                                                                      Engineering for
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Royal Academy of Engineering (UK)                        2005        12        [13]                                                                                                                College
  7. The	
  idea	
  of	
  employability,	
  with	
  sustainability	
   making	
  an	
   engineer	
                                                             Texas	
  A&M	
  University                                                                                                                      U                        ,9>69==369>*.=@6>9*0367=364                                                                                                             Sustainable Development
         more	
  or	
  less	
  employable;	
  	
                                                                                             University	
  of	
  California,	
  Berkeley
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             J)0+<%+,(+-%$:9"%+)-("-.(.$<+:-                                                  2 3                                                                                  Expert conference on Green Engineering,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     6,)-)4&()#(%9"-<+%+)-()#(#$$.<%),C(%)(?9).3,%                            3 3                                                               Sandestin Conference                                                                   2003    9+                 [14]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   heavily Chemical Eng.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       John	
  Petersen,	
  Oberlin	
  College
  8. Sustainability	
  as	
  a	
  value/ethic;	
                                                                                            University	
  of	
  California,	
  San	
  Diego                                                                                                              GDU
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          =$<+:-(#)9($-.2)#20+#$'(9$,&,0"@+0+%&'(.$:9"."%+)-'("-.8)9(.+<"<<$4@0&
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       P"9:$(<,"0$'(0)-:(%$94(+-%$9,)--$,%$.-$<<
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Focus on governmental context of sustainability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Cynthia	
  Murphy,	
                                            john	
  Petersen
                                                                                                                                                     University	
  of	
  Central	
  Florida                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Center	
  for	
  Energy	
  
  9. Interdisciplinary	
  nature	
  vs	
  sustainability	
  as	
  a	
  discipline;	
  	
  and                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 P)-:2%$94(A"03$'(.39"@+0+%&'(9$3<"@+0+%&'("-.8)9(9$?"+9"@+0+%&
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Oberlin	
  College
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           G

                                                                                                                                               University	
  of	
  Colorado,	
  Boulder                                              G               D                                   U                                                           P+#$2,&,0$(%/+-C+-:                                                                                                        Ahwahnee Principles                Local Government Commission                              1991        15        [15]                                                and	
  Environmental	
  
  10. Techno-­‐centered	
  view	
  of	
  sustainability.	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      I--)A"%+)-(8(4"K)9(,)-,$?%3"0(,/"-:$'(</+#%
                                                                                                                                                                  University	
  of	
  Florida                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      United Nationas, Assessment of progress
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          =$<+:-(#)9(4).30"9+%&("-.(>0$*+@+0+%&
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   =$<+:-(#)9(+-%$:9"%+)-                                                                                                       Bellagio Principles                                                                         1996        10        [16]                                                Resources,	
  
We	
   refer	
   to	
   themes	
   as	
   polarities	
   when	
   they	
   present	
   themselves	
   as	
                                           University	
  of	
  Illinois,	
  Urbana                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       toward sustainability
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                G                       L)-<$H3$-,$<()#(.$<+:-()-(?9).3,%(3<$                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         University	
  of	
  Texas-­‐
                                                                                                                                                               University	
  of	
  Michigan                                                                                                            D       U                                       G+<C(9$.3,%+)-                                                                                                           Earth Charter                      UN Rio Earth Summit                                      2000        16        [17]
concepts	
   that	
   are	
   in	
   opposition	
   that	
   yet	
   need	
   to	
   co-­‐exist.	
   In	
   the	
   axial	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Q"0"-,$.(<)03%+)-<
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Hannover Principles                Design for sustainability                                1992        9         [18]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Austin	
  
                                                                                                                                          University	
  of	
  Minnesota,	
  Twin	
  Cities                                                                                                                                                     6##$,%+A$(?9)@0$4(.$>+-+%+)-
coding	
   phase,	
   	
   we	
   grouped	
   ten	
   themes/polarities	
   into	
   sub-­‐groups,	
                                      University	
  of	
  Puerto	
  Rico,	
  Mayaguez                                                                                                                                           Q$(;)9%/($*?$-.+%39$()#(0+4+%$.(%+4$'(9$<)39,$<                                                                                       Focus on industrial contexts of sustainability
made	
   sense	
   of	
   relationships	
   between	
   themes	
   within	
   sub-­‐groups	
   and	
                                                University	
  of	
  Texas,	
  Arlington                                                              G           D                        U
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    'F@69=@@*D=3@A=B76;=@*495*H4:F=@
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   6,)-)4+,(A+"@+0+%&
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                CERES Principles                   Corporate Social Responsibility                          1989        10        [19]
generated	
   three	
   meta-­‐themes	
   that	
   encompassed	
   the	
   smaller	
   themes.	
                                                       University	
  of	
  Texas,	
  Austin                                                                                                                    U                 6##$,%+A$(?0"--+-:'(4"-":$4$-%'("-.(+4?0$4$-%"%+)-                                   2                                                                                            Individual company statement / corporate
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              =$>+-$.(:)"0<("-.()@K$,%+A$<                                                                                                      Interface                                                                                      ?         7        [20]                                                                                                                Linda	
  Vanasupa,	
  
                                                                                                                                                        University	
  of	
  Washington                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   response to sustainability                                                                                                        Tom	
  Seager,
We	
  use	
  an	
  ecofeministic	
  framework	
  to	
  understand	
  these	
  meta-­‐themes:                                                                                   Virginia	
  Tech
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               E??9$,+"%+)-()#(0+4+%"%+)-<
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Non-profit for corporate and societal                                                                                                                                                              Calpoly-­‐SLO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 L)-<%"-%(+4?9)A$4$-%
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Natural Step                                                                                1989         4        [21]                                               Arizona	
  State	
  
  1. Sustainability	
  as	
  ammunition	
  for	
  the	
  future	
  engineer,	
  or	
   the	
                                                         Washington	
  State	
  University
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               G                               R"-":$4$-%(9$<?)-<+@+0+%&
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       G$#9"4$'(4)-$%+7$(?)003%+)-(9$<?)-<+@+0+%&
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   response to SD                                                                                                                    University
         idea	
  that	
  sustainability	
  could	
  be	
  an	
  important	
  tool	
  in	
  the	
  skill	
  sets	
                Selection:	
   1)	
   among	
   the	
   20	
   largest	
   programs,	
   in	
   terms	
   of	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   S9+?0$(@)%%)4(0+-$
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             G$.$<+:-()#(,)44$9,$(<&<%$4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Focus on educational contexts of sustainability
                                                                                                                                 total	
   number	
   of	
   undergraduate	
   engineering	
   students;	
   (2)	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ITESM (Monterrey
         of	
  the	
  future	
  engineer.	
                                                                                      among	
  the	
  20	
  largest	
  programs,	
  in	
  terms	
  of	
  total	
  number	
  of	
                                                                                                #E=<=@*A3=@=97*69*B8F3@=@I*JF7*987*A369B6A:=@                                                                                                                                           University / educational, learning outcomes              2005        12        [22]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             G           D                         U                                          L0+4"%$("-.(,0+4"%$(,/"-:$                                                                                                        Institute of Technology)
         Sub	
   themes:	
   a)	
   Super	
   engineer	
   versus	
   traditional	
   engineer;	
   b)	
                         engineering	
  BS	
   degrees	
  awarded;	
  (3)	
  in	
  the	
  top	
  10	
  of	
  the	
  US	
  
                                                                                                                                 News	
  and	
  World	
  Report	
   ranking	
  of	
  the	
  best	
  undergraduate	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            DU                                     N"%+)-"0(!$,39+%&
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   From International Conference on
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           U                                      E??9)?9+"%$(=$<+:-
         Convention	
   versus	
   modernity,	
  c)	
   Employability,	
   d)	
   Engineers	
   as	
                             engineering	
   programs;	
   or	
   (4)	
   site	
   of	
   an	
   NSF	
   award	
   in	
  
                                                                                                                                 Engineering	
  Education	
  with	
  the	
  word	
  “sustain”	
  or	
  one	
  of	
  its	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 G       D                       U                                    Q3+0.+-:(=$<+:-(2(J+:/(D$9#)94"-,$(=$<+:-                                                                                                 Barcelona Principles               Engineering Education for Sustainable                    2004        15        [23]
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         D U                                 J34"-(D)?30"%+)-(=&-"4+,<
         problem	
   definers	
   versus	
   problem	
   solvers,	
   e)	
   Sustainability	
   as	
   a	
                       variations	
  in	
  the	
  project	
  title	
  or	
  summary.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Development (EESD)

         ‘problem’	
  that	
  can	
  be	
  solved	
  by	
  technology;	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               About	
  the	
  RIFE	
  Group
  2. Sustainability	
  (in)	
  disciplined?	
                                                                                   5.	
  Framework	
  development:	
  under	
  construction!                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Through emergent coding, we then developed a series of specific codes that described the
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               principles, and organized them into the six themes. The first pass through the data established the the	
  Research	
  in	
  Feminist	
  Engineering	
  Group	
  (RIFE).	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              We	
  are	
  
         This	
   meta-­‐theme	
   emphasizes	
   the	
   ecofeministic	
   theme	
   of	
   inter-­‐                           This	
  shoul

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  • 1. Assessing  Sustainability  Knowledge  (ASK):  Development  of  a  framework  to  assess   engineering  undergraduate  students’  knowledge  of  sustainability  concepts Alice  L.  Pawley,*  Ranjani  Rao,  Monica  E.  Cardella,  Stephen  R.  Hoffmann, †  Matthew  W.  Ohland This   material   is   based   upon   work   School  of  Engineering  Education,  Purdue  University.  1300  Neil  Armstrong  Hall  of  Engineering,  701  W.  Stadium  Dr,  West  Lafayette  IN  47907 †Division  of  Environmental  and  Ecological  Engineering,  Purdue  University.  322  Potter  Engineering  Center,  500  Central  Drive,  West  Lafayette  IN  47907 supported   by   the   National   Science   Foundation   under   Grant   No.   *Please  direct  comments  to  apawley@purdue.edu. EEC-­‐0935066. Abstract 1.  What  need  are  you  addressing? 2.  What  approach  are  you  using  to  address  this  need?   3.  What  are   the   potential  beneGits  of  your  work?  Who   are   4.  What  have  you  learned  so  far? 5.   What   are   the   products   of   your   research   so   far?   How   Engineering   students   will   need   to   have   expertise   in   We   are  using   a  composite  of   four   data   sources  to   develop  the   the  target  audiences?   We   are   working   to   create   an   initial   synthesized   framework   are  you  ensuring  they  will  have  an  impact?   sustainability   to   become   effective   engineering   professionals.     framework:  published  statements  of  sustainability   principles   The   target   audience   includes   traditionally-­‐trained   that   can   guide   faculty   untrained   in   sustainability   how   to   We   have   presented   at   2010  FIE   conference,  have   a   paper  in   However,   most   engineering   faculty   have   little   professional   and  peer-­‐reviewed  literature;  a  survey  of   engineering  course   engineering   faculty   teaching   traditional   core   engineering   assess   sustainability   knowledge   in   their   traditional   review   for   2011   ASEE,   and   will   present   at   the   2011   IEEE   training   in   sustainability,   and   may   lack   a   common   titles   and  descriptions  that  explicitly  mention  sustainability;   courses.    We  hope   our  work   will  help   these  faculty  develop   a   undergraduate   engineering   courses.   Our   initial   Pindings   International   Symposium   on   Sustainable   Systems   and   understanding   of   what   should   constitute   sustainability   interviews   with   undergraduate   engineering   students   about   sense   about   how   to   incorporate   sustainability   (including   indicate   that   our   framework   will   be   less   content-­‐oriented,   Technology.    We  are  preparing  manuscripts  for  JEE,  one   using   education   for   engineers.     This   research   proposes   a   sustainability;   and   conversations   with   experts   in   the   what   to   incorporate,   and   how   to   assess   it)   into   non-­‐ and  more  epistemological  in  focus,  than  we  had  expected,.  It   ecofeminism   as   a   theoretical   framework   for   understanding   framework   to   structure   and   assess   sustainability   sustainability   education,   environmental   studies,   and   environmentally   focused   courses,   to   help   all   engineering   may  be  less  important   for  students  learn   particular  technical   existing   sustainability   education   efforts,   and   a   second   knowledge  in  undergraduate  engineering  students. engineering  education  areas.   students   develop   a   basic   familiarity   with   sustainability-­‐ tools   and   skills,   and   more   important   they   have   a   shift   in   comparing  published  principles  of  sustainability  with  current   related  technical  content. mindset  towards  seeing  all  aspects  of  sustainability  as  core  to   course   material.   We   will   also   prepare   a   discussion   of   our   their   work,   and   begin   to   problematize   their   association   of   overall   framework   after   our   May   workshop,   and   in   engineering  with  the  production  of  new  "things." partnership  with  our  workshop  participants. A.  Literature  coding  and  analysis B.  Content  analysis  of  sustainability  pand  descriptions  and  sustainability  principles Content  analysis  of  course  titles   rinciples  and  engineering  course  information C.  Interviews  with  undergrad.  students We   collected   a   comprehensive   body   of   literature   on   or   related   to   For  the  former,  we  compiled  a  list  of  XX  statements  (-­‐-­‐>),  then  coded  them  for  content  and  key  ideas.   The  initial  set  of  published  statements  of  principles  was  collected  through  a   An   additional   second   data   is   a   set   of   transcripts   from   interviews   sustainability  in  engineering  education:   Figure:  Left:  Course  title  and   STATEMENTS OF PRINCIPLES ENGINEERING GOVT'L INDUST. EDUC.wide-­‐net  approach,  including  a  general  web  search  for  “principles  of  sustainable   undergraduate  engineering  students  about  what  they  think  sustainability   • searched  in  Web  of  Science,  then  searched  on  relevant  authors  to   description.  U  or  UG=undergrad;   FOCUS FOCUS FOCUS FOCUS engineering,”  standard  literature  search  tools  with  similar  search  terms,  and   has   to   do   with   engineering.   We   are   in   the   process   of   getting   these   Green Engineering G=graduate;  D=dual.     Green Chemistry transcribed,  and  then  will  use  our  existing  set  of  content   and  theme  codes   Royal Academy Design for Env. find  new  authors,  new  references,  and  new  journals through  references  cited  in  our  broader  literature  review  on  sustainable   Earth Charter !"!#$%&$'%(%#)*#+,-,!*$&.*%.,$!*/01.,!2 Natural Step ENGINEERING COURSES Each  box=1  course from  the  literature  coding  to  structure  their  analysis.     Ahwahnee Barcelona Hannover • compiled   a   body   of   approximately   150   papers   relevant   to   the   Sandestin engineering,  yielding  15  sets  (below)  and  sorted  into  four  contexts  (L).  In  total,   Chameau Interface Bellagio ITESM Ceres WIDTH OF ONE COURSE --> <-- topic,   searching   comprehensively   the   Journal   of   Engineering   Right:  Published  statement.   the  fifteen  sets  included  160  individual  principles.    We  then  surveyed  half  of  the   #345676894:*,9;6389<=974:*,9>69==369>*?84:@ D.Workshop  with  sustainability  experts GD U Education,  the  International  Journal  of  Engineering  Education,  the   Each  box  represents  1  principle,   !"#$%&'(%)*+,+%&'("-.(/$"0%/(1$,)2("-.(/34"-5 G 60+4+-"%$'(4+-+4+7$'("-.8)9(4"-":$(;"<%$ G D U U 4 3 2 2 sets  of  principles  to  collect  emergent  broad  themes.    For  the  course  content   European   Journal   of   Engineering  Education,  and  the  International   except  where  noted. 1=$<+:-(#)95($-$9:&2$#>+,+$-%(%9"-<?)9%"%+)-("-.(.+<%9+@3%+)- G D U 5 analysis,  data  presented  here  represents  only  courses  offered  within  the   1=$<+:-(#)95($-$9:&($#>+,+$-,&'(,)-<$9A"%+)- G D U 2 Our  third  data  source  is  based  on  conversations   with  experts  in  the   Journal  of  Sustainability  in  Higher  Education.     G D U B<$()#(9$-$;"@0$(#$$.<%),C<("-.(9$<)39,$<(1-)-2$-$9:&5 respective  Colleges  of  Engineering  (or  equivalent-­‐title).  We  relied  on  published   Universities  included   G U D)003%+)-(?9$A$-%+)- (either  print  or  web)  text  in  title  or  description  that  self-­‐identifies  as   sustainability   education,   environmental   studies,   and   engineering   We  conducted  a  grounded  theory  (Corbin  &  Strauss,  2008)  analysis  of   in  course  content  analysis G D U B<$()#(9$-$;"@0$()9(-"%39"0($-$9:&(>0);< E??9)?9+"%$(3<$(9"%$<(1$F:F'(#)9("<<+4+0"%+)-'(9$:$-$9"%+)-'(.$A$0)?4$-%()#()?%+)-<52 education   areas.  These   conversations  are   taking   place  over  spring   42   articles   chosen   from   a   large   database   of   over   150   articles.   Two   !A=B6C6B*%7=<@*78*D387=B7*83*%<A38;= sustainability  related,  explicitly  using  one  or  more  of  the  terms  sustainability,   Arizona  State  University U 2011,  culminating  in  a  face-­‐to-­‐face  workshop  in  May  2011.   coders   open   coded   the   articles,   making   at   least   4   passes   over   each   California  Institute  of  Technology G D UG G$<)39,$(,)-<$9A"%+)- 2 sustainable,  sustainable  engineering,  or  sustainable  development.  Related  terms   G D9)%$,%+)-()#(@+)<?/$9$("-.($,)0):+,"0(<&<%$4< Table 1: Summary and details about the formal statements of principles of sustainability. California  Poly.  State  U.,  San  Luis  Obispo GU D9)4)%+)-()#(/34"-(;$0#"9$'(@"<+,(/34"-(-$$.<'("-.(H3"0+%&()#(0+#$ 2 (e.g.,  green  or  environmental)  are  not  included  in  the  analysis,  unless  the  authors   article  (first  as  an  overall  reading  of  each  article,  second   taking  detailed   D9)%$,%+)-()#($-A+9)-4$-%"0(#$"%39$< California  State  Poly.  U.,  Pomona G 6-A+9)-4$-%"0(+4?9)A$4$-% of  the  texts  paired  those  terms  with  a  form  of  sustainability.  Use  of  the   memos   or  notes  on   each  article  both   at   the  global  level   as  well  as   the   Number of Carnegie  Mellon  University D9)%$,%+)-()#(;"%$9(9$<)39,$< Braden  Allenby,   Jim  Mihelcic,   Reference G D UG principles ,7E6B@*495*?F6569>*'=:6=G@ other  definitions  of  word  sustain  and  its  forms  were  manually  excluded. paragraph  by   paragraph   level,  third  in  discussion   with   the  other  coder,   Cornell  University G U U I-%$9:$-$9"%+)-"0($H3+%& 2 Arizona  State   University  of   and  fourth  to  recode  the  article  based  on  the  discussion).    After  reading   Georgia  Institute  of  Technology Published  formal  statements  of  principles  of   University South  Florida Year D$9<)-"0($.3,"%+)-"0(A"03$<( 2 2 G+:/%()#(,)2$*+<%$-,$(1$,)("-.(/34"-5("-.(,)29$<?$,% 3 Iowa  State  University sustainability about  40  papers,  they  felt   they  had  reached  saturation   as   no  new  codes   James  Madison  University U =$)-%)0):+,"0(?9+-,+?0$<()#($-:+-$$9+-:(?9)#$<<+)- D$9<)-"0($%/+,"0(9$<?)-<+@+0+%&12+$<5 3 were  being  identified.     This   process   generated   10   themes   which  deal   Kansas  State  University U !?+9+%3"0(+4?)9%"-,$ D9$,"3%+)-"9&(?9+-,+?0$ Focus on engineering and/or technical context of sustainability Massachusetts  Inst.  of  Technology J.-L. Chameau, Dean, Keynote presentation on “Criteria of with   broader   socio-­‐econo-­‐environ-­‐mental   contexts   in   which   I-%$9.$?$-.$-,$(1$,)("-.(/34"-5 J)-$<%&()#(?9",%+,$'("0+:-4$-%()#(?9+-,+?0$("-.(",%+)- Georgia Tech College of sustainable technologies,” at ASEE 1999 10 [9] Michigan  Technological  University engineering  is  practiced  and  taught.   Missouri  Univ.  of  Science  and  Tech. G D U G U !8B64:*495*!8B6=74:*$@A=B7@ =$4),9",&'(<),+"0($H3+%&'(K3<%+,$'("-.(/34"-(9+:/%< 4 Engineering Engineering Deans Institute 1. Sustainability  in  opposition  to  status  quo  in  industry;   North  Carolina  A&T D U L0$"9(4)-+%)9+-:'(9$?)9%+-:'("-.(</"9+-:()#(+-#)94"%+)- !%"C$/)0.$9($-:":$4$-% 2 United Nations Environment Programme Andy  Lau,   Jean  MacGregor,   Design for Environment and Canadian Natural Resources Council, ~1995 7 [10] 2. The  super-­‐engineer  versus  the  traditional  engineer;   North  Carolina  State  University M?$-(,)443-+,"%+)- L30%39"0("-.(0),"0(";"9$-$<< focus on industry and manufacturing design Penn  State   Washington  Center   Ohio  State  University G U for  Improving  the   3. Sustainability  as  normalized  or  soft;   Pennsylvania  State  University 60+4+-"%+)-()#(?)A$9%& Principles of Green University D/&<+,"0(<?",$<(.$<+:-$.(#)9(<),+"0(.+A$9<+%& 2 American Chemical Society 1998 12 [11] Quality  of   4. Engineers  as  problem  definers  or  problem  solvers;   Polytechnic  Univ.  of  Puerto  Rico U =$<+:-(#)9()?$-(<?",$'(?3@0+,(<?",$ 6-/"-,$(#)94"0($.3,"%+)- 2 Chemistry Undergraduate   5. Convention  vs  modernity  in  engineering  practice  and  education;   Purdue  University Principles of Green Journal article, authors = P.T. Anastas and D U N)-2A+)0$-,$("-.(?$",$ O0)@"0+7"%+)-(";"9$-$<< Engineering J. B. Zimmerman 2003 12 [12] Education,   6. Connections  with  diversity  and  feminist  engineering;   San  Jose  State  University G U I-%$9",%+)-()#($-:+-$$9+-:("-.(<),+$%& Evergreen  State   Stanford  University G D U D"9%+,+?"%+)-(+-(?)0+,&24"C+-: Engineering for Royal Academy of Engineering (UK) 2005 12 [13] College 7. The  idea  of  employability,  with  sustainability   making  an   engineer   Texas  A&M  University U ,9>69==369>*.=@6>9*0367=364 Sustainable Development more  or  less  employable;     University  of  California,  Berkeley J)0+<%+,(+-%$:9"%+)-("-.(.$<+:- 2 3 Expert conference on Green Engineering, 6,)-)4&()#(%9"-<+%+)-()#(#$$.<%),C(%)(?9).3,% 3 3 Sandestin Conference 2003 9+ [14] heavily Chemical Eng. John  Petersen,  Oberlin  College 8. Sustainability  as  a  value/ethic;   University  of  California,  San  Diego GDU =$<+:-(#)9($-.2)#20+#$'(9$,&,0"@+0+%&'(.$:9"."%+)-'("-.8)9(.+<"<<$4@0& P"9:$(<,"0$'(0)-:(%$94(+-%$9,)--$,%$.-$<< 4 2 Focus on governmental context of sustainability Cynthia  Murphy,   john  Petersen University  of  Central  Florida Center  for  Energy   9. Interdisciplinary  nature  vs  sustainability  as  a  discipline;    and P)-:2%$94(A"03$'(.39"@+0+%&'(9$3<"@+0+%&'("-.8)9(9$?"+9"@+0+%& Oberlin  College G University  of  Colorado,  Boulder G D U P+#$2,&,0$(%/+-C+-: Ahwahnee Principles Local Government Commission 1991 15 [15] and  Environmental   10. Techno-­‐centered  view  of  sustainability.   I--)A"%+)-(8(4"K)9(,)-,$?%3"0(,/"-:$'(</+#% University  of  Florida United Nationas, Assessment of progress =$<+:-(#)9(4).30"9+%&("-.(>0$*+@+0+%& =$<+:-(#)9(+-%$:9"%+)- Bellagio Principles 1996 10 [16] Resources,   We   refer   to   themes   as   polarities   when   they   present   themselves   as   University  of  Illinois,  Urbana toward sustainability G L)-<$H3$-,$<()#(.$<+:-()-(?9).3,%(3<$ University  of  Texas-­‐ University  of  Michigan D U G+<C(9$.3,%+)- Earth Charter UN Rio Earth Summit 2000 16 [17] concepts   that   are   in   opposition   that   yet   need   to   co-­‐exist.   In   the   axial   Q"0"-,$.(<)03%+)-< Hannover Principles Design for sustainability 1992 9 [18] Austin   University  of  Minnesota,  Twin  Cities 6##$,%+A$(?9)@0$4(.$>+-+%+)- coding   phase,     we   grouped   ten   themes/polarities   into   sub-­‐groups,   University  of  Puerto  Rico,  Mayaguez Q$(;)9%/($*?$-.+%39$()#(0+4+%$.(%+4$'(9$<)39,$< Focus on industrial contexts of sustainability made   sense   of   relationships   between   themes   within   sub-­‐groups   and   University  of  Texas,  Arlington G D U 'F@69=@@*D=3@A=B76;=@*495*H4:F=@ 6,)-)4+,(A+"@+0+%& CERES Principles Corporate Social Responsibility 1989 10 [19] generated   three   meta-­‐themes   that   encompassed   the   smaller   themes.   University  of  Texas,  Austin U 6##$,%+A$(?0"--+-:'(4"-":$4$-%'("-.(+4?0$4$-%"%+)- 2 Individual company statement / corporate =$>+-$.(:)"0<("-.()@K$,%+A$< Interface ? 7 [20] Linda  Vanasupa,   University  of  Washington 2 response to sustainability Tom  Seager, We  use  an  ecofeministic  framework  to  understand  these  meta-­‐themes: Virginia  Tech E??9$,+"%+)-()#(0+4+%"%+)-< Non-profit for corporate and societal Calpoly-­‐SLO L)-<%"-%(+4?9)A$4$-% Natural Step 1989 4 [21] Arizona  State   1. Sustainability  as  ammunition  for  the  future  engineer,  or   the   Washington  State  University G R"-":$4$-%(9$<?)-<+@+0+%& G$#9"4$'(4)-$%+7$(?)003%+)-(9$<?)-<+@+0+%& response to SD University idea  that  sustainability  could  be  an  important  tool  in  the  skill  sets   Selection:   1)   among   the   20   largest   programs,   in   terms   of   S9+?0$(@)%%)4(0+-$ G$.$<+:-()#(,)44$9,$(<&<%$4 Focus on educational contexts of sustainability total   number   of   undergraduate   engineering   students;   (2)   ITESM (Monterrey of  the  future  engineer.   among  the  20  largest  programs,  in  terms  of  total  number  of   #E=<=@*A3=@=97*69*B8F3@=@I*JF7*987*A369B6A:=@ University / educational, learning outcomes 2005 12 [22] G D U L0+4"%$("-.(,0+4"%$(,/"-:$ Institute of Technology) Sub   themes:   a)   Super   engineer   versus   traditional   engineer;   b)   engineering  BS   degrees  awarded;  (3)  in  the  top  10  of  the  US   News  and  World  Report   ranking  of  the  best  undergraduate   DU N"%+)-"0(!$,39+%& From International Conference on U E??9)?9+"%$(=$<+:- Convention   versus   modernity,  c)   Employability,   d)   Engineers   as   engineering   programs;   or   (4)   site   of   an   NSF   award   in   Engineering  Education  with  the  word  “sustain”  or  one  of  its   G D U Q3+0.+-:(=$<+:-(2(J+:/(D$9#)94"-,$(=$<+:- Barcelona Principles Engineering Education for Sustainable 2004 15 [23] D U J34"-(D)?30"%+)-(=&-"4+,< problem   definers   versus   problem   solvers,   e)   Sustainability   as   a   variations  in  the  project  title  or  summary. Development (EESD) ‘problem’  that  can  be  solved  by  technology;   About  the  RIFE  Group 2. Sustainability  (in)  disciplined?   5.  Framework  development:  under  construction! Through emergent coding, we then developed a series of specific codes that described the principles, and organized them into the six themes. The first pass through the data established the the  Research  in  Feminist  Engineering  Group  (RIFE).   We  are   This   meta-­‐theme   emphasizes   the   ecofeministic   theme   of   inter-­‐ This  shoul