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Research in Feminist Engineering (RIFE)
  School of Engineering Education Research Seminar, FRNY B124
                                                 April 15, 2010   1
First, a game!

             Think Jeopardy...


                             2
Feminist Engineering   Research Methods   Myths
         ?                    ?            ?



         1                    1            1


         2                    2            2


         3                    3            3
                                                  3
Our Team




           4
Our Research
We investigate four main projects:




                                     5
6
ADVANCE Purdue
Research studies:

• Academic Career Pathways (ACP-ADVANCE)

• Institutional Ethnography (IE-ADVANCE)

• Climate Study




Research sponsored by National Science Foundation HRD-0811194   7
ADVANCE Purdue
ACP-ADVANCE
To study the careerjourneys of women faculty
members in terms of their interests in STEM
disciplines, their interest in Purdue
University, their experiences with different
policies and programs of Purdue and their
perceptions accordingly.


Hoegh, Jordana and Alice L. Pawley. “Modeling the career pathways of women
STEM faculty through oral histories and participatory research methods.”
Conference proceedings of the 2010 American Society for Engineering
Education National Conference and Exposition, Louisville KY, June 20-23 2010.   8
ADVANCE Purdue
ACP-ADVANCE Research Questions
(1) What are the academic career pathways of women faculty in
    STEM disciplines at Purdue, beginning from their point of
    hire, and how do they vary by ethnicity?

(2) Apart from “pipeline” and “chilly climate” metaphors, what
    other metaphors explain the career experiences of women
    faculty members of STEM disciplines? How mightthose
    metaphors explain STEM faculty members’ career
    experiences in ways not explained by the traditional
    metaphors?




                                                                 9
ADVANCE Purdue
ACP-ADVANCE Methods
Data: oral history; participatory research
(1) Individual interviews
(2) Story-telling circles
   – group interviews


How do people tell their own stories?

                                        10
ADVANCE Purdue
IE-ADVANCE
Study the impact of policies on the work
experiences and work-life balance of women
tenure-track faculty members of STEM
disciplinesat Purdue.
   – Promotion and Tenure (P&T)
   – Parental Leave (PL)

Banerjee, Dina and Alice L. Pawley. “Institutional Ethnography: A research
method to investigate the work-life experiences of women faculty members in
STEM disciplines.”Conference proceedings of the 2010 American Society for
Engineering Education National Conference and Exposition, Louisville KY, June
20-23 201o.
                                                                            11
ADVANCE Purdue
 IE-ADVANCE Research Questions
(1) How might a boundary metaphor (in contrast to pipeline and
    climate metaphors) explain STEM faculty members’ career
    experiences (particularly focusing on minority women faculty)
    in ways not explained by pipeline or climate metaphors? (same
    as Academic Career Pathways)
(2) How do institutionally generated texts (at the university and
    college levels) shape STEM faculty members’ (particularly
    underrepresented minority women) experiences in ways that
    prescribe certain ways of being, or measures of success?




                                                                12
ADVANCE Purdue
 IE-ADVANCE Methods
(1) Policy texts
  – Parental leave
  – Promotion & tenure
(2) Individual interviews
   – Policy users
   – Policy administrators




                             13
ADVANCE Purdue
Climate
   To understand institutional climate
   through robust instruments by strongly
   accounting for validity and reliability.
   To make the ADVANCE-Purdue climate
   survey instruments the gold standard of
   measures, in order to enable other
   institutions to use


                                              14
ADVANCE Purdue
Climate Research Questions
(1) How well does “climate” metaphor explain women’s
    experiences?

(2) How do faculty in STEM disciplines describe the
    working climate at Purdue?

(3) How does this vary by gender and ethnicity?




                                                      15
ADVANCE Purdue
Climate Method A
(1) Survey instrument
  (1) Assess the landscape

  (2) Content Validity

  (3) Pilot study




                             16
ADVANCE Purdue
Climate Method B
Use data collected through ACP:
• Interviews with individual faculty
• Storytelling circles




                                       17
Assessing Sustainability Knowledge
(ASK)
Create a framework by which to assess
sustainability knowledge in
undergraduate engineering students.
• Assess:
    – pre-existing sustainability research within
      engineering education,
    – expert opinions/ ideas about sustainability and how
      they map on to students’ current knowledge.

Research sponsored by National Science Foundation EEC-0935066

RanjaniRao, Alice L. Pawley, Stephen R. Hoffmann, Matthew W. Ohland, and
Monica E. Cardella. “Work in Progress: Development of a framework to Assess
Sustainability Knowledge (ASK) in engineering undergraduate students.” Submitted
to the Frontiers in Education Conference, Washington DC (October 27-30).
                                                                                   18
Assessing Sustainability Knowledge
 (ASK)
Research questions
(1) How is sustainability represented in research
    literature?

(2) How do students understand sustainability and its
    role in engineering design?

(3) How do expert practitioners in the field of
    sustainability/sustainable development frame
    sustainability?


                                                    19
Assessing Sustainability Knowledge
 (ASK)
Methods
(1) Qualitative content analysis of research literature in
    the area of sustainability in engineering

(2) In-depth interviews with undergraduate engineering
    students

(3) Expert workshop/brainstorming sessions




                                                        20
Gender in JEE
This project articulates future research
directions possible at the intersection
of
gender and engineering education.




Nelson, Lindsey and Alice L. Pawley. “Using the Emergent
Methodology of Domain Analysis to Answer Complex Research
Questions.” Conference proceedings of the 2010 American Society for
Engineering Education National Conference and Exposition, Louisville21
Gender in JEE
Research questions
(1) What is the history of research at the intersection of
    gender and engineering education as published in
    the Journal of Engineering Education between 1998
    and 2008?

(2) What opportunities exist to broaden the scope of
   research conducted at the intersection of gender and
   engineering education?



                                                       22
Gender in JEE
Methods
Data: JEE journal articles, 1998-2008

Analysis: Domain analysis




                                        23
Gender in JEE
Methods
1. Locate a social environment to observe.




                                             24
Gender in JEE
Methods
2. Decide what evidence already present in that
   environment helps you answer your question.
Dimension   Description                            Example of a design review event

Space       The physical place or places           A small conference room with a whiteboard
Actor       The people involved                    2 professors, 5 students
Activity    A set of related acts that people do   Present a Powerpoint presentation, Review
                                                   various journals created by students
Object      The physical things present            Table, chairs, computer, notebooks, pens
Act         Single actions that people do          Advance a slide, ask a question

Event       A set of related activities that       Design review
            people carry out
Time        The sequencing that takes place        Senior professor talks (2 min), students takes
            over time                              turn each speaking for 2 minutes, other
                                                   professor interjects questions during talk
Goal        The things people are trying to        Convey details of a design, articulate a design
            accomplish                             to client, respond to feedback
Feeling     The emotions felt and expressed        Exhaustion, elation, frustration, joy, defeat 25
Gender in JEE
 Methods
 3. Identify inter-relationships between the evidence
Semantic Rel.         Generic Form                 Examples

Strict Inclusion      X is a kind of Y             Freshmen students are a kind of population
                                                   investigated byengr education researchers
Spatial               X is a part of Y             A lab bench is part of a laboratory.
Cause-effect          X is the result of Y         Delivering a portion of a presentation is a
                                                   result of peer selection.
Rationale             X is a reason for doing Y    The problem of underrepresentation is a
                                                   reason for doing gendered research in
                                                   engineering education.
Location-for-action   X is a place for doing Y     A conference is a place for speaking on
                                                   research.
Function              X is used for Y              Late evenings are used for assembling
                                                   presentations.
Means-End             X is a way to do Y           Focus groups are a way to gather
                                                   information about students’ experiences.
Sequence              X is a step in Y             Creating a prototype is a step in the design
                                                   process.
Attribution           X is a characteristic of Y   Authority is a characteristic of the client.
                                                                                             26
Gender in JEE
Methods
4. Organize these relationships according to a question
   tree.
   •   Complex question: How do engineering education
       researchers research gender?
   •   Grand tour question: Who focuses on gender as a research
       area (actors)?
   •   Inter-relationship question: What reasons do they provide
       to motivate their research (goals, rationale)?
   •   Deepening question: What sources, if any, are cited to
       validate these reasons (object, function)?


                                                              27
What is Engineering To You?
(WIETY)
This project explores engineering
epistemologies of students through
photographic elicitation.




                                     28
What is Engineering To You?
 (WIETY)
Research questions
(1) What are enduring stories in engineering that
    students use to describe what they do?

(2) Why and to whom are these stories compelling?

(3) What stories are not included as engineering?




                                                    29
What is Engineering To You?
 (WIETY)
Methods
Data collection:

(1) Individual Interviews

(2) Focus Group Interviews

Analysis: Emergent Qualitative Coding



                                        30
What’s the unifying theme here?

• Use informed and feminist social theory,
  including that on race, class and gender,
  even when not obvious (e.g., ASK);

• Applied research: arguing for social change.




                                                 31
Visit us online

feministengineering.org (under construction)
http://tinyurl.com/RIFEGroup-FB
http://www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/




                                               32
Questions?

Thank you for being here!
We value your feedback...




                            33
34
What is
  “feminist engineering?”
Studying engineering and engineering
  practice using the lenses of gender,
 race and class to effect social change.


                                           35
Why do we care about
   feminist engineering?
  Taking a feminist approach allows us to
look at engineering epistemologically, and
  see this very big system of engineering
         through different lenses….


                                             36
What do we hope to
        accomplish through our
             research?
   To broaden the research and practice
 conversation about what engineering is;
To inspire other scholars to talk about this.

                                          37
How do we decide what
methods are appropriate?
  Deciding what evidence best
 answers our research question
 guides our choice of methods.


                                 38
Why thesemethods to
    answer our RQs?
Each is a lens to help us understand
         the lives of women.



                                       39
Do we always succeed?

            Yes…
we succeed even in our failures.



                                   40
Feminist engineering is only
  about the study of women.
          True/False?
                   FALSE
We definitely use lenses that are relevant to
 the lives of women. But our work helps
       look at masculinities as well.


                                                41
Feminist engineering research uses
   only one research method.
           True/False?
                FALSE
        We use many methods...
  Quantitative: Qualitative:
  Survey,       Institutional Ethnography, domain
  review of     analysis, survey, in depth interviewing,
  literature    oral history, discourse analysis,
  using meta    action/participatory research, photo
  analysis      elicitation (content analysis), focus
                groups
                                                           42
Failures in research prevent us
     from moving forward.
          True/False?
               FALSE
For RIFE, this is a stepping stone to
      “think outside the box.”

                                        43

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4/15/10 School of Engineering Education Research Seminar

  • 1. Research in Feminist Engineering (RIFE) School of Engineering Education Research Seminar, FRNY B124 April 15, 2010 1
  • 2. First, a game! Think Jeopardy... 2
  • 3. Feminist Engineering Research Methods Myths ? ? ? 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3
  • 5. Our Research We investigate four main projects: 5
  • 6. 6
  • 7. ADVANCE Purdue Research studies: • Academic Career Pathways (ACP-ADVANCE) • Institutional Ethnography (IE-ADVANCE) • Climate Study Research sponsored by National Science Foundation HRD-0811194 7
  • 8. ADVANCE Purdue ACP-ADVANCE To study the careerjourneys of women faculty members in terms of their interests in STEM disciplines, their interest in Purdue University, their experiences with different policies and programs of Purdue and their perceptions accordingly. Hoegh, Jordana and Alice L. Pawley. “Modeling the career pathways of women STEM faculty through oral histories and participatory research methods.” Conference proceedings of the 2010 American Society for Engineering Education National Conference and Exposition, Louisville KY, June 20-23 2010. 8
  • 9. ADVANCE Purdue ACP-ADVANCE Research Questions (1) What are the academic career pathways of women faculty in STEM disciplines at Purdue, beginning from their point of hire, and how do they vary by ethnicity? (2) Apart from “pipeline” and “chilly climate” metaphors, what other metaphors explain the career experiences of women faculty members of STEM disciplines? How mightthose metaphors explain STEM faculty members’ career experiences in ways not explained by the traditional metaphors? 9
  • 10. ADVANCE Purdue ACP-ADVANCE Methods Data: oral history; participatory research (1) Individual interviews (2) Story-telling circles – group interviews How do people tell their own stories? 10
  • 11. ADVANCE Purdue IE-ADVANCE Study the impact of policies on the work experiences and work-life balance of women tenure-track faculty members of STEM disciplinesat Purdue. – Promotion and Tenure (P&T) – Parental Leave (PL) Banerjee, Dina and Alice L. Pawley. “Institutional Ethnography: A research method to investigate the work-life experiences of women faculty members in STEM disciplines.”Conference proceedings of the 2010 American Society for Engineering Education National Conference and Exposition, Louisville KY, June 20-23 201o. 11
  • 12. ADVANCE Purdue IE-ADVANCE Research Questions (1) How might a boundary metaphor (in contrast to pipeline and climate metaphors) explain STEM faculty members’ career experiences (particularly focusing on minority women faculty) in ways not explained by pipeline or climate metaphors? (same as Academic Career Pathways) (2) How do institutionally generated texts (at the university and college levels) shape STEM faculty members’ (particularly underrepresented minority women) experiences in ways that prescribe certain ways of being, or measures of success? 12
  • 13. ADVANCE Purdue IE-ADVANCE Methods (1) Policy texts – Parental leave – Promotion & tenure (2) Individual interviews – Policy users – Policy administrators 13
  • 14. ADVANCE Purdue Climate To understand institutional climate through robust instruments by strongly accounting for validity and reliability. To make the ADVANCE-Purdue climate survey instruments the gold standard of measures, in order to enable other institutions to use 14
  • 15. ADVANCE Purdue Climate Research Questions (1) How well does “climate” metaphor explain women’s experiences? (2) How do faculty in STEM disciplines describe the working climate at Purdue? (3) How does this vary by gender and ethnicity? 15
  • 16. ADVANCE Purdue Climate Method A (1) Survey instrument (1) Assess the landscape (2) Content Validity (3) Pilot study 16
  • 17. ADVANCE Purdue Climate Method B Use data collected through ACP: • Interviews with individual faculty • Storytelling circles 17
  • 18. Assessing Sustainability Knowledge (ASK) Create a framework by which to assess sustainability knowledge in undergraduate engineering students. • Assess: – pre-existing sustainability research within engineering education, – expert opinions/ ideas about sustainability and how they map on to students’ current knowledge. Research sponsored by National Science Foundation EEC-0935066 RanjaniRao, Alice L. Pawley, Stephen R. Hoffmann, Matthew W. Ohland, and Monica E. Cardella. “Work in Progress: Development of a framework to Assess Sustainability Knowledge (ASK) in engineering undergraduate students.” Submitted to the Frontiers in Education Conference, Washington DC (October 27-30). 18
  • 19. Assessing Sustainability Knowledge (ASK) Research questions (1) How is sustainability represented in research literature? (2) How do students understand sustainability and its role in engineering design? (3) How do expert practitioners in the field of sustainability/sustainable development frame sustainability? 19
  • 20. Assessing Sustainability Knowledge (ASK) Methods (1) Qualitative content analysis of research literature in the area of sustainability in engineering (2) In-depth interviews with undergraduate engineering students (3) Expert workshop/brainstorming sessions 20
  • 21. Gender in JEE This project articulates future research directions possible at the intersection of gender and engineering education. Nelson, Lindsey and Alice L. Pawley. “Using the Emergent Methodology of Domain Analysis to Answer Complex Research Questions.” Conference proceedings of the 2010 American Society for Engineering Education National Conference and Exposition, Louisville21
  • 22. Gender in JEE Research questions (1) What is the history of research at the intersection of gender and engineering education as published in the Journal of Engineering Education between 1998 and 2008? (2) What opportunities exist to broaden the scope of research conducted at the intersection of gender and engineering education? 22
  • 23. Gender in JEE Methods Data: JEE journal articles, 1998-2008 Analysis: Domain analysis 23
  • 24. Gender in JEE Methods 1. Locate a social environment to observe. 24
  • 25. Gender in JEE Methods 2. Decide what evidence already present in that environment helps you answer your question. Dimension Description Example of a design review event Space The physical place or places A small conference room with a whiteboard Actor The people involved 2 professors, 5 students Activity A set of related acts that people do Present a Powerpoint presentation, Review various journals created by students Object The physical things present Table, chairs, computer, notebooks, pens Act Single actions that people do Advance a slide, ask a question Event A set of related activities that Design review people carry out Time The sequencing that takes place Senior professor talks (2 min), students takes over time turn each speaking for 2 minutes, other professor interjects questions during talk Goal The things people are trying to Convey details of a design, articulate a design accomplish to client, respond to feedback Feeling The emotions felt and expressed Exhaustion, elation, frustration, joy, defeat 25
  • 26. Gender in JEE Methods 3. Identify inter-relationships between the evidence Semantic Rel. Generic Form Examples Strict Inclusion X is a kind of Y Freshmen students are a kind of population investigated byengr education researchers Spatial X is a part of Y A lab bench is part of a laboratory. Cause-effect X is the result of Y Delivering a portion of a presentation is a result of peer selection. Rationale X is a reason for doing Y The problem of underrepresentation is a reason for doing gendered research in engineering education. Location-for-action X is a place for doing Y A conference is a place for speaking on research. Function X is used for Y Late evenings are used for assembling presentations. Means-End X is a way to do Y Focus groups are a way to gather information about students’ experiences. Sequence X is a step in Y Creating a prototype is a step in the design process. Attribution X is a characteristic of Y Authority is a characteristic of the client. 26
  • 27. Gender in JEE Methods 4. Organize these relationships according to a question tree. • Complex question: How do engineering education researchers research gender? • Grand tour question: Who focuses on gender as a research area (actors)? • Inter-relationship question: What reasons do they provide to motivate their research (goals, rationale)? • Deepening question: What sources, if any, are cited to validate these reasons (object, function)? 27
  • 28. What is Engineering To You? (WIETY) This project explores engineering epistemologies of students through photographic elicitation. 28
  • 29. What is Engineering To You? (WIETY) Research questions (1) What are enduring stories in engineering that students use to describe what they do? (2) Why and to whom are these stories compelling? (3) What stories are not included as engineering? 29
  • 30. What is Engineering To You? (WIETY) Methods Data collection: (1) Individual Interviews (2) Focus Group Interviews Analysis: Emergent Qualitative Coding 30
  • 31. What’s the unifying theme here? • Use informed and feminist social theory, including that on race, class and gender, even when not obvious (e.g., ASK); • Applied research: arguing for social change. 31
  • 32. Visit us online feministengineering.org (under construction) http://tinyurl.com/RIFEGroup-FB http://www.purdue.edu/dp/advance/ 32
  • 33. Questions? Thank you for being here! We value your feedback... 33
  • 34. 34
  • 35. What is “feminist engineering?” Studying engineering and engineering practice using the lenses of gender, race and class to effect social change. 35
  • 36. Why do we care about feminist engineering? Taking a feminist approach allows us to look at engineering epistemologically, and see this very big system of engineering through different lenses…. 36
  • 37. What do we hope to accomplish through our research? To broaden the research and practice conversation about what engineering is; To inspire other scholars to talk about this. 37
  • 38. How do we decide what methods are appropriate? Deciding what evidence best answers our research question guides our choice of methods. 38
  • 39. Why thesemethods to answer our RQs? Each is a lens to help us understand the lives of women. 39
  • 40. Do we always succeed? Yes… we succeed even in our failures. 40
  • 41. Feminist engineering is only about the study of women. True/False? FALSE We definitely use lenses that are relevant to the lives of women. But our work helps look at masculinities as well. 41
  • 42. Feminist engineering research uses only one research method. True/False? FALSE We use many methods... Quantitative: Qualitative: Survey, Institutional Ethnography, domain review of analysis, survey, in depth interviewing, literature oral history, discourse analysis, using meta action/participatory research, photo analysis elicitation (content analysis), focus groups 42
  • 43. Failures in research prevent us from moving forward. True/False? FALSE For RIFE, this is a stepping stone to “think outside the box.” 43

Editor's Notes

  1. The instrument was modified from the WISELIConstructs were added and/or modified as appropriate to Purdue UniversityContent validitySent to 8 content area experts on campusEach section of the instrument was marked on the extent to which the measure represents all facets of the given social concept 5-point scale was usedExperts provided both quantitative and qualitative feedbackInstrument was refinedInstrument was compared against similar surveys conducted byCornell Work-lifeHarvard Faculty SurveyCase Western Faculty Climate SurveyUIC Faculty Climate SurveyThey were compared for constructs length of the instrumentresponse rate
  2. The instrument was modified from the WISELIConstructs were added and/or modified as appropriate to Purdue UniversityContent validitySent to 8 content area experts on campusEach section of the instrument was marked on the extent to which the measure represents all facets of the given social concept 5-point scale was usedExperts provided both quantitative and qualitative feedbackInstrument was refinedInstrument was compared against similar surveys conducted byCornell Work-lifeHarvard Faculty SurveyCase Western Faculty Climate SurveyUIC Faculty Climate SurveyThey were compared for constructs length of the instrumentresponse rate
  3. - a qualitative methodology from applied anthropology that focuses on creating a conceptual map of a space
  4. - a qualitative methodology from applied anthropology that focuses on creating a conceptual map of a space
  5. For instance, in the context of this research team’s focus on how engineering education researchers do research on gender, do particular researchers (ACTORS) focus on specific methodologies (ACTIVITIES)? Do researchers cite differing motivations (GOALS) over the period of many years (TIME)?
  6. Research REQUIRES a researcher, research questions, research methodology, and broader motivating context.žSex, masculine, feminine, boy, girl, gender, male, female, men, women ARE ALL gendered vocabularyUnderrepresentation is a REASON TO DO research around gender.
  7. - a qualitative methodology from applied anthropology that focuses on creating a conceptual map of a space