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CAREER:	
  Learning	
  from	
  Small	
  Numbers:	
  
                                                                                              Using	
  personal	
  narratives	
  by	
  underrepresented	
  undergraduate	
  
                                 This	
   material	
   is	
   based	
  
                                 upon	
  work	
  supported	
  by	
  
                                                                                              students	
  to	
  promote	
  institutional	
  change	
  in	
  engineering
                                 the	
   National	
   Science	
  
                                 Foundation	
   under	
   Grant	
                            Alice	
  L.	
  Pawley,	
  School	
  of	
  Engineering	
  Education,	
  Purdue	
  University.	
  
                                 No.	
  EEC-­‐1055900.                                       apawley@purdue.edu;	
  1300	
  Neil	
  Armstrong	
  Hall	
  of	
  Engineering,	
  701	
  W.	
  Stadium	
  Dr,	
  West	
  Lafayette	
  IN	
  47907

Project	
  rationale
In	
   recent	
   decades,	
   hundreds	
   of	
   educational	
   interventions,	
   thousands	
   of	
                                         • spanned	
   the	
   space	
   of	
   gender,	
   race,	
   and	
   engineering	
   by	
   exploring	
                       • rely	
   on	
   statistical	
   methods	
   to	
   claim	
   generalizability,	
   even	
   though	
   the	
                                                  • Rather	
  than	
  use	
  methods	
  for	
  studying	
  large	
  numbers	
  of	
  people	
  where	
   we	
  do	
  
research	
   programs,	
  and	
  millions	
   of	
  dollars	
  of	
   federal	
  funding,	
  have	
  addressed	
                                   underrepresented	
   people's	
   relationships	
   as	
   young	
   students	
   with	
   peers,	
                           numbers	
  of	
  white	
   women	
  and	
  people	
   of	
  color	
  in	
  the	
  study	
  populations	
   are	
                                                not	
   have	
   large	
   numbers,	
   it	
   uses	
   methods	
   that	
   allow	
   researchers	
   to	
   “learn	
  
the	
   underrepresentation	
   of	
   white	
   women	
   and	
   people	
   of	
   color	
   at	
   all	
   career	
                             teachers	
   and	
   parents,	
   as	
   young	
   ethnically	
   diverse	
   women	
   and	
   men	
   with	
                usually	
   too	
   small	
   to	
   justify	
   powerful	
   signi)icance	
   claims.	
   The	
   number	
   of	
                                              from	
  small	
  numbers.”	
  
levels	
  and	
  across	
  all	
  disciplines	
  of	
  engineering	
  [e.g.,	
  1].	
  Researchers	
  seeking	
  to	
                              media,	
   role	
   models,	
   and	
   career	
   visions,	
   as	
   undergraduate	
   and	
   graduate	
                   people	
   of	
   color	
   speci)ically	
   is	
   usually	
   so	
   small	
   that	
   researchers	
   lump	
   all	
                                      • Rather	
   than	
   completing	
   group-­‐level	
   analyses	
   to	
   tell	
   individuals	
   how	
   to	
  
understand	
  white	
  women	
  and	
  people	
  of	
  color’s	
  underrepresentation	
  have                                                      students	
  with	
  teams,	
  mentors,	
  and	
  technical	
   material,	
  and	
  as	
   professionals	
                     ethnicities	
  of	
  color	
  together	
  to	
  contrast	
  with	
  white	
  populations,	
   or	
  say	
  that	
                                               better	
   )it	
   into	
   existing	
  institutions,	
   it	
   examines	
  a	
  small	
  number	
  of	
  individual	
  
• 	
  explored	
  gender	
  and	
  race	
  differences	
  in	
  psychological	
  constructs,	
   cognitive	
                                       with	
  colleagues,	
  peer-­‐reviewers,	
  and	
  institutional	
  leaders.                                                  no	
  claims	
  can	
  be	
  made	
  about	
  race	
  altogether;                                                                                               narratives	
   in	
   great	
   depth	
   to	
   examine	
   institutional	
   structure	
   as	
   the	
   unit	
   of	
  
  skills,	
   affective	
   measures,	
   and	
   social	
   behaviors	
   considered	
   relevant	
   to	
                                      While	
  these	
   studies	
   have	
   helped	
  the	
   engineering	
   education	
  enterprise	
   make	
                  • provide	
  solutions	
  that	
  continue	
   to	
  rely	
  on	
  moulding	
  individuals	
  to	
  better	
  Mit	
                                               analysis.	
  
  students’	
  engineering	
  educational	
  success.	
                                                                                          modest	
   improvements	
  in	
  the	
   numbers	
  of	
  white	
   women	
  and	
  people	
  of	
  color	
   in	
              into	
   existing	
   institutional	
   structures,	
   despite	
   collective	
   calls	
   to	
   “)ix	
   the	
                                            • Rather	
  than	
  primarily	
  studying	
  engineering	
  educational	
  institutions	
  that	
  are	
  
• striven	
  to	
  understand	
  the	
  impact	
  of	
  implicit	
  bias,	
  chilly	
  climate,	
  and	
  micro-­‐                               engineering	
   undergraduate	
   programs,	
   these	
   improvements	
   seem	
   to	
   have	
                               system,	
  not	
  the	
  student;”	
                                                                                                                            relatively	
   not	
   successful	
   at	
   educating	
   white	
   women	
   and	
   people	
   of	
   color,	
   it	
  
  inequities	
   on	
   white	
   women’s	
   and	
   people	
   of	
   color's	
   continued	
   low	
   rates	
   of	
                         plateaued	
   [2].	
  The	
  numbers	
  of	
   white	
  women	
  and	
  people	
   of	
  color	
   in	
  engineering	
        • focus	
   on	
   primarily	
   white	
   institutions	
   (PWIs)	
   and	
   neglect	
   those	
   institutions	
                                               focuses	
   on	
   institutions	
   that	
   are	
   successful,	
   such	
   as	
   women’s	
   colleges	
   and	
  
  entry	
   into	
   and	
   comparatively	
   high	
   rates	
   of	
   exit	
   from	
   the	
   engineering	
                                 have	
  not	
  increased	
  proportionately	
  to	
  the	
  effort	
  expended	
  by	
  the	
  community.	
                     which	
   successfully	
   educate	
   relatively	
   large	
   numbers	
   of	
   white	
   women	
   and	
                                                    MSIs.
  educational	
   and	
   professional	
   “pipeline”	
   compared	
   to	
   their	
   white	
   male	
                                         This	
  project	
  argues	
  that	
  an	
  explanation	
  for	
   this	
  persistent	
  state	
  can	
  be	
  found	
           people	
   of	
   color	
   in	
   engineering:	
   women’s	
   colleges	
   and	
   minority	
   serving	
                                                   In	
  this	
  project,	
   we	
  use	
  personal	
  narratives	
   of	
   people	
  considered	
  marginalized	
  
  colleagues.	
                                                                                                                                  in	
   methodological	
   and	
   theoretical	
   limitations	
   of	
   these	
   studies,	
   which,	
   to	
   a	
           institutions	
  (MSIs).                                                                                                                                       in	
   engineering	
   education	
   undergraduate	
   programs	
  in	
  the	
   US	
   to	
   map	
   out	
  the	
  
                                                                                                                                                 large	
  extent:                                                                                                              This	
  project	
  addresses	
  these	
  limitations	
  by	
  importing	
  powerful	
  theoretical	
  and	
                                                     gendered	
   and	
   raced	
   structure	
   of	
   the	
   broader	
   institution	
   of	
   engineering	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               methodological	
   tools	
   designed	
   to	
   understand	
   gender	
   and	
   race	
   in	
   institutional	
                                              education.	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               context.	
  

Research	
  study                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Educational	
  plan	
  




                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Research study
Goal:	
   To	
   identify	
   institutional-­‐level	
   characteristics	
                                    RQ1.	
  How	
  do	
  underrepresented	
  undergraduate	
                                                                                                                                                                         Main	
  audience:	
  People	
  in	
  positions	
  of	
  leadership	
  who	
  of)icially	
  construct	
  the	
  policy	
  texts	
  which	
  govern	
  the	
  lives	
  of	
  
present	
   in	
   post-­‐secondary	
   engineering	
   educational	
                                          engineering	
  students	
  describe	
  their	
  interactions	
                                                              engineering undergraduates                                                                         undergraduate	
  engineering	
  students,	
  people	
  who	
  may	
  have	
  less	
  daily	
  contact	
  with	
  undergraduate	
  students	
  than	
  they	
  used	
  
structures	
   that	
   strongly	
   support	
   or	
   challenge	
   the	
                                    with	
  educational	
  institutions	
  through	
  personal	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Personal
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              to	
  or	
  that	
  they	
  would	
  like,	
  and	
  who,	
  as	
  situated	
  at	
  primarily	
  white	
  institutions	
  (PWIs),	
  may	
  not	
  have	
  had	
  the	
  opportunity	
  to	
  
academic	
  success	
  of	
  underrepresented	
   undergraduate	
                                              narratives?                                                                                                                                                                       narratives:                                  learn	
  in	
  depth	
  about	
  the	
  lived	
  educational	
  experiences	
  of	
  (some	
  or	
  different)	
  underrepresented	
  undergraduate	
  students	
  
students.	
   To	
   accomplish	
   this	
   goal,	
   I	
   will	
   collect	
   and	
                      RQ2.	
   What	
   institutional	
   factors	
   do	
   these	
   narratives	
                                                                                                     “Tell me how you                               before.	
  In	
  particular,	
  we	
  will	
  target	
  deans,	
  department	
  heads,	
  and	
  chairs	
  of	
  undergraduate	
  curriculum	
  committees.
analyze	
   personal	
   narratives	
   contributed	
   by	
   under-­‐                                        reveal	
   that	
   affect	
   the	
   educational	
   persistence	
   and	
  
represented	
  students	
  situated	
  at	
  institutions	
  that	
  have	
                                                                                                                                                                       create                                     came to be where you                             Workshop	
  content:	
  We	
  will	
  develop	
  narratives	
  (from	
  the	
  research	
  study)	
  into	
  detailed	
  personas,	
  which	
  will	
  form	
  the	
  
                                                                                                               success	
   of	
   white	
   women	
   and	
   students	
   of	
   color	
   in	
  
histories	
   of	
   successfully	
   recruiting,	
   retaining,	
   and	
                                     undergraduate	
   engineering	
   educational	
   instit-­‐                                                                                                                         are now.”                                  main	
  content	
  of	
  a	
  four-­‐hour	
  workshop	
  for	
  engineering	
  education	
  leadership,	
  structured	
  around	
  the	
  provocative	
  question:	
  
graduating	
  white	
  women	
  and	
  students	
  of	
  color.	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             “What	
  would	
  engineering	
  education	
  [at	
  this	
  institution,	
  at	
  others]	
  designed	
  around	
  the	
  lives	
  of	
  white	
  women	
  and	
  people	
  of	
  
                                                                                                               utions?
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              color	
  look	
  like?”	
  The	
  narratives	
  collected	
  through	
  the	
  research	
  component	
  will	
  be	
  processed	
  into	
  these	
  individual	
  or	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              composite	
  personas	
  ⇣.	
  	
  Depending	
  on	
  the	
  interview	
  data⇠	
  collected,	
  personas	
  may	
  be	
  based	
  on	
  individuals’	
  interviews,	
  or	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     narratives                                                                               created	
  as	
  composites	
  of	
  several	
  individuals.	
  Personas	
  will	
  be	
  compiled	
  into	
  a	
  workbook,	
  and	
  three	
  will	
  be	
  selected	
  for	
  
Theoretical	
  framework                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      inclusion	
  in	
  the	
  formal	
  curriculum	
  of	
  the	
  workshop	
  based	
  on	
  the	
  demographic	
  and	
  institutional	
  makeup	
  of	
  the	
  workshop	
  
Intersectionality:	
  A	
  theory	
  )irst	
  articulated	
  by	
  black	
  feminist	
  scholars	
  such	
  as	
  Kimberlé	
  Crenshaw,	
  bell	
  hooks	
  and	
                                                                         to make visible                                         Design                                      participants.	
  Personas	
  will	
  be	
  interspersed	
  between	
  mini-­‐lectures	
  where	
  participants	
  learn	
  how	
  to	
  “learn	
  from	
  small	
  
Patricia	
  Hill	
  Collins	
  that	
  holds	
  as	
  its	
  key	
  contribution	
  the	
  notion	
  that	
  race	
  and	
  gender	
  can	
  not	
  be	
  understood	
  separately	
                                                                                                                                                          numbers”	
  from	
  both	
  the	
  research	
  )indings	
  and	
  personas.	
  The	
  participants	
  will	
  receive	
  a	
  copy	
  of	
  the	
  persona	
  workbook	
  to	
  
from	
  one	
  another,	
  nor	
  separately	
  from	
  other	
  critical	
  social	
  categories	
  such	
  as	
  class,	
  nationality,	
  age,	
  ability,	
  sexuality,	
  and	
                                                                                                             challenge:                                   refer	
  to	
  during	
  a	
  design	
  challenge,	
  the	
  outcome	
  of	
  which	
  will	
  be	
  demonstrated	
  to	
  the	
  rest	
  of	
  the	
  group	
  through	
  an	
  
other	
  social	
  dimensions.	
  Research	
  informed	
  by	
  intersectionality	
  argues	
  the	
  relationship	
  between	
  social	
  categories	
  is	
  not	
  
additive,	
  but	
  is	
  perhaps	
  complexly	
  multiplicative.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                “What would                                   informance	
  ⇣	
  designed	
  through	
  a	
  design	
  challenge⇠.	
  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   engineering                                   engineering      Workshop	
  implementation	
  and	
  dissemination:	
  4	
  workshops	
  to	
  be	
  held	
  (two	
  at	
  Purdue,	
  one	
  at	
  ASEE	
  and	
  FIE	
  each).	
  	
  
Ruling	
  relations:	
  Dorothy	
  Smith	
  de)ines	
  ruling	
  relations	
  as	
  “that	
  internally	
  coordinated	
  complex	
  of	
  administrative,	
                                                                                                                                                      Workshop	
  will	
  be	
  drafted	
  into	
  a	
  guidebook	
  and	
  posted	
  at	
  the	
  Collaboratory	
  for	
  Engineering	
  Education	
  Research	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            educational institutions as                      education designed (CLEERhub.org),	
  Engineering	
  Pathway	
  (engineeringpathway.org),	
  and	
  the	
  CIRTL	
  Network	
  (cirtl.net).
managerial,	
  professional,	
  and	
  discursive	
  organization	
  that	
  regulates,	
  organizes,	
  governs,	
  and	
  otherwise	
  controls	
  our	
  
societies.	
  It	
  is	
  not	
  yet	
  monolithic,	
  but	
  it	
  is	
  pervasive	
  and	
  pervasively	
  interconnected”	
  [p.	
  49,	
  28].	
  It	
  is	
  these	
  ruling	
                                                             gendered, raced                              around the lives of
relations	
  that	
  people	
  both	
  experience	
  and	
  reproduce	
  to	
  organize,	
  for	
  example,	
  academic	
  institutions	
  to	
  value	
  certain	
  
forms	
  of	
  knowledge	
  and	
  knowing,	
  certain	
  ways	
  of	
  investigating	
  the	
  world,	
  and	
  certain	
  modes	
  of	
  collecting	
  and	
  analyzing	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             women and people Design	
  research	
  tools
data.	
  	
  Smith	
  argues	
  that	
  policies	
  construct	
  the	
  ruling	
  relations	
  of	
  institutions,	
  thereby	
  constructing	
  the	
  institutions	
                                                                                                                       of color look like?” Personas:	
  Wrom	
  narratives	
  ⇠,	
  wanalytical	
  strategies	
  ethods	
  that	
  preserve	
  the	
  narrative	
  “voice”	
  of	
  pnformation	
  about	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  institutions	
  f
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    hile	
  we	
  use	
  various	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     e	
  also	
  need	
  other	
  m
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     to	
  concentrate,	
  aggregate,	
  and	
  communicate	
  i
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 articipants.	
  Design	
  
themselves.	
  She	
  argues	
  that	
  mapping	
  the	
  relationships	
  between	
  people’s	
  experiences	
  of	
  the	
  policies	
  and	
  the	
  policies	
                                                                                                                                                                            researchers	
  working	
  at	
  design	
  )irms	
  such	
  as	
  IDEO,	
  Cheskin,	
  or	
  Interval	
  Research	
  have	
  developed	
  an	
  innovative	
  method	
  
themselves	
  will	
  help	
  us	
  understand	
  the	
  social	
  geography	
  of	
  institutions,	
  as	
  well	
  as	
  different	
  institutional	
  aspects	
  of	
  the	
                                                                                                                                                               that	
  can	
  facilitate	
  this	
  transformation:	
  the	
  creation	
  of	
  personas,	
  or	
  short	
  pro)iles	
  of	
  )ictionalized	
  individuals	
  who	
  may	
  
gendered	
  and	
  raced	
  structure	
  of	
  academic	
  work.                                                                                                                                                                                     to understand                                                                            represent	
  aggregated	
  data	
  about	
  design	
  populations	
  in	
  a	
  narrative	
  and	
  speci)ic	
  way.	
  	
  By	
  leveraging	
  this	
  respected	
  approach	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Legend                              to	
  design,	
  the	
  narratives	
  ⇠	
  collected	
  through	
  the	
  research	
  component	
  will	
  be	
  processed	
  into	
  these	
  individual	
  or	
  composite	
  
Participants,	
  interviews                                                                                 Second	
  pass:	
  40	
  engineering	
  undergraduates	
  at	
  4	
                                                           personas                   informance                                                               personas,	
  which	
  often	
  include	
  a	
  name,	
  representative	
  image	
  or	
  photograph,	
  demographic	
  characteristics,	
  behavioral	
  
                                                                                                            additional	
  institutions	
  that	
  have	
  a	
  higher	
  representation	
                                                                                                                                                     characteristics,	
  barriers	
  or	
  challenges,	
  and	
  speci)ic	
  goals	
  or	
  needs.
First	
  pass:	
  60	
  undergraduate	
  students	
  from	
  MSIs	
  and	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     RQs
                                                                                                            of	
  women	
  or	
  students	
  of	
  color	
  as	
  engineering	
  
PWIs	
  attending	
  national	
  conferences	
  for:                                                                                                                                                                                                     uses                                                                                 Informance:	
  while	
  reading	
  the	
  personas⇡	
  may	
  be	
  themselves	
  critical	
  learning	
  experiences,	
  design	
  researchers	
  have	
  also	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Educational




                                                                                                            undergraduates	
  than	
  the	
  national	
  average	
  OR	
  who	
  have	
  a	
  
• American	
  Indian	
  Science	
  and	
  Engineering	
  Society	
                                          higher	
  number	
  of	
  women	
  or	
  people	
  of	
  color	
  participants	
                                                                                                                                                  developed	
  methods	
  by	
  which	
  they	
  embody	
  (even	
  bodily)	
  the	
  daily	
  experiences	
  of	
  their	
  design	
  population	
  who	
  are	
  often	
  
  (AISES)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     socially,	
  economically,	
  or	
  demographically	
  far	
  removed	
  from	
  the	
  designers	
  themselves.	
  Brenda	
  Laurel,	
  Eric	
  Dishman,	
  and	
  
                                                                                                            overall.
• National	
  Society	
  of	
  Black	
  Engineers	
  (NSBE)                                                 Interviews:	
  90	
  minute	
  open	
  interviews	
  around	
  the	
                                                              engineering education                                      participants                         Bonnie	
  Johnson	
  have	
  introduced	
  informance—a	
  concept	
  that	
  combines	
  the	
  words	
  "information"	
  and	
  "performance"	
  —as	
  
• Society	
  of	
  Hispanic	
  Professional	
  Engineers	
  or	
  Society	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   one	
  of	
  these	
  learning	
  tools.	
  	
  
  for	
  Advancement	
  of	
  Chicanos	
  and	
  Native	
  Americans	
  in	
  
                                                                                                            question,	
  “Tell	
  me	
  how	
  you	
  came	
  to	
  be	
  where	
  you	
  are	
                                                     leadership
                                                                                                            now.”	
  	
  Transcripts	
  shared	
  and	
  pseudonymized	
  according	
                                                                                                                                                         By	
  combining	
  personas	
  and	
  informance,	
  the	
  educational	
  component	
  of	
  this	
  project	
  represents	
  a	
  transformative	
  approach	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                         plan




  Science	
  (SACNAS)                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         tools
                                                                                                            to	
  participant’s	
  wishes.                                                                                                                                                                                                    to	
  moving	
  research	
  into	
  practice—an	
  approach	
  drawn	
  from	
  the	
  design	
  activities	
  at	
  the	
  heart	
  of	
  engineering	
  itself.
• Society	
  of	
  Women	
  Engineers	
  (SWE)                                                              Analysis:	
  inductive	
  and	
  deductive	
  coding,	
  to	
  answer	
  RQs	
  
pending	
  support	
  and	
  approval	
  granted	
  by	
  governing	
  
                                                                                                            about	
  institutional	
  structure	
  impact,	
  and	
  construct	
  
councils	
  of	
  elders	
  and	
  other	
  leadership.
                                                                                                            narratives	
  for	
  personas	
  ⇢	
  in	
  educational	
  plan.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              About	
  the	
  RIFE	
  Group
                                                                                                            Educational	
  plan
                                                                                                                                                                                                                            “Take	
  [this]	
  story,	
  for	
  instance.	
  	
  It’s	
  yours.	
  	
  Do	
  with	
  it	
                     We	
  are	
  the	
  Research	
  in	
  Feminist	
  Engineering	
  Group	
  (RIFE).	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              We	
  are	
   a	
   diverse	
   set	
  of	
  researchers	
   in	
   the	
   School	
  of	
   Engineering	
  Education	
   at	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Our	
  Vision
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Our	
   job	
   is	
  to	
  think	
  creatively	
   about	
   gender	
   and	
  engineering	
   education,	
   and	
  to	
  
References
Research	
  study	
                                                                                         Dishman,	
  E.,	
  Designing	
  for	
  the	
  New	
  Old:	
  Asking,	
  Observing	
  and	
  
                                                                                                              Performing	
  Future	
  Elders,	
  in	
  Design	
  Research:	
  Methods	
  and	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   what	
  you	
  will.	
  	
  Tell	
  it	
  to	
  friends.	
  	
  Turn	
  it	
  into	
  a	
                  Purdue	
   University.	
   	
   We	
   blend	
   feminist	
   theory	
  and	
   methods	
   with	
   engineering	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              educational	
  research	
  questions.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           think	
   about,	
   write,	
   and	
   teach	
   in	
   ways	
   that	
   will	
   result	
   in	
   a	
   change	
   in	
   how	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           engineering	
   education	
   is	
   done.	
   To	
   that	
   end,	
   we	
   ask	
   big	
   questions,	
   undertake	
  
Crenshaw,	
  K.,	
  Demarginalizing	
  the	
  Intersection	
  of	
  Race	
  and	
  Sex:	
  A	
  Black	
  
  Feminist	
  Critique	
  of	
  Antidiscrimination	
  Doctrine,	
  Feminist	
  Theory,	
  and	
               Perspectives,	
  B.	
  Laurel,	
  Editor.	
  2003,	
  MIT	
  Press:	
  Cambridge,	
  MA.	
  p.	
             television	
  movie.	
  	
  Forget	
  it.	
  	
  But	
  don’t	
  say	
  in	
  the	
  years	
                       We	
   try	
   to	
   do	
   things	
  a	
  little	
  differently	
  than	
  a	
  conventional	
   research	
  model.	
   	
  We	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              want	
  to	
   empower	
  people	
  in	
  our	
  diverse	
  community.	
   	
  	
  From	
  developing	
  action-­‐
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           ambitious	
  projects,	
  and	
  employ	
  appropriate	
  rigorous	
  research	
  methods.
  Antiracist	
  Politics.	
  University	
  of	
  Chicago	
  Legal	
  Forum,	
  1989.                          41-­‐48.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          to	
  come	
  that	
  you	
  would	
  have	
  lived	
  your	
  life	
  differently	
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Dina	
  Banerjee,	
  Ph.D                                Jordana	
  Hoegh,	
  M.S.
                                                                                                            Don,	
  A.	
  and	
  J.	
  Petrick,	
  User	
  Requirements:	
  By	
  Any	
  Means	
  Necessary,	
  in	
                                                                                                                          research	
   collaborations	
   with	
   professors,	
   to	
  looking	
   for	
  projects	
   to	
  beneWit	
   our	
                                             Sociology                                                Sociology
hooks,	
  b.,	
  Feminist	
  theory:	
  from	
  margin	
  to	
  center.	
  2000,	
  Cambridge,	
  MA:	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       local	
   community,	
   we	
   want	
   to	
   try	
   to	
   involve	
   as	
   many	
   different	
   people	
   as	
                                                                                                    PhD	
  student
                                                                                                              Design	
  Research:	
  Methods	
  and	
  Perspectives,	
  B.	
  Laurel,	
  Editor.	
  2003,	
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Postdoc	
  on	
  ADVANCE
  South	
  End	
  Press.
Collins,	
  P.H.,	
  Black	
  Feminist	
  Thought.	
  2009,	
  New	
  York:	
  Routledge.                     MIT	
  Press:	
  Cambridge,	
  MA.	
  p.	
  70-­‐80.                                                         if	
  only	
  you	
  had	
  heard	
  this	
  story.	
  	
  You’ve	
  heard	
  it	
  now.”                          possible.	
                                                                                                                                                        RIFE	
  2009-­‐present                                   RA	
  on	
  ADVANCE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          RIFE	
  2008-­‐present
                                                                                                            Johnson,	
  B.M.,	
  The	
  Paradox	
  of	
  Design	
  Research:	
  The	
  Role	
  of	
  Informance,	
  
Smith,	
  D.E.,	
  The	
  Everyday	
  World	
  As	
  Problematic:	
  A	
  Feminist	
  Sociology.	
  
  Northeastern	
  Series	
  in	
  Feminist	
  Theory,	
  ed.	
  E.F.	
  Keller.	
  1987,	
  Boston:	
         in	
  Design	
  Research:	
  Methods	
  and	
  Perspectives,	
  B.	
  Laurel,	
  Editor.	
  2003,	
                                          —	
  Thomas	
  King,	
                                                                                       Lindsey	
  Nelson
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Engineering	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Marisol	
  Mercado	
  
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Santiago
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Katie	
  Morley
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Aero/Astro	
  Engineering
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Canek	
  Phillips,	
  M.S.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Engineering	
  Education
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Ranjani	
  Rao,	
  M.S.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Communication
                                                                                                              MIT	
  Press:	
  Cambridge,	
  MA.	
  p.	
  39-­‐40.                                                                                                                                                                                                      Education                                         Engineering	
  Education
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    The	
  Truth	
  About	
  Stories:	
  A	
  Native	
  Narrative
  Northeastern	
  University.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Undergraduate                                        RA	
  on	
  CAREER                                       PhD	
  student
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        PhD	
  student                                    PhD	
  student                                        URA	
  on	
  What	
  is                                                                                       RA	
  on	
  IEECI-­‐ASK
Smith,	
  D.E.,	
  Institutional	
  Ethnography:	
  A	
  Sociology	
  for	
  People.	
  Gender	
            Laurel,	
  B.,	
  Design	
  improvisation:	
  Ethnography	
  meets	
  theatre,	
  in	
  Design	
                                                                                                                                                            At	
  University	
  of	
                          RA	
  on	
  ADVANCE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     To	
  join	
  RIFE	
  Fall	
  2011
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                	
  Engineering	
  to	
  you?                                                                                 RIFE	
  2010-­‐pres.
  Lens.	
  2005,	
  Lanham,	
  MD:	
  Altamira	
  Press.                                                      Research:	
  Methods	
  and	
  perspectives,	
  B.	
  Laurel,	
  Editor.	
  2003,	
  MIT	
  Press:	
                                                                                                                                                      Sussex	
  2010-­‐11                               RIFE	
  2010-­‐present                                RIFE	
  2008-­‐present
                                                                                                              Cambridge,	
  MA.	
  p.	
  49-­‐54.

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CAREER: Learning from Small Numbers: Using personal narratives by underrepresented undergraduate students to promote institutional change in engineering

  • 1. CAREER:  Learning  from  Small  Numbers:   Using  personal  narratives  by  underrepresented  undergraduate   This   material   is   based   upon  work  supported  by   students  to  promote  institutional  change  in  engineering the   National   Science   Foundation   under   Grant   Alice  L.  Pawley,  School  of  Engineering  Education,  Purdue  University.   No.  EEC-­‐1055900. apawley@purdue.edu;  1300  Neil  Armstrong  Hall  of  Engineering,  701  W.  Stadium  Dr,  West  Lafayette  IN  47907 Project  rationale In   recent   decades,   hundreds   of   educational   interventions,   thousands   of   • spanned   the   space   of   gender,   race,   and   engineering   by   exploring   • rely   on   statistical   methods   to   claim   generalizability,   even   though   the   • Rather  than  use  methods  for  studying  large  numbers  of  people  where   we  do   research   programs,  and  millions   of  dollars  of   federal  funding,  have  addressed   underrepresented   people's   relationships   as   young   students   with   peers,   numbers  of  white   women  and  people   of  color  in  the  study  populations   are   not   have   large   numbers,   it   uses   methods   that   allow   researchers   to   “learn   the   underrepresentation   of   white   women   and   people   of   color   at   all   career   teachers   and   parents,   as   young   ethnically   diverse   women   and   men   with   usually   too   small   to   justify   powerful   signi)icance   claims.   The   number   of   from  small  numbers.”   levels  and  across  all  disciplines  of  engineering  [e.g.,  1].  Researchers  seeking  to   media,   role   models,   and   career   visions,   as   undergraduate   and   graduate   people   of   color   speci)ically   is   usually   so   small   that   researchers   lump   all   • Rather   than   completing   group-­‐level   analyses   to   tell   individuals   how   to   understand  white  women  and  people  of  color’s  underrepresentation  have students  with  teams,  mentors,  and  technical   material,  and  as   professionals   ethnicities  of  color  together  to  contrast  with  white  populations,   or  say  that   better   )it   into   existing  institutions,   it   examines  a  small  number  of  individual   •  explored  gender  and  race  differences  in  psychological  constructs,   cognitive   with  colleagues,  peer-­‐reviewers,  and  institutional  leaders. no  claims  can  be  made  about  race  altogether; narratives   in   great   depth   to   examine   institutional   structure   as   the   unit   of   skills,   affective   measures,   and   social   behaviors   considered   relevant   to   While  these   studies   have   helped  the   engineering   education  enterprise   make   • provide  solutions  that  continue   to  rely  on  moulding  individuals  to  better  Mit   analysis.   students’  engineering  educational  success.   modest   improvements  in  the   numbers  of  white   women  and  people  of  color   in   into   existing   institutional   structures,   despite   collective   calls   to   “)ix   the   • Rather  than  primarily  studying  engineering  educational  institutions  that  are   • striven  to  understand  the  impact  of  implicit  bias,  chilly  climate,  and  micro-­‐ engineering   undergraduate   programs,   these   improvements   seem   to   have   system,  not  the  student;”   relatively   not   successful   at   educating   white   women   and   people   of   color,   it   inequities   on   white   women’s   and   people   of   color's   continued   low   rates   of   plateaued   [2].  The  numbers  of   white  women  and  people   of  color   in  engineering   • focus   on   primarily   white   institutions   (PWIs)   and   neglect   those   institutions   focuses   on   institutions   that   are   successful,   such   as   women’s   colleges   and   entry   into   and   comparatively   high   rates   of   exit   from   the   engineering   have  not  increased  proportionately  to  the  effort  expended  by  the  community.   which   successfully   educate   relatively   large   numbers   of   white   women   and   MSIs. educational   and   professional   “pipeline”   compared   to   their   white   male   This  project  argues  that  an  explanation  for   this  persistent  state  can  be  found   people   of   color   in   engineering:   women’s   colleges   and   minority   serving   In  this  project,   we  use  personal  narratives   of   people  considered  marginalized   colleagues.   in   methodological   and   theoretical   limitations   of   these   studies,   which,   to   a   institutions  (MSIs). in   engineering   education   undergraduate   programs  in  the   US   to   map   out  the   large  extent: This  project  addresses  these  limitations  by  importing  powerful  theoretical  and   gendered   and   raced   structure   of   the   broader   institution   of   engineering   methodological   tools   designed   to   understand   gender   and   race   in   institutional   education.   context.   Research  study Educational  plan   Research study Goal:   To   identify   institutional-­‐level   characteristics   RQ1.  How  do  underrepresented  undergraduate   Main  audience:  People  in  positions  of  leadership  who  of)icially  construct  the  policy  texts  which  govern  the  lives  of   present   in   post-­‐secondary   engineering   educational   engineering  students  describe  their  interactions   engineering undergraduates undergraduate  engineering  students,  people  who  may  have  less  daily  contact  with  undergraduate  students  than  they  used   structures   that   strongly   support   or   challenge   the   with  educational  institutions  through  personal   Personal to  or  that  they  would  like,  and  who,  as  situated  at  primarily  white  institutions  (PWIs),  may  not  have  had  the  opportunity  to   academic  success  of  underrepresented   undergraduate   narratives? narratives: learn  in  depth  about  the  lived  educational  experiences  of  (some  or  different)  underrepresented  undergraduate  students   students.   To   accomplish   this   goal,   I   will   collect   and   RQ2.   What   institutional   factors   do   these   narratives   “Tell me how you before.  In  particular,  we  will  target  deans,  department  heads,  and  chairs  of  undergraduate  curriculum  committees. analyze   personal   narratives   contributed   by   under-­‐ reveal   that   affect   the   educational   persistence   and   represented  students  situated  at  institutions  that  have   create came to be where you Workshop  content:  We  will  develop  narratives  (from  the  research  study)  into  detailed  personas,  which  will  form  the   success   of   white   women   and   students   of   color   in   histories   of   successfully   recruiting,   retaining,   and   undergraduate   engineering   educational   instit-­‐ are now.” main  content  of  a  four-­‐hour  workshop  for  engineering  education  leadership,  structured  around  the  provocative  question:   graduating  white  women  and  students  of  color.   “What  would  engineering  education  [at  this  institution,  at  others]  designed  around  the  lives  of  white  women  and  people  of   utions? color  look  like?”  The  narratives  collected  through  the  research  component  will  be  processed  into  these  individual  or   composite  personas  ⇣.    Depending  on  the  interview  data⇠  collected,  personas  may  be  based  on  individuals’  interviews,  or   narratives created  as  composites  of  several  individuals.  Personas  will  be  compiled  into  a  workbook,  and  three  will  be  selected  for   Theoretical  framework inclusion  in  the  formal  curriculum  of  the  workshop  based  on  the  demographic  and  institutional  makeup  of  the  workshop   Intersectionality:  A  theory  )irst  articulated  by  black  feminist  scholars  such  as  Kimberlé  Crenshaw,  bell  hooks  and   to make visible Design participants.  Personas  will  be  interspersed  between  mini-­‐lectures  where  participants  learn  how  to  “learn  from  small   Patricia  Hill  Collins  that  holds  as  its  key  contribution  the  notion  that  race  and  gender  can  not  be  understood  separately   numbers”  from  both  the  research  )indings  and  personas.  The  participants  will  receive  a  copy  of  the  persona  workbook  to   from  one  another,  nor  separately  from  other  critical  social  categories  such  as  class,  nationality,  age,  ability,  sexuality,  and   challenge: refer  to  during  a  design  challenge,  the  outcome  of  which  will  be  demonstrated  to  the  rest  of  the  group  through  an   other  social  dimensions.  Research  informed  by  intersectionality  argues  the  relationship  between  social  categories  is  not   additive,  but  is  perhaps  complexly  multiplicative. “What would informance  ⇣  designed  through  a  design  challenge⇠.   engineering engineering Workshop  implementation  and  dissemination:  4  workshops  to  be  held  (two  at  Purdue,  one  at  ASEE  and  FIE  each).     Ruling  relations:  Dorothy  Smith  de)ines  ruling  relations  as  “that  internally  coordinated  complex  of  administrative,   Workshop  will  be  drafted  into  a  guidebook  and  posted  at  the  Collaboratory  for  Engineering  Education  Research   educational institutions as education designed (CLEERhub.org),  Engineering  Pathway  (engineeringpathway.org),  and  the  CIRTL  Network  (cirtl.net). managerial,  professional,  and  discursive  organization  that  regulates,  organizes,  governs,  and  otherwise  controls  our   societies.  It  is  not  yet  monolithic,  but  it  is  pervasive  and  pervasively  interconnected”  [p.  49,  28].  It  is  these  ruling   gendered, raced around the lives of relations  that  people  both  experience  and  reproduce  to  organize,  for  example,  academic  institutions  to  value  certain   forms  of  knowledge  and  knowing,  certain  ways  of  investigating  the  world,  and  certain  modes  of  collecting  and  analyzing   women and people Design  research  tools data.    Smith  argues  that  policies  construct  the  ruling  relations  of  institutions,  thereby  constructing  the  institutions   of color look like?” Personas:  Wrom  narratives  ⇠,  wanalytical  strategies  ethods  that  preserve  the  narrative  “voice”  of  pnformation  about   institutions  f hile  we  use  various   e  also  need  other  m to  concentrate,  aggregate,  and  communicate  i articipants.  Design   themselves.  She  argues  that  mapping  the  relationships  between  people’s  experiences  of  the  policies  and  the  policies   researchers  working  at  design  )irms  such  as  IDEO,  Cheskin,  or  Interval  Research  have  developed  an  innovative  method   themselves  will  help  us  understand  the  social  geography  of  institutions,  as  well  as  different  institutional  aspects  of  the   that  can  facilitate  this  transformation:  the  creation  of  personas,  or  short  pro)iles  of  )ictionalized  individuals  who  may   gendered  and  raced  structure  of  academic  work. to understand represent  aggregated  data  about  design  populations  in  a  narrative  and  speci)ic  way.    By  leveraging  this  respected  approach   Legend to  design,  the  narratives  ⇠  collected  through  the  research  component  will  be  processed  into  these  individual  or  composite   Participants,  interviews Second  pass:  40  engineering  undergraduates  at  4   personas informance personas,  which  often  include  a  name,  representative  image  or  photograph,  demographic  characteristics,  behavioral   additional  institutions  that  have  a  higher  representation   characteristics,  barriers  or  challenges,  and  speci)ic  goals  or  needs. First  pass:  60  undergraduate  students  from  MSIs  and   RQs of  women  or  students  of  color  as  engineering   PWIs  attending  national  conferences  for: uses Informance:  while  reading  the  personas⇡  may  be  themselves  critical  learning  experiences,  design  researchers  have  also   Educational undergraduates  than  the  national  average  OR  who  have  a   • American  Indian  Science  and  Engineering  Society   higher  number  of  women  or  people  of  color  participants   developed  methods  by  which  they  embody  (even  bodily)  the  daily  experiences  of  their  design  population  who  are  often   (AISES) socially,  economically,  or  demographically  far  removed  from  the  designers  themselves.  Brenda  Laurel,  Eric  Dishman,  and   overall. • National  Society  of  Black  Engineers  (NSBE) Interviews:  90  minute  open  interviews  around  the   engineering education participants Bonnie  Johnson  have  introduced  informance—a  concept  that  combines  the  words  "information"  and  "performance"  —as   • Society  of  Hispanic  Professional  Engineers  or  Society   one  of  these  learning  tools.     for  Advancement  of  Chicanos  and  Native  Americans  in   question,  “Tell  me  how  you  came  to  be  where  you  are   leadership now.”    Transcripts  shared  and  pseudonymized  according   By  combining  personas  and  informance,  the  educational  component  of  this  project  represents  a  transformative  approach   plan Science  (SACNAS) tools to  participant’s  wishes. to  moving  research  into  practice—an  approach  drawn  from  the  design  activities  at  the  heart  of  engineering  itself. • Society  of  Women  Engineers  (SWE) Analysis:  inductive  and  deductive  coding,  to  answer  RQs   pending  support  and  approval  granted  by  governing   about  institutional  structure  impact,  and  construct   councils  of  elders  and  other  leadership. narratives  for  personas  ⇢  in  educational  plan. About  the  RIFE  Group Educational  plan “Take  [this]  story,  for  instance.    It’s  yours.    Do  with  it   We  are  the  Research  in  Feminist  Engineering  Group  (RIFE).   We  are   a   diverse   set  of  researchers   in   the   School  of   Engineering  Education   at   Our  Vision Our   job   is  to  think  creatively   about   gender   and  engineering   education,   and  to   References Research  study   Dishman,  E.,  Designing  for  the  New  Old:  Asking,  Observing  and   Performing  Future  Elders,  in  Design  Research:  Methods  and   what  you  will.    Tell  it  to  friends.    Turn  it  into  a   Purdue   University.     We   blend   feminist   theory  and   methods   with   engineering   educational  research  questions. think   about,   write,   and   teach   in   ways   that   will   result   in   a   change   in   how   engineering   education   is   done.   To   that   end,   we   ask   big   questions,   undertake   Crenshaw,  K.,  Demarginalizing  the  Intersection  of  Race  and  Sex:  A  Black   Feminist  Critique  of  Antidiscrimination  Doctrine,  Feminist  Theory,  and   Perspectives,  B.  Laurel,  Editor.  2003,  MIT  Press:  Cambridge,  MA.  p.   television  movie.    Forget  it.    But  don’t  say  in  the  years   We   try   to   do   things  a  little  differently  than  a  conventional   research  model.    We   want  to   empower  people  in  our  diverse  community.      From  developing  action-­‐ ambitious  projects,  and  employ  appropriate  rigorous  research  methods. Antiracist  Politics.  University  of  Chicago  Legal  Forum,  1989. 41-­‐48. to  come  that  you  would  have  lived  your  life  differently   Dina  Banerjee,  Ph.D Jordana  Hoegh,  M.S. Don,  A.  and  J.  Petrick,  User  Requirements:  By  Any  Means  Necessary,  in   research   collaborations   with   professors,   to  looking   for  projects   to  beneWit   our   Sociology Sociology hooks,  b.,  Feminist  theory:  from  margin  to  center.  2000,  Cambridge,  MA:   local   community,   we   want   to   try   to   involve   as   many   different   people   as   PhD  student Design  Research:  Methods  and  Perspectives,  B.  Laurel,  Editor.  2003,   Postdoc  on  ADVANCE South  End  Press. Collins,  P.H.,  Black  Feminist  Thought.  2009,  New  York:  Routledge. MIT  Press:  Cambridge,  MA.  p.  70-­‐80. if  only  you  had  heard  this  story.    You’ve  heard  it  now.” possible.   RIFE  2009-­‐present RA  on  ADVANCE RIFE  2008-­‐present Johnson,  B.M.,  The  Paradox  of  Design  Research:  The  Role  of  Informance,   Smith,  D.E.,  The  Everyday  World  As  Problematic:  A  Feminist  Sociology.   Northeastern  Series  in  Feminist  Theory,  ed.  E.F.  Keller.  1987,  Boston:   in  Design  Research:  Methods  and  Perspectives,  B.  Laurel,  Editor.  2003,   —  Thomas  King,   Lindsey  Nelson Engineering   Marisol  Mercado   Santiago Katie  Morley Aero/Astro  Engineering Canek  Phillips,  M.S. Engineering  Education Ranjani  Rao,  M.S. Communication MIT  Press:  Cambridge,  MA.  p.  39-­‐40. Education Engineering  Education The  Truth  About  Stories:  A  Native  Narrative Northeastern  University. Undergraduate RA  on  CAREER PhD  student PhD  student PhD  student URA  on  What  is RA  on  IEECI-­‐ASK Smith,  D.E.,  Institutional  Ethnography:  A  Sociology  for  People.  Gender   Laurel,  B.,  Design  improvisation:  Ethnography  meets  theatre,  in  Design   At  University  of   RA  on  ADVANCE To  join  RIFE  Fall  2011  Engineering  to  you? RIFE  2010-­‐pres. Lens.  2005,  Lanham,  MD:  Altamira  Press. Research:  Methods  and  perspectives,  B.  Laurel,  Editor.  2003,  MIT  Press:   Sussex  2010-­‐11 RIFE  2010-­‐present RIFE  2008-­‐present Cambridge,  MA.  p.  49-­‐54.