Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
1
International Summit
on the Teaching
Profession
Framing the issues
Andreas Schleicher
Director for Education and Skills
...
The kind of things that
are easy to teach are
now easy to automate,
digitize or outsource
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
1960 197...
Robotics
The Auto-auto
>1m km,
one minor accident,
occasional human intervention
Augmented Reality
A lot more to come
• 3D printing
• Synthetic biology
• Brain enhancements
• Nanomaterials
• Etc.
Everyone wants to live in your countries
-20
-15
-10
-5
0
5
10
15
20
25
1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 ...
Education in the past
Education now
Dimensions of student learning
What knowledge, skills
and character qualities do
successful teachers require?
Session 1
What knowledge, skills
and character qualities do
successful teachers require?
96% of teachers: My role as a teacher
is to...
What knowledge, skills
and character qualities do
successful teachers require?
86%: Students learn best
by findings soluti...
What knowledge, skills
and character qualities do
successful teachers require?
74%: Thinking and reasoning is more
importa...
Prevalence of memorisation
rehearsal, routine exercises, drill and
practice and/or repetition
-2.00 -1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00...
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
VietNam
Macao-China
Shanghai-China
Turkey
Uruguay
Greece
HongKong-China
ChineseTaipei
Portug...
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
Sweden
Iceland
Tunisia
Argentina
Switzerland
Brazil
Luxembourg
Ireland
Netherlands
NewZealan...
17 Teaching strategies and learning outcomes
-0.4
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
Below Level
1
Level 1 Level 2...
18 Professional knowledge and expertise in teaching
Behaviour
Cognition
Content
Character
• Effectiveness is evidenced by ...
19
Second generation immigrant students’ performance
in mathematics, by country of origin and destination
370 390 410 430 ...
20
Immigrant students’ performance in mathematics,
by country of origin and destination
300 350 400 450 500 550 600
Austra...
21
21
21
Make learning central, encourage
engagement and responsibility
Be acutely sensitive to individual
differences
Pro...
What policies can help?
Session 2
Student-level
• Initiating and managing learning processes, including active learning
• Responding to the learning needs o...
Developing Teaching
as a profession
Recruit top candidates
into the profession
Support teachers in
continued
development o...
25 Teachers’ skills
Numeracy test scores of tertiary graduates and teachers
Numeracy score215 235 255 275 295 315 335 355 ...
26 Teachers’ skills
Numeracy test scores of tertiary graduates and teachers
Numeracy score215 235 255 275 295 315 335 355 ...
External forces
exerting pressure and
influence inward on
an occupation
Internal motivation and
efforts of the members
of ...
Policy levers to teacher professionalism
Knowledge base for teaching
(initial education and incentives for
professional de...
Teacher professionalism
Knowledge base for teaching
(initial education and incentives for
professional development)
Autono...
High Peer Networks/
Low Autonomy
High Autonomy Knowledge Emphasis
Balanced Domains/
High Professionalism
Balanced Domains/...
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Spain
Japan
France
Brazil
Finland
Flanders
Norway
Alberta(Canada)
Australia
Denmark
Israel
Korea
Un...
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Spain
Japan
France
Brazil
Finland
Flanders
Norway
Alberta(Canada)
Australia
Denmark
Israel
Korea
Un...
Status of the
profession
Teachers’
perception of
the extent to
which teaching
is valued as a
profession
Satisfaction with
...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
Low professionalism
Medium professionalism
High professionalism
Mean mathematics performance, by sc...
3
5
3
5
Mean mathematics performance, by school location,
after accounting for socio-economic status
Fig II.3.3
3
5
3
5
Kn...
3
6
3
6
Mean mathematics performance, by school location,
after accounting for socio-economic status
Fig II.3.3
3
6
3
6
Pe...
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Spain
Japan
France
Brazil
Finland
Flanders
Norway
Alberta(Canada)
Australia
Denmark
Israel
Korea
Un...
Percentage of lower secondary teachers with less than 3 years experience at their school and as a teacher, who are working...
39 Induction and professional development
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
Brazil
CzechRepublic
Spain
Israel
Poland
Estonia
Finland...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
Discussindividual
students
Shareresources
Teamconferences
Collaboratefor
common
standards...
Teachers Self-Efficacy and Professional Collaboration
11.40
11.60
11.80
12.00
12.20
12.40
12.60
12.80
13.00
13.20
13.40
Ne...
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100 England(UK)
Estonia
Singapore
Netherlands
Shanghai
(China)
NewZealand
Brazil
Japan
United...
43
What principals say about involving teachers
in decision making at school
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
T...
44
What principals say about involving teachers
in decision making at school
Percentage of lower secondary principals who ...
45 Impact of professional development on teaching
0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Knowledge and understanding of subject field(s)
Peda...
What can governments
do to implement policies
more effectively?
Session 3
• Clear and consistent priorities (across
governments and across time), ambition and
urgency, and the capacity to learn ra...
Strive for
consensus
Engage
stakeholders
Careful
piloting
Sustainable
resources
Careful
timing
Partnership
with unions
• A...
Strive for
consensus
Engage
stakeholders
Careful
piloting
Sustainable
resources
Careful
timing
Partnership
with unions
• R...
Strive for
consensus
Engage
stakeholders
Careful
piloting
Sustainable
resources
Careful
timing
Partnership
with unions
• R...
Strive for
consensus
Engage
stakeholders
Careful
piloting
Sustainable
resources
Careful
timing
Partnership
with unions
• C...
Strive for
consensus
Engage
stakeholders
Careful
piloting
Sustainable
resources
Careful
timing
Partnership
with unions
• C...
Strive for
consensus
Engage
stakeholders
Careful
piloting
Sustainable
resources
Careful
timing
Partnership
with unions
• A...
Strive for
consensus
Engage
stakeholders
Careful
piloting
Sustainable
resources
Careful
timing
Partnership
with unions
• P...
Routine cognitive skills Conceptual understanding, complex ways
of thinking, ways of working
Some students learn at high l...
5656Lessonsfromhighperformers
56
56 Thank you
Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org
– All publications
– The comple...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

International Summit on the Teaching Profession - Framing the Issues

15,966 views

Published on

by Andreas Schleicher, Director for Education and Skills, OECD. - If the quality of an education system can never exceed the quality of its teachers, then countries need to do all they can to build a high-quality teaching force. Teaching Excellence through Professional Learning and Policy Reform: Lessons from around the World, the background report to the sixth International Summit on the Teaching Profession, describes the knowledge, skills and character qualities common to the most effective teachers. It examines the education policies and practices that help teachers to acquire these tools, including through induction and mentoring programmes, ongoing professional development activities, student assessments, and collaboration with colleagues. The publication also discusses the importance of involving all stakeholders – especially teachers – in the process of education reform.

Published in: Education

International Summit on the Teaching Profession - Framing the Issues

  1. 1. 1 International Summit on the Teaching Profession Framing the issues Andreas Schleicher Director for Education and Skills OECD
  2. 2. The kind of things that are easy to teach are now easy to automate, digitize or outsource 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2006 2009 Routine manual Nonroutine manual Routine cognitive Nonroutine analytic Nonroutine interpersonal Mean task input in percentiles of 1960 task
  3. 3. Robotics The Auto-auto >1m km, one minor accident, occasional human intervention
  4. 4. Augmented Reality
  5. 5. A lot more to come • 3D printing • Synthetic biology • Brain enhancements • Nanomaterials • Etc.
  6. 6. Everyone wants to live in your countries -20 -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 20 25 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 High income OECD members Low income Middle income Source : OECD (2013), Trends Shaping Education. Primary source: World Bank (2012), World Databank: Net Migration. Net migration (in millions of people) into regions, with countries grouped by income level and OECD members, 1960-2010 .
  7. 7. Education in the past
  8. 8. Education now
  9. 9. Dimensions of student learning
  10. 10. What knowledge, skills and character qualities do successful teachers require? Session 1
  11. 11. What knowledge, skills and character qualities do successful teachers require? 96% of teachers: My role as a teacher is to facilitate students own inquiry
  12. 12. What knowledge, skills and character qualities do successful teachers require? 86%: Students learn best by findings solutions on their own
  13. 13. What knowledge, skills and character qualities do successful teachers require? 74%: Thinking and reasoning is more important than curriculum content
  14. 14. Prevalence of memorisation rehearsal, routine exercises, drill and practice and/or repetition -2.00 -1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 Switzerland Poland Germany Japan Korea France Sweden Shanghai-China Canada Singapore United States Norway Spain Netherlands United Kingdom Prevalence of elaboration reasoning, deep learning, intrinsic motivation, critical thinking, creativity, non-routine problems High Low Low High
  15. 15. 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 VietNam Macao-China Shanghai-China Turkey Uruguay Greece HongKong-China ChineseTaipei Portugal Brazil Serbia Bulgaria Singapore Netherlands Japan Argentina CostaRica Lithuania Tunisia NewZealand CzechRepublic Israel Korea Latvia Qatar Italy UnitedStates Estonia Ireland Australia Mexico UnitedArabEmirates Norway Malaysia Kazakhstan UnitedKingdom Romania OECDaverage Albania Colombia Indonesia Sweden Belgium Peru Thailand Denmark RussianFederation Canada SlovakRepublic Hungary Germany Croatia Luxembourg Montenegro Chile Poland Finland Austria Slovenia France Switzerland Jordan Liechtenstein Spain Iceland Indexofexposuretowordproblems Focus on word problems Fig I.3.1a 15 Word problems- Formal math situated in a word problem, where it is obvious to students what mathematical knowledge and skills are needed
  16. 16. 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 Sweden Iceland Tunisia Argentina Switzerland Brazil Luxembourg Ireland Netherlands NewZealand CostaRica Austria Liechtenstein Malaysia Indonesia Denmark UnitedKingdom Uruguay Lithuania Germany Australia Chile OECDaverage SlovakRepublic Thailand Qatar Finland Portugal Colombia Mexico Peru CzechRepublic Israel Italy Belgium HongKong-China Poland France Spain Montenegro Greece Turkey Slovenia VietNam Hungary Bulgaria Kazakhstan ChineseTaipei Canada UnitedStates Estonia Romania Latvia Serbia Japan Korea Croatia Albania RussianFederation UnitedArabEmirates Jordan Macao-China Singapore Shanghai-China Indexofexposuretoformalmathematics Focus on conceptual understanding Fig I.3.1b 16 Focus on conceptual understanding
  17. 17. 17 Teaching strategies and learning outcomes -0.4 -0.3 -0.2 -0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 Below Level 1 Level 1 Level 2 Level 3 Level 4 Level 5 Level 6 Index of student-oriented instruction Index of teacher-directed instruction Index of cognitive-activation instruction Students' proficiency level in PISA mathematics Mean Index Students at Level 5 and 6 can develop and work with models for complex situations, and work strategically with advanced thinking and reasoning skills Students below Level 2 have difficulties using basic algorithms, formulae, procedures or conventions to solve problems involving whole numbers
  18. 18. 18 Professional knowledge and expertise in teaching Behaviour Cognition Content Character • Effectiveness is evidenced by teacher behaviour and student learning outcomes • Teachers as thoughtful, sentient beings, characterised by intentions, strategies, decisions and reflections • The nature and adequacy of teacher knowledge of the substance of the curriculum being taught • The teachers serve as moral agents, deploying a moral-pedagogical craft Teacher knowledge of, and sensitivity to, cultural, social and political contexts and the environments of their students.
  19. 19. 19 Second generation immigrant students’ performance in mathematics, by country of origin and destination 370 390 410 430 450 470 490 510 Austria Belgium Switzerland Germany Denmark Netherlands Austria Belgium Switzerland Germany Denmark Netherlands PISA score points in mathematics First-generation immigrants' score, after accounting for socio-economic… 2nd generation students from Turkey in: The country where migrants go to school matters more than the country where they came from 1st generation students from Turkey in: First generation immigrant students’ performance in mathematics, by country of origin and destination
  20. 20. 20 Immigrant students’ performance in mathematics, by country of origin and destination 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 Australia Macao-China New Zealand Hong Kong-China Qatar Finland Denmark United Arab… Netherlands PISA score points in mathematics First-generation immigrants' score, after accounting for socio-economic… Students from Arabic-speaking countries in: 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 Denmark Qatar United Arab Emirates Netherlands Finland % Percentage of students with an immigrant background who reported that they feel like they belong at school Students from Arabic-speaking countries in: The country where migrants go to school matters more than the country where they came from
  21. 21. 21 21 21 Make learning central, encourage engagement and responsibility Be acutely sensitive to individual differences Provide continual assessment with formative feedback Be demanding for every student with a high level of cognitive activation Ensure that students feel valued and included and learning is collaborative A continuum of support
  22. 22. What policies can help? Session 2
  23. 23. Student-level • Initiating and managing learning processes, including active learning • Responding to the learning needs of individual learners • Integrating formative and summative assessment Classroom level • Teaching in multicultural classrooms • Emphasising cross-curricular studies • Integrating students with special needs School level • Working and planning in teams and partner with other schools • Evaluating and planning for improvement • Using ICT for teaching and administration, etc. 23 Challenges for teachers
  24. 24. Developing Teaching as a profession Recruit top candidates into the profession Support teachers in continued development of practice Retain and recognise effective teachers – path for growth Improve the societal view of teaching as a profession Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after acc ounting for socio-economic status2 4 Implementing highly effective teacher policy and practice
  25. 25. 25 Teachers’ skills Numeracy test scores of tertiary graduates and teachers Numeracy score215 235 255 275 295 315 335 355 375 Spain Poland Estonia United States Canada Ireland Korea England (UK) England/N. Ireland (UK) Denmark Northern Ireland (UK) France Australia Sweden Czech Republic Austria Netherlands Norway Germany Flanders (Belgium) Finland Japan Numeracy score Numeracy skills of middle half of college graduates
  26. 26. 26 Teachers’ skills Numeracy test scores of tertiary graduates and teachers Numeracy score215 235 255 275 295 315 335 355 375 Spain Poland Estonia United States Canada Ireland Korea England (UK) England/N. Ireland (UK) Denmark Northern Ireland (UK) France Australia Sweden Czech Republic Austria Netherlands Norway Germany Flanders (Belgium) Finland Japan Numeracy score Numeracy skills of teachers
  27. 27. External forces exerting pressure and influence inward on an occupation Internal motivation and efforts of the members of the profession itself 27 Professionalism Professionalism is the level of autonomy and internal regulation exercised by members of an occupation in providing services to society
  28. 28. Policy levers to teacher professionalism Knowledge base for teaching (initial education and incentives for professional development) Autonomy: Teachers’ decision- making power over their work (teaching content, course offerings, discipline practices) Peer networks: Opportunities for exchange and support needed to maintain high standards of teaching (participation in induction, mentoring, networks, feedback from direct observations) Teacher professionalism
  29. 29. Teacher professionalism Knowledge base for teaching (initial education and incentives for professional development) Autonomy: Teachers’ decision- making power over their work (teaching content, course offerings, discipline practices) Peer networks: Opportunities for exchange and support needed to maintain high standards of teaching (participation in induction, mentoring, networks, feedback from direct observations)
  30. 30. High Peer Networks/ Low Autonomy High Autonomy Knowledge Emphasis Balanced Domains/ High Professionalism Balanced Domains/ Low Professionalism Teacher professionalism
  31. 31. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Spain Japan France Brazil Finland Flanders Norway Alberta(Canada) Australia Denmark Israel Korea UnitedStates CzechRepublic Shanghai(China) Latvia Netherlands Poland England NewZealand Singapore Estonia Networks Autonomy Knowledge Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 3131 TALIS Teacher professionalism index
  32. 32. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Spain Japan France Brazil Finland Flanders Norway Alberta(Canada) Australia Denmark Israel Korea UnitedStates CzechRepublic Shanghai(China) Latvia Netherlands Poland England NewZealand Singapore Estonia Networks Autonomy Knowledge Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 3232 TALIS Teacher professionalism and PISA learning Australia Flanders Belgium) Alberta (Canada) Shanghai (China) Czech RepublicSpain England (UK) Spain EstoniaFinland France Spain Israel Japan Korea Latvia The Netherlands Norway New Zealand Poland Singapore Sweden 350 400 450 500 550 600 650 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5 8.0 8.5 9.0 9.5 10.0 PISAmathematicsscore Teacher professionalism index
  33. 33. Status of the profession Teachers’ perception of the extent to which teaching is valued as a profession Satisfaction with the profession Teachers’ report on the extent to which teachers are happy with their decision to become a teacher. Satisfaction with work environment Teachers’ report on the extent to which teachers are happy with their current schools. Self-efficacy Teachers’ perception of their capabilities (e.g. controlling disruptive behaviour, use a variety of assessment strategies, etc.). 3 3333 Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 3333 Teacher outcomes
  34. 34. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Low professionalism Medium professionalism High professionalism Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 3434 Teacher professionalism index and teacher outcomes Perceptions of teachers’ status Satisfaction with the profession Satisfaction with the work environment Teachers’ self-efficacy Predicted percentile
  35. 35. 3 5 3 5 Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 3 5 3 5 Knowledge domain in high and low socio-economically disadvantaged schools and teacher job satisfaction -0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 Norway AbuDhabi(UAE) Israel Netherlands England(UK) Belgium(Flanders) Alberta(Canada) Italy Australia Serbia Croatia Shanghai(China) Spain Singapore Poland Malaysia SlovakRepublic Mexico Chile Estonia Brazil NewZealand Romania Latvia Portugal France Georgia Japan Sweden Korea Bulgaria Low High Association between satisfaction with current working environment and knowledge domain for each country separated by a high and low socio-economically disadvantaged concentration level. Unstandardisedcoefficients
  36. 36. 3 6 3 6 Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 3 6 3 6 Peer networks domain in high and low socio-economically disadvantaged schools and teacher job satisfaction -0.40 -0.20 0.00 0.20 0.40 0.60 0.80 1.00 Bulgaria Australia Netherlands AbuDhabi(UAE) England(UK) NewZealand Serbia Singapore Estonia Croatia Chile Sweden Shanghai(China) Norway Belgium(Flanders) Mexico SlovakRepublic Brazil Alberta(Canada) Poland Portugal Malaysia Italy Spain France Korea Latvia Romania Israel Japan Georgia Low High Association between satisfaction with current working environment and peer networks domain for each country separated by a high and low socio-economically disadvantaged concentration level. Unstandardisedcoefficients
  37. 37. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Spain Japan France Brazil Finland Flanders Norway Alberta(Canada) Australia Denmark Israel Korea UnitedStates CzechRepublic Shanghai(China) Latvia Netherlands Poland England NewZealand Singapore Estonia Networks Autonomy Knowledge Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 3737 TALIS Teacher professionalism index
  38. 38. Percentage of lower secondary teachers with less than 3 years experience at their school and as a teacher, who are working in schools with the following reported access to formal induction programmes, and their reported participation in such programmes 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Iceland Finland Georgia Serbia Japan SlovakRepublic Netherlands Norway Alberta(Canada) Flanders(Belgium) Australia UnitedStates Croatia Korea Average Russia Chile Israel NewZealand Malaysia England(United… Romania CzechRepublic Singapore Shanghai(China) Access Participation % Not everywhere where induction programmes are accessible do teachers use them
  39. 39. 39 Induction and professional development 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 Brazil CzechRepublic Spain Israel Poland Estonia Finland Flanders(Belgium) Japan Denmark Latvia Korea Sweden Netherlands France Oddsratios Probability of participation in three or more professional development activities for lower secondary teachers who reported having participated in a formal induction programme versus teachers who reported that they had not participated in such programmes
  40. 40. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Discussindividual students Shareresources Teamconferences Collaboratefor common standards Teamteaching CollaborativePD Jointactivities Classroom observations Percentageofteachers Average Shanghai (China) Professional collaboration Percentage of lower secondary teachers who report doing the following activities at least once per month Teacher co-operation Exchange and co-ordination
  41. 41. Teachers Self-Efficacy and Professional Collaboration 11.40 11.60 11.80 12.00 12.20 12.40 12.60 12.80 13.00 13.20 13.40 Never Onceayearorless 2-4timesayear 5-10timesayear 1-3timesamonth Onceaweekormore Teacherself-efficacy(level) Teach jointly as a team in the same class Observe other teachers’ classes and provide feedback Engage in joint activities across different classes Take part in collaborative professional learning Less frequently More frequently
  42. 42. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 England(UK) Estonia Singapore Netherlands Shanghai (China) NewZealand Brazil Japan UnitedStates Australia Norway Israel Alberta (Canada) Poland Spain Korea Flanders (Belgium) Italy Sweden Denmark France Finland Percentageofteachers School Management Principals Other teachers Mean mathematics performance, by school location, after accounting for socio-economic status Fig II.3.3 4 2 4 2 Teachers feedback : direct classroom observations
  43. 43. 43 What principals say about involving teachers in decision making at school 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% This school provides staff with opportunities to actively participate in school decisions There is a collaborative school culture that is characterised by mutual support This school provides parents or guardians with opportunities to actively participate in school decisions This school provides students with opportunities to actively participate in school decisions I make important decisions on my own Strongly disagree Disagree Agree Strongly agree Percentage of lower secondary principals who "strongly disagree", "disagree", "agree" or "strongly agree" with the following statements about their school Percentageofteachers
  44. 44. 44 What principals say about involving teachers in decision making at school Percentage of lower secondary principals who reported that they "often" or "very often" distributed leadership activiti other stakeholders in and around the school during the 12 months prior to the survey 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 Latvia Shanghai(China) Poland Korea Estonia Norway Flanders(Belgium) Brazil CzechRepublic Alberta(Canada) Spain Australia England(UK) NewZealand Denmark Netherlands Singapore France Sweden Finland Italy Japan This school provides students with opportunities to actively participate in school decisions This school provides parents or guardians with opportunities to actively participate in school decisions This school provides staff with opportunities to actively participate in school decisions Cumulativepercentage
  45. 45. 45 Impact of professional development on teaching 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Knowledge and understanding of subject field(s) Pedagogical competencies in teaching subject field(s) Student evaluation and assessment practices Knowledge of the curriculum ICT skills for teaching Student behaviour and classroom management Approaches to individual learning New technologies in the workplace Teaching cross-curricular skills Teaching students with special needs Student career guidance and counselling Approaches to developing cross-occupational competencies School management and administration Teaching in a multicultural/lingual setting Moderate Large Percentage of teachers who participated in professional development activities with the following content in the 12 months prior to the survey, and reported moderate or large positive impact of this activity on their teaching Percentage of teachers
  46. 46. What can governments do to implement policies more effectively? Session 3
  47. 47. • Clear and consistent priorities (across governments and across time), ambition and urgency, and the capacity to learn rapidly. Shared vision • Appropriate targets, real-time data, monitoring, incentives aligned to targets, accountability, and the capacity to intervene where necessary. Performance management • Building professional capabilities, sharing best practice and innovation, flexible management, and frontline ethos aligned with system objectives. Frontline capacity • Strong leadership at every level, including teacher leadership, adequate process design and consistency of focus across agencies. Delivery architecture 47 Successful reform delivery
  48. 48. Strive for consensus Engage stakeholders Careful piloting Sustainable resources Careful timing Partnership with unions • Acknowledge divergent views and interests • Communicate, communicate, communicate – Feedback reduces the likelihood of strong opposition – Involvement of stakeholders cultivates a sense of joint ownership over policies, and hence helps build consensus over both the need and the relevance of reforms • Mechanisms of regular and institutionalised consultation contribute to the development of trust among parties, and help them reach consensus – Regular interactions raise awareness of the concerns of others, thus fostering a climate of compromise • External pressures can be used to build a compelling case for change . 48 Successful reform implementation Strive for consensus about the aims without compromising the drive for improvement
  49. 49. Strive for consensus Engage stakeholders Careful piloting Sustainable resources Careful timing Partnership with unions • Regular involvement by stakeholders in policy design helps to build capacity and shared ideas over time • Several countries have established teaching councils that provide teachers and other stakeholder groups with both a forum for policy development and, critically, a mechanism for profession-led standard setting and quality assurance in teacher education, teacher induction, teacher performance and career development • Policy can encourage the formation of such communities . 49 Successful reform implementation Engage teachers not just in the implementation of reform but in their design
  50. 50. Strive for consensus Engage stakeholders Careful piloting Sustainable resources Careful timing Partnership with unions • Regular involvement by stakeholders in policy design helps to build capacity and shared ideas over time • Several countries have established teaching councils that provide teachers and other stakeholder groups with both a forum for policy development and, critically, a mechanism for profession-led standard setting and quality assurance in teacher education, teacher induction, teacher performance and career development • Policy can encourage the formation of such communities through: leadership-development strategies that describe how to create and sustain learning communities • building indicators of professional learning communities into processes of school inspection and accreditation • linking evidence of commitment to professional learning communities to performance-related pay and measures of teacher competence used in recertification • providing seed money for self-learning in schools and among schools • professional self- regulation through processes and organisations that include all teachers. 50 Successful reform implementation Engage teachers not just in the implementation of reform but in their design
  51. 51. Strive for consensus Engage stakeholders Careful piloting Sustainable resources Careful timing Partnership with unions • Currently only one in ten educational reforms is evaluated • Policy experimentation can help build consensus on implementation and can prove powerful in testing out policy initiatives and – by virtue of their temporary nature and limited scope – overcoming fears and resistance by specific groups of stakeholders. 51 Successful reform implementation Use and evaluate pilot projects before full implementation
  52. 52. Strive for consensus Engage stakeholders Careful piloting Sustainable resources Careful timing Partnership with unions • Capacity • Money 52 Successful reform implementation Back reforms with sustainable financing
  53. 53. Strive for consensus Engage stakeholders Careful piloting Sustainable resources Careful timing Partnership with unions • All political players and stakeholders need to develop realistic expectations about the pace and nature of reforms to improve outcomes • Certain reform measures are best introduced before others, particularly because of the substantial gap between the time at which the initial cost of reform is incurred, and the time when the intended benefits of reforms materialise • Time is needed to learn about and understand impact, to build trust and develop capacity for the next stage . 53 Successful reform implementation Time implementation carefully
  54. 54. Strive for consensus Engage stakeholders Careful piloting Sustainable resources Careful timing Partnership with unions • Putting the teaching profession at the heart of education reform requires a fruitful dialogue between governments and unions • Teachers should not just be part of the implementation of reforms but also part of their design • Conflict isn’t best addressed by weak unions but by strong social partnership . 54 Successful reform implementation Build partnerships with education unions to design and implement reforms
  55. 55. Routine cognitive skills Conceptual understanding, complex ways of thinking, ways of working Some students learn at high levels All students need to learn at high levels Student inclusion Curriculum, instruction and assessment Standardisation and compliance High-level professional knowledge workers Teacher quality ‘Tayloristic’, hierarchical Flat, collegial Work organisation Primarily to authorities Primarily to peers and stakeholders Accountability What it all means The old bureaucratic system The modern enabling system
  56. 56. 5656Lessonsfromhighperformers 56 56 Thank you Find out more about our work at www.oecd.org – All publications – The complete micro-level database Email: Andreas.Schleicher@OECD.org Twitter: SchleicherEDU and remember:

×