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Goal:
1.Students will REVIEW the 8 basic
FEATURES that make up civilizations.
2. Students will identify key
Characteristics of the Mesopotamia
Civilization.
DO NOW:
1. COMPLETE YOUR 8 BASIC
CHARACTERISTICS CHART
2. WHEN COMPLETE PLACE SOME OF YOUR
HOMEWORK IDEAS ON THE BOARD
Before we begin!!!!!
Political: Who controls what? What type of
government is there? Anything to do with
laws or war.
Economic: What type of economy? How
do people make a living?
Geography: Where is it? Is the land
mountainous? Desert? Oceanic?
Social: Religious, intellectual, artistic
Ancient River Valley Civs
ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA
Oldest known
civilization
Cradle of Human
Civilization
Old Testament
Nebuchadnezzar
Ziggurat (right)
Hanging gardens
Geography
This civ rose in the
valleys between the
Tigris and
Euphrates rivers.
Some say this
Fertile Crescent
was the real Garden
of Eden.
In what modern day country was
the Fertile Crescent?
Ur, the capital city of
Mesopotamia
Political:What was the earliest kingdom
in Mesopotamia? The second?
Social
This is cuneiform.
Babylonians wrote
using this “wedge-
shaped” writing on
clay tablets.
The Sumerians
invented writing.
More cuneiform writing
More ziggurats
Hanging gardens of Babylonia
The ancient city of Babylon, under King Nebuchadnezzar
II, must have been a wonder to the traveler's eyes. "In
addition to its size," wrote Herodotus, a historian in 450
BC, "Babylon surpasses in splendor any city in the known
world."
Herodotus claimed the outer walls were 56 miles in length,
80 feet thick and 320 feet high. Wide enough, he said, to
allow a four-horse chariot to turn. The inner walls were "not
so thick as the first, but hardly less strong." Inside the walls
were fortresses and temples containing immense statues of
solid gold. Rising above the city was the famous Tower of
Babel, a temple to the god Marduk, that seemed to reach to
the heavens
Another painting of the hanging
gardens with Tower of Babel in back
Economic: trade and farming
Sumerians
(Mesopotamians) were
known to trade with
the Egyptians and the
Indus Valley
civilizations.
In later years, these
trade routes became
Silk Road.
Sumerians invented the wheel!
The wheel was
invented by 6000 BC!
It helped military,
farming and trade.
At right, this is made
of wood.
Political:Mesopotamian Law
Code of Hammurabi
“eye for an eye
tooth for a tooth”
That concludes
Mesopotamia.
Any questions before the quiz?
Mesopotamia Quiz
Political:What law system did Sumerians
use? Hint: It can be summed: eye for eye;
tooth for tooth.
Economic: How did Mesopotamians earn a
living?
Geography:Between what 2 rivers did the
Fertile Crescent appear?
Social:What type of writing did they use?
ANCIENT EGYPT
Nile River
Mummies
Pharaohs
Rameses
King Tutankhamen
Hieroglyphics
Egyptian civilization
Egyptian civilization
arose a bit after
Mesopotamia.
Geography: It was
centered around the
Nile River.
The Nile River
Do Now: Answer the
following questions
based on the diagram
below.
1. Which is the tallest
pyramid?
2. Which is taller, Khufu
or the Washington
Monument?
3. What is the length of
the side of the
Menkaure pyramid at
its base?
Goal: Why did the Ancient Egyptians believe the
Nile River was a gift?
Ancient Egypt
3200-500 BC
I. Location
1. North Africa
2. Natural barriers: Mediterranean Sea, Sahara
Desert, Red Sea
A. Result = less prone to invasion.
II. Nile River
1. World’s longest river (4000 miles)
2. “Gift of the Nile”  annual flooding that deposits
rich soil.
3. Benefits
A. Easy communication.
Egyptian Society
I. Egyptian Kingdoms become one.
1. Menes: Unified Lower & Upper Egypt around 3100 BC.
II. Religious Beliefs
1. Polytheistic: belief in many gods controlling earth.
2. Mummification: process of preseriving the dead.
A. Afterlife  Happy Field of Food or Devourer of Souls
3. Pharaohs: god-kings of Egypt.
4. Chief gods: Isis, Osiris, Amon-Re, Anubis
III. Kingdoms of the Nile
Old Kingdom
2650-2134 BC
Middle
Kingdom
2040-1640 BC
New Kingdom
1550-1070 BC
Achievements Built enormous
tombs &
pyramids.
Land drained for
farming.
Traded with lands
along the Red &
Mediterranean
Sea.
Decline Power struggles,
crop failures, &
cost of pyramids.
Hittites invaded
& conquered.
Nubians, then
others, invaded.
IV. Social
Order
.
Priests
Nobles/Warriors
Scribes
Merchants
Peasants/Slaves
Pharaoh
s
Pyramids
These are the Giza
pyramids, the most
famous.
Pyramids were tombs
for the kings.
These were built in
3500 B.C.E.
How old are they?
Political:Egyptian Pharaohs
Egyptians were led by
Pharaohs.
They were priest-kings
King Tut is the most
famous
Using computers, this
image was
reconstructed using his
remains
Tutankhamun
Tutankhamun on the
throne
Abu Simbel was built by
Ramseses II
Mummies
Egyptians who could
afford to do so would
have themselves
mummified.
They believed in a
better afterlife if their
body was preserved.
The Egyptians took out all of the internal organs, except
the heart. When they removed them the organs were put
in canopic jars, that were put in the tomb with the
mummy. They did not take out the heart because it was
believed to be the intelligence and emotion of the
person. The Egyptians
thought the brain had no significant value, so they took it
out through the nose. The body was packed and covered
with natron (a salty drying agent). After this the body
was left
for 40-50 days.
Mummies
Egyptians wrote in hieroglyphics
Hieroglyphics
What did Egyptians write on?
Ancient Egyptians
used papyrus, a
substance derived
from the plant of
the same name
The Great Sphinx is
located on the Giza
plateau, about six
miles west of Cairo.
Nubia
People around the
world have learnt about
the glorious past of the
Egyptian empire, but
most have failed to
learn of the Nubia,
which was sometimes
even stronger than the
Egyptian empire. Nubia
rivaled Egypt in wealth
and power, and
mutually influenced
each other.
The Egyptians called them the Kush. The Kush was
comparable with Egypt, and both states
communicated with each other constantly. Today we
do not hear of Nubia nor Kush. In its place is nothern
Sudan. With the construction of the Aswan high dam
in the 1960s, Nubian land was flooded and that forced
some 100,000 Nubians to seek new homes in
Egyptian and Sudanese cities. Nubia's glorious past is
now under water.
The Great Sphinx &
Cheferen
Egyptian economy
Although Egypt looks
really sophisticated, the
economy is a traditional
economy based on
farming and trade.
Egyptians traded up and
down the Nile, with
Mesopotamians and
sometimes with Indus
Valley (in Pakistan)
That concludes Egypt.
Any questions before the quiz?
Egypt Quiz
1.What river is the basis for Egyptian civilization?
2.What “paper” did Egyptians write on?
3. What is an Egyptian ruler called?
4.What writing system did Egyptians use?
5.What other African kingdom did Egypt trade
and interact with?
6. What type of economic system did Egypt have?
1 OCT AGENDA
COPY DOWN INDUS CIVILIZATION
QUESTIONS
GO OVER RUBRIC FOR FRIDAYS
GROUP PRESENTATIONS
GO OVER HW ON PAGES 126 - 131
Indus River Quiz
P: Why do we know so little of the power
structure in the Indus Valley?
E: How did the Indus make a living?
G:In what modern day country are the settlements
of the Indus River Valley civilization?
G:Why did the cities have so many walls?
S: How do Indus artifacts demonstrate that the the
the Indus Valley was sophisticated?
Indus Valley civilization
G:What modern day countries
was the Indus Valley civ in?
Indus River Valley
This civ is still
mysterious.
The writing has not
been translated.
Indus River civilization
We do know the cities
were sophisticated
enough to have brick
walls surrounding
them for protection
against flooding from
the Indus River.
Various artifacts found
What are artifacts?
Indus Economy
Just like the other river
valley civs, the Indus
river valley people
were mostly farmers.
Traditional economy
They did trade with
Chinese and with
Sumerians
(Mesopotamians).
That concludes Indus River
Valley Civilization.
Get ready for the quiz.
Indus River Quiz
P: Why do we know so little of the power
structure in the Indus Valley?
E: How did the Indus make a living?
G:In what modern day country are the settlements
of the Indus River Valley civilization?
G:Why did the cities have so many walls?
S: How do Indus artifacts demonstrate that the the
the Indus Valley was sophisticated?
HW: Students can read and look at Visual Sources of the Indus
Civilization and answer the following questions
Based on these visual sources, how would you describe an Indus Valley city to
someone who had never seen it?
Compare these images of Indus Valley cities with those of the early agrarian
village of Çatalhüyük (see the photo on p. 64 and Visual Source 2.1 on page 77).
What differences can you identify between these two types of settlements? What
had changed in the intervening centuries?
IMAGE 3.2
How might a prominent landowner, a leading official, a clan head, or a merchant
make use of such a seal?
What meaning might you attach to the use of animals as totems or symbols of a
particular group or individual?
IMAGE 3.3
What specific features of this figure can you point out?
What possible indication of elite status can you identify?
What does Visual Source 3.4 suggest about views of women, images of female
beauty, and attitudes about sexuality and the body?
IMAGE 3.4
What features of this statue may have provoked such observations?
How do you react to this statue? What qualities does she evoke?
What overall impression does the statue convey?
Based on these visual sources, how would you describe
an Indus Valley city to someone who had never seen it?
HARAPPA
•physical setting in a plain surrounded by
agricultural fields; the major river at the top of the
picture; its large size; and the grid layout of its
streets.
•Individual features of the city: walls and gates;
the large, separately walled complex to the left of
the drawing; the suburbs that cluster next to this
separate walled enclosure; the river port at the
center top of the drawing; and the large open
space within the walls of the city toward the
center top of the image.
Based on these visual sources, how
would you describe an Indus Valley city to
someone who had never seen it?
How might a
prominent
landowner, a
leading official, a
clan head, or a
merchant make
use of such a
seal?
What meaning
might you attach
to the use of
animals as totems
or symbols of a
particular group
or individual?
How might a prominent landowner, a
leading official, a clan head, or a
merchant make use of such a seal?
The seal might be used to mark
ownership of trade goods destined for
transport; or to represent a specific clan,
a high official, or a prominent individual.
Other possibilities decoration, for
financial or commercial contracts, or as
a symbol of authority.
What meaning might you attach to the
use of animals as totems or symbols
of a particular group or individual?
Animals possess symbolic meanings in the
Indus Valley civilization.
Specific animals may have been associated
with specific professions, clans, or people.
Animals may have been used as totems,
and their inclusion on seals was designed
to protect or safeguard the item attached to
the seal.
Animals provided a simple written language
What specific
features of this
figure can you
point out?
What possible
indication of
elite status
can you
identify?
What specific features of this
figure can you point out?
The specific features that stand out are
its headband, armband, and clothing
pattern.
The facial features of the figure are also
pronounced, as is his beard.
What possible indication of
elite status can you identify?
The headband and armband may be
signs of elite status.
The pattern on his clothing may imply
wealth and status.
His beard may also be a sign of elite
status.
What features of this statue may
have provoked such observations?
her body posture and facial features,
which convey confidence
her bracelets and other jewelry, which
might speak to her status and perhaps
her profession
How do you react to this statue?
What qualities does she evoke?
Two possible reactions :artistic qualities and
beauty; and interest in its purpose and
meaning
Several scholars have noted that the statue
evokes confidence and perhaps talent; it
might also evoke a sense of impatience on
the part of the dancer.
Ancient China Quiz
P: In China, according to the dynastic cycle,
what happened to “bad kings”?
E: How did the Chinese earn a living?
G: What river was the earliest Chinese
civilization centered around?
S: What technological advancements did the
Chinese have?
ANCIENT CHINA
Great Wall
Began 2000 B.C.
Mandate of
Heaven
Dynasties
Silk
astronomy
As in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and along the Indus River,
Chinese civilization began within a major river valley.
Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse.
Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost
infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This
history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic
groups became, over time, a more or less single culture,
began in the Yellow River Valley.
YellowRiverCivilization
G:Ancient China was
formed around the
Yellow River.
The color yellow
symbolized
“centrality”, as in
China is the center of
the world.
Chinese accomplishments
During the Zhou and
Shang periods, the
Chinese made
remarkable
achievements in
astronomy and
bronzework, learned
to make silk and
create books, and
developed a complex
system of writing
E:Chinese invented silk
Silk was exotic and
expensive, so it was
good for trading with
the rest of the world.
It is made from silk
worms.
Silk also makes
“paper”
Silk worm
S:Chinese astronomy
•2137 BC - Chinese book 书经 records the earliest known solar
eclipse on October 22.
• 2000 BC - Chinese determine that Jupiter needs 12 years to
complete one revolution of its orbit.
•1400 BC - Chinese record the regularity of solar and lunar
eclipses and the earliest known solar variation日珥.
•1200 BC - Chinese divide the sky into twenty eight regions 二
十八宿 for recognitions of the stars.
•1100 BC - Chinese first determine the spring equinox 黄赤交
角.
•776 BC - Chinese make the earliest reliably record of solar
eclipse.
In the Middle Ages the Arabs made known
throughout Muslim Spain a material which
was to replace all its predecessors. This was
paper, whose manufacture they imported
from far distant and mysterious realm of
China.
The first paper appeared in China about 200
BC. Its name is derived from papyrus. Silk
was transformed into paper by a process of
pasting, but because silk was expensive, wool
and cotton came to be used instead. This
invention was attributed to Ts'ai Lun.
PAPER
In the picture above, the
manufacturing process used by the
Chinese. They steeped mulberry or
bamboo bark in water, then kneaded it
to produce a paste from which they
obtained smooth thin sheets of paper.
According to Chinese political theory, every
dynasty goes through the so-called
dynastic cycle:
1.A new ruler unites China and founds a new
dynasty.
2.China, under the new dynasty, achieves prosperity
and a new golden age.
3.The royal family of the dynasty begins to decay,
corruption becomes rampant in the imperial court,
and the empire begins to enter decline and instability.
4.The dynasty loses the Mandate of Heaven, their
legitimacy to rule, and is overthrown by a rebellion.
The Mandate of Heaven is then passed to the next
dynasty
Ancient China
Chinese pyramids!!!!
The Great Wall of China was
built to keep the Mongols out.
Many died building it, and their
bodies were used as filler for it.
That concludes China.
Any questions before we take the
quiz?
Ancient China Quiz
P: In China, according to the dynastic cycle,
what happened to “bad kings”?
E: How did the Chinese earn a living?
G: What river was the earliest Chinese
civilization centered around?
S: What technological advancements did the
Chinese have?
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MARGIN
REVIEWS
CH 3
#1 What were the sources of state
authority in the First Civilizations?
Citizens recognized that the complexity of cities or
densely populated territories required some authority
authorities frequently used force to compel obedience.
Authority in early civilizations was often associated
with divine sanction.
Writing and accounting gave states authority by
defining elite status, conveying prestige on the literate,
providing a means to send out propaganda,
strengthening the state by making accurate record and
giving weight to orders, regulations, and laws.
#2 MESOPOTAMIA
• outlook on life viewed
humans as caught in an
disorderly world, subject to
the whims of quarreling
gods.
• environment deforestation,
soil erosion, and salinization
of the soil. This ecological
deterioration weakened
Sumerian city-states,
• Urban centered cities
• civilization, consisted of
independent states that
frequently warred among
themselves and were subject
to unexpected attack
EGYPTIAN
cheerful and hopeful outlook on
the world, rebirth of the sun
each day and of the river every
year assured Egyptians that life
would prevail over death.
more sustainable agricultural
system that lasted for thousands
of years and contributed to the
continuity of its civilization.
Rural while cities were
governmental or religious based
a strong divine right system.
While over time the pharaohs
declined in real power, the
political tradition helped Egypt
to maintain unity for 3,000 yrs.
#3 When and where did the
First Civilizations emerge?
1. Sumer in Mesopotamia, by 3000 B.C.E.
2. Egypt in the Nile River valley, by 3000
B.C.E.
3. Indus Valley civilization in the Indus and
Saraswati river valleys of present-day
Pakistan, by 2000 B.C.E.
4. China, by 2200 B.C.E.
#4 What was the role of cities in the
early civilizations?
political and administrative centers
centers of culture including art, architecture,
literature, ritual, and ceremony
marketplaces for both local and long-
distance exchange
centers of manufacturing activity
#5 What accounts for the initial
breakthroughs to civilization?
1. The growing density of population, producing more
congested and competitive societies, was a
fundamental motor of change.
2. Such settings provided incentives for innovations,
such as irrigation or plows that could produce more
food
3.These same environments generated intense
competition among rival groups that led to repeated
warfare.
4. Since losers could not easily flee to new lands, they
were absorbed into the winner’s society as slaves.
# 6 In what ways was social inequality
expressed in early civilizations?
wealth
avoidance of physical labor
clothing
houses
manner of burial
class-specific treatment in legal codes
#7 MESOPOTAMIA
PATRIARCHY
law codified and sought to
enforce a patriarchal family
life.
respectable women, those
under the protection and
sexual control of one man
nonrespectable women, such
as slaves and prostitutes,
who were often forbidden to
wear a veil.
goddesses were gradually
relegated to home and
hearth, to be replaced by
male deities,
EGYPTIAN
PATRIARCHY
Women in Egypt were
recognized as legal equals to
men. They were able to own
property, sell land, make their
own wills, sign their own
marriage contracts, and initiate
their own divorces.
Royal women occasionally
exercised significant political
power as queens.
Women were not veiled in
Egypt, and art depicting
marrage as equal partners.
#8. In what ways have historians tried
to explain the origins of patriarchy?
Transition from digging-stick agriculture (mostly women)
to more intensive agriculture with animal-drawn plows and
more intensive large-herd pastoralism (men better perform)
The growing population of civilizations meant that women
were more often pregnant and even more deeply involved in
child care than before.
•Men, because they were less important in the household,
were available to take on positions of economic, religious,
and political authority as societies grew more complex.
From these positions men shaped the values and practices of
their societies in a manner that benefited them at the
expense of women.
# 9 Meso & Egypt Neighbor Interaction
agriculture relied on wheat and barley adopted from
Mesopotamia
gourds, watermelon, domesticated donkeys, and cattle from
Sudan.
Egypt’s step pyramids and system of writing were stimulated by
Mesopotamian models.
divine kingship” most likely derived from traditions in central
or eastern Sudan
Indo-European pastoralists influenced both as they migrated
into the region. They brought with them the horse and chariot
technology, which proved effective on the battlefield. Both
incorporated both the horse and chariot into their armies.
With the invasion of the Hyksos into Egypt, Egyptian
civilization also adopted new kinds of armor, bows, daggers,
and swords; improved methods of spinning and weaving

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Ancient Civilizations.ppt

  • 1. Goal: 1.Students will REVIEW the 8 basic FEATURES that make up civilizations. 2. Students will identify key Characteristics of the Mesopotamia Civilization. DO NOW: 1. COMPLETE YOUR 8 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS CHART 2. WHEN COMPLETE PLACE SOME OF YOUR HOMEWORK IDEAS ON THE BOARD
  • 2. Before we begin!!!!! Political: Who controls what? What type of government is there? Anything to do with laws or war. Economic: What type of economy? How do people make a living? Geography: Where is it? Is the land mountainous? Desert? Oceanic? Social: Religious, intellectual, artistic
  • 4. ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA Oldest known civilization Cradle of Human Civilization Old Testament Nebuchadnezzar Ziggurat (right) Hanging gardens
  • 5. Geography This civ rose in the valleys between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. Some say this Fertile Crescent was the real Garden of Eden.
  • 6. In what modern day country was the Fertile Crescent?
  • 7.
  • 8. Ur, the capital city of Mesopotamia
  • 9. Political:What was the earliest kingdom in Mesopotamia? The second?
  • 10. Social This is cuneiform. Babylonians wrote using this “wedge- shaped” writing on clay tablets. The Sumerians invented writing.
  • 13.
  • 14. Hanging gardens of Babylonia
  • 15. The ancient city of Babylon, under King Nebuchadnezzar II, must have been a wonder to the traveler's eyes. "In addition to its size," wrote Herodotus, a historian in 450 BC, "Babylon surpasses in splendor any city in the known world." Herodotus claimed the outer walls were 56 miles in length, 80 feet thick and 320 feet high. Wide enough, he said, to allow a four-horse chariot to turn. The inner walls were "not so thick as the first, but hardly less strong." Inside the walls were fortresses and temples containing immense statues of solid gold. Rising above the city was the famous Tower of Babel, a temple to the god Marduk, that seemed to reach to the heavens
  • 16. Another painting of the hanging gardens with Tower of Babel in back
  • 17. Economic: trade and farming Sumerians (Mesopotamians) were known to trade with the Egyptians and the Indus Valley civilizations. In later years, these trade routes became Silk Road.
  • 18. Sumerians invented the wheel! The wheel was invented by 6000 BC! It helped military, farming and trade. At right, this is made of wood.
  • 19. Political:Mesopotamian Law Code of Hammurabi “eye for an eye tooth for a tooth”
  • 21. Mesopotamia Quiz Political:What law system did Sumerians use? Hint: It can be summed: eye for eye; tooth for tooth. Economic: How did Mesopotamians earn a living? Geography:Between what 2 rivers did the Fertile Crescent appear? Social:What type of writing did they use?
  • 23. Egyptian civilization Egyptian civilization arose a bit after Mesopotamia. Geography: It was centered around the Nile River.
  • 25. Do Now: Answer the following questions based on the diagram below. 1. Which is the tallest pyramid? 2. Which is taller, Khufu or the Washington Monument? 3. What is the length of the side of the Menkaure pyramid at its base? Goal: Why did the Ancient Egyptians believe the Nile River was a gift?
  • 26. Ancient Egypt 3200-500 BC I. Location 1. North Africa 2. Natural barriers: Mediterranean Sea, Sahara Desert, Red Sea A. Result = less prone to invasion. II. Nile River 1. World’s longest river (4000 miles) 2. “Gift of the Nile”  annual flooding that deposits rich soil. 3. Benefits A. Easy communication.
  • 27. Egyptian Society I. Egyptian Kingdoms become one. 1. Menes: Unified Lower & Upper Egypt around 3100 BC. II. Religious Beliefs 1. Polytheistic: belief in many gods controlling earth. 2. Mummification: process of preseriving the dead. A. Afterlife  Happy Field of Food or Devourer of Souls 3. Pharaohs: god-kings of Egypt. 4. Chief gods: Isis, Osiris, Amon-Re, Anubis III. Kingdoms of the Nile Old Kingdom 2650-2134 BC Middle Kingdom 2040-1640 BC New Kingdom 1550-1070 BC Achievements Built enormous tombs & pyramids. Land drained for farming. Traded with lands along the Red & Mediterranean Sea. Decline Power struggles, crop failures, & cost of pyramids. Hittites invaded & conquered. Nubians, then others, invaded.
  • 29. Pyramids These are the Giza pyramids, the most famous. Pyramids were tombs for the kings. These were built in 3500 B.C.E. How old are they?
  • 30.
  • 31. Political:Egyptian Pharaohs Egyptians were led by Pharaohs. They were priest-kings King Tut is the most famous Using computers, this image was reconstructed using his remains
  • 34. Abu Simbel was built by Ramseses II
  • 35. Mummies Egyptians who could afford to do so would have themselves mummified. They believed in a better afterlife if their body was preserved.
  • 36. The Egyptians took out all of the internal organs, except the heart. When they removed them the organs were put in canopic jars, that were put in the tomb with the mummy. They did not take out the heart because it was believed to be the intelligence and emotion of the person. The Egyptians thought the brain had no significant value, so they took it out through the nose. The body was packed and covered with natron (a salty drying agent). After this the body was left for 40-50 days.
  • 38. Egyptians wrote in hieroglyphics
  • 40. What did Egyptians write on? Ancient Egyptians used papyrus, a substance derived from the plant of the same name
  • 41. The Great Sphinx is located on the Giza plateau, about six miles west of Cairo.
  • 42. Nubia People around the world have learnt about the glorious past of the Egyptian empire, but most have failed to learn of the Nubia, which was sometimes even stronger than the Egyptian empire. Nubia rivaled Egypt in wealth and power, and mutually influenced each other.
  • 43. The Egyptians called them the Kush. The Kush was comparable with Egypt, and both states communicated with each other constantly. Today we do not hear of Nubia nor Kush. In its place is nothern Sudan. With the construction of the Aswan high dam in the 1960s, Nubian land was flooded and that forced some 100,000 Nubians to seek new homes in Egyptian and Sudanese cities. Nubia's glorious past is now under water.
  • 44. The Great Sphinx & Cheferen
  • 45. Egyptian economy Although Egypt looks really sophisticated, the economy is a traditional economy based on farming and trade. Egyptians traded up and down the Nile, with Mesopotamians and sometimes with Indus Valley (in Pakistan)
  • 46. That concludes Egypt. Any questions before the quiz?
  • 47. Egypt Quiz 1.What river is the basis for Egyptian civilization? 2.What “paper” did Egyptians write on? 3. What is an Egyptian ruler called? 4.What writing system did Egyptians use? 5.What other African kingdom did Egypt trade and interact with? 6. What type of economic system did Egypt have?
  • 48. 1 OCT AGENDA COPY DOWN INDUS CIVILIZATION QUESTIONS GO OVER RUBRIC FOR FRIDAYS GROUP PRESENTATIONS GO OVER HW ON PAGES 126 - 131
  • 49. Indus River Quiz P: Why do we know so little of the power structure in the Indus Valley? E: How did the Indus make a living? G:In what modern day country are the settlements of the Indus River Valley civilization? G:Why did the cities have so many walls? S: How do Indus artifacts demonstrate that the the the Indus Valley was sophisticated?
  • 51. G:What modern day countries was the Indus Valley civ in?
  • 52. Indus River Valley This civ is still mysterious. The writing has not been translated.
  • 53. Indus River civilization We do know the cities were sophisticated enough to have brick walls surrounding them for protection against flooding from the Indus River.
  • 56. Indus Economy Just like the other river valley civs, the Indus river valley people were mostly farmers. Traditional economy They did trade with Chinese and with Sumerians (Mesopotamians).
  • 57. That concludes Indus River Valley Civilization. Get ready for the quiz.
  • 58. Indus River Quiz P: Why do we know so little of the power structure in the Indus Valley? E: How did the Indus make a living? G:In what modern day country are the settlements of the Indus River Valley civilization? G:Why did the cities have so many walls? S: How do Indus artifacts demonstrate that the the the Indus Valley was sophisticated?
  • 59. HW: Students can read and look at Visual Sources of the Indus Civilization and answer the following questions Based on these visual sources, how would you describe an Indus Valley city to someone who had never seen it? Compare these images of Indus Valley cities with those of the early agrarian village of Çatalhüyük (see the photo on p. 64 and Visual Source 2.1 on page 77). What differences can you identify between these two types of settlements? What had changed in the intervening centuries? IMAGE 3.2 How might a prominent landowner, a leading official, a clan head, or a merchant make use of such a seal? What meaning might you attach to the use of animals as totems or symbols of a particular group or individual? IMAGE 3.3 What specific features of this figure can you point out? What possible indication of elite status can you identify? What does Visual Source 3.4 suggest about views of women, images of female beauty, and attitudes about sexuality and the body? IMAGE 3.4 What features of this statue may have provoked such observations? How do you react to this statue? What qualities does she evoke? What overall impression does the statue convey?
  • 60. Based on these visual sources, how would you describe an Indus Valley city to someone who had never seen it? HARAPPA
  • 61. •physical setting in a plain surrounded by agricultural fields; the major river at the top of the picture; its large size; and the grid layout of its streets. •Individual features of the city: walls and gates; the large, separately walled complex to the left of the drawing; the suburbs that cluster next to this separate walled enclosure; the river port at the center top of the drawing; and the large open space within the walls of the city toward the center top of the image. Based on these visual sources, how would you describe an Indus Valley city to someone who had never seen it?
  • 62. How might a prominent landowner, a leading official, a clan head, or a merchant make use of such a seal? What meaning might you attach to the use of animals as totems or symbols of a particular group or individual?
  • 63. How might a prominent landowner, a leading official, a clan head, or a merchant make use of such a seal? The seal might be used to mark ownership of trade goods destined for transport; or to represent a specific clan, a high official, or a prominent individual. Other possibilities decoration, for financial or commercial contracts, or as a symbol of authority.
  • 64. What meaning might you attach to the use of animals as totems or symbols of a particular group or individual? Animals possess symbolic meanings in the Indus Valley civilization. Specific animals may have been associated with specific professions, clans, or people. Animals may have been used as totems, and their inclusion on seals was designed to protect or safeguard the item attached to the seal. Animals provided a simple written language
  • 65. What specific features of this figure can you point out? What possible indication of elite status can you identify?
  • 66. What specific features of this figure can you point out? The specific features that stand out are its headband, armband, and clothing pattern. The facial features of the figure are also pronounced, as is his beard.
  • 67. What possible indication of elite status can you identify? The headband and armband may be signs of elite status. The pattern on his clothing may imply wealth and status. His beard may also be a sign of elite status.
  • 68.
  • 69. What features of this statue may have provoked such observations? her body posture and facial features, which convey confidence her bracelets and other jewelry, which might speak to her status and perhaps her profession
  • 70. How do you react to this statue? What qualities does she evoke? Two possible reactions :artistic qualities and beauty; and interest in its purpose and meaning Several scholars have noted that the statue evokes confidence and perhaps talent; it might also evoke a sense of impatience on the part of the dancer.
  • 71. Ancient China Quiz P: In China, according to the dynastic cycle, what happened to “bad kings”? E: How did the Chinese earn a living? G: What river was the earliest Chinese civilization centered around? S: What technological advancements did the Chinese have?
  • 72. ANCIENT CHINA Great Wall Began 2000 B.C. Mandate of Heaven Dynasties Silk astronomy
  • 73. As in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and along the Indus River, Chinese civilization began within a major river valley. Modern China itself is a huge geographical expanse. Around 4000 BC, this huge area contained an almost infinite number of ethnic groups and languages. This history, in which a vast area populated by diverse ethnic groups became, over time, a more or less single culture, began in the Yellow River Valley.
  • 74. YellowRiverCivilization G:Ancient China was formed around the Yellow River. The color yellow symbolized “centrality”, as in China is the center of the world.
  • 75. Chinese accomplishments During the Zhou and Shang periods, the Chinese made remarkable achievements in astronomy and bronzework, learned to make silk and create books, and developed a complex system of writing
  • 76. E:Chinese invented silk Silk was exotic and expensive, so it was good for trading with the rest of the world. It is made from silk worms. Silk also makes “paper”
  • 78. S:Chinese astronomy •2137 BC - Chinese book 书经 records the earliest known solar eclipse on October 22. • 2000 BC - Chinese determine that Jupiter needs 12 years to complete one revolution of its orbit. •1400 BC - Chinese record the regularity of solar and lunar eclipses and the earliest known solar variation日珥. •1200 BC - Chinese divide the sky into twenty eight regions 二 十八宿 for recognitions of the stars. •1100 BC - Chinese first determine the spring equinox 黄赤交 角. •776 BC - Chinese make the earliest reliably record of solar eclipse.
  • 79. In the Middle Ages the Arabs made known throughout Muslim Spain a material which was to replace all its predecessors. This was paper, whose manufacture they imported from far distant and mysterious realm of China. The first paper appeared in China about 200 BC. Its name is derived from papyrus. Silk was transformed into paper by a process of pasting, but because silk was expensive, wool and cotton came to be used instead. This invention was attributed to Ts'ai Lun. PAPER
  • 80. In the picture above, the manufacturing process used by the Chinese. They steeped mulberry or bamboo bark in water, then kneaded it to produce a paste from which they obtained smooth thin sheets of paper.
  • 81. According to Chinese political theory, every dynasty goes through the so-called dynastic cycle: 1.A new ruler unites China and founds a new dynasty. 2.China, under the new dynasty, achieves prosperity and a new golden age. 3.The royal family of the dynasty begins to decay, corruption becomes rampant in the imperial court, and the empire begins to enter decline and instability. 4.The dynasty loses the Mandate of Heaven, their legitimacy to rule, and is overthrown by a rebellion. The Mandate of Heaven is then passed to the next dynasty
  • 82.
  • 83.
  • 86. The Great Wall of China was built to keep the Mongols out.
  • 87. Many died building it, and their bodies were used as filler for it.
  • 88. That concludes China. Any questions before we take the quiz?
  • 89. Ancient China Quiz P: In China, according to the dynastic cycle, what happened to “bad kings”? E: How did the Chinese earn a living? G: What river was the earliest Chinese civilization centered around? S: What technological advancements did the Chinese have?
  • 90. This powerpoint was kindly donated to www.worldofteaching.com http://www.worldofteaching.com is home to over a thousand powerpoints submitted by teachers. This is a completely free site and requires no registration. Please visit and I hope it will help in your teaching.
  • 92. #1 What were the sources of state authority in the First Civilizations? Citizens recognized that the complexity of cities or densely populated territories required some authority authorities frequently used force to compel obedience. Authority in early civilizations was often associated with divine sanction. Writing and accounting gave states authority by defining elite status, conveying prestige on the literate, providing a means to send out propaganda, strengthening the state by making accurate record and giving weight to orders, regulations, and laws.
  • 93. #2 MESOPOTAMIA • outlook on life viewed humans as caught in an disorderly world, subject to the whims of quarreling gods. • environment deforestation, soil erosion, and salinization of the soil. This ecological deterioration weakened Sumerian city-states, • Urban centered cities • civilization, consisted of independent states that frequently warred among themselves and were subject to unexpected attack EGYPTIAN cheerful and hopeful outlook on the world, rebirth of the sun each day and of the river every year assured Egyptians that life would prevail over death. more sustainable agricultural system that lasted for thousands of years and contributed to the continuity of its civilization. Rural while cities were governmental or religious based a strong divine right system. While over time the pharaohs declined in real power, the political tradition helped Egypt to maintain unity for 3,000 yrs.
  • 94. #3 When and where did the First Civilizations emerge? 1. Sumer in Mesopotamia, by 3000 B.C.E. 2. Egypt in the Nile River valley, by 3000 B.C.E. 3. Indus Valley civilization in the Indus and Saraswati river valleys of present-day Pakistan, by 2000 B.C.E. 4. China, by 2200 B.C.E.
  • 95. #4 What was the role of cities in the early civilizations? political and administrative centers centers of culture including art, architecture, literature, ritual, and ceremony marketplaces for both local and long- distance exchange centers of manufacturing activity
  • 96. #5 What accounts for the initial breakthroughs to civilization? 1. The growing density of population, producing more congested and competitive societies, was a fundamental motor of change. 2. Such settings provided incentives for innovations, such as irrigation or plows that could produce more food 3.These same environments generated intense competition among rival groups that led to repeated warfare. 4. Since losers could not easily flee to new lands, they were absorbed into the winner’s society as slaves.
  • 97. # 6 In what ways was social inequality expressed in early civilizations? wealth avoidance of physical labor clothing houses manner of burial class-specific treatment in legal codes
  • 98. #7 MESOPOTAMIA PATRIARCHY law codified and sought to enforce a patriarchal family life. respectable women, those under the protection and sexual control of one man nonrespectable women, such as slaves and prostitutes, who were often forbidden to wear a veil. goddesses were gradually relegated to home and hearth, to be replaced by male deities, EGYPTIAN PATRIARCHY Women in Egypt were recognized as legal equals to men. They were able to own property, sell land, make their own wills, sign their own marriage contracts, and initiate their own divorces. Royal women occasionally exercised significant political power as queens. Women were not veiled in Egypt, and art depicting marrage as equal partners.
  • 99. #8. In what ways have historians tried to explain the origins of patriarchy? Transition from digging-stick agriculture (mostly women) to more intensive agriculture with animal-drawn plows and more intensive large-herd pastoralism (men better perform) The growing population of civilizations meant that women were more often pregnant and even more deeply involved in child care than before. •Men, because they were less important in the household, were available to take on positions of economic, religious, and political authority as societies grew more complex. From these positions men shaped the values and practices of their societies in a manner that benefited them at the expense of women.
  • 100. # 9 Meso & Egypt Neighbor Interaction agriculture relied on wheat and barley adopted from Mesopotamia gourds, watermelon, domesticated donkeys, and cattle from Sudan. Egypt’s step pyramids and system of writing were stimulated by Mesopotamian models. divine kingship” most likely derived from traditions in central or eastern Sudan Indo-European pastoralists influenced both as they migrated into the region. They brought with them the horse and chariot technology, which proved effective on the battlefield. Both incorporated both the horse and chariot into their armies. With the invasion of the Hyksos into Egypt, Egyptian civilization also adopted new kinds of armor, bows, daggers, and swords; improved methods of spinning and weaving