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Analyzing
Consumer Markets
Sequence of the Lecture/Discussion
• What Influences Consumer Behavior?
• What major psychological processes influence consumer
responses to the marketing program?
• Consumer Buying Process
What Influences
Consumer Behavior?
Cultural FactorsCultural Factors
Social FactorsSocial Factors
Personal FactorsPersonal Factors
What Influences
Consumer Behavior?
Cultural FactorsCultural Factors
What is Culture?
Culture is the fundamental determinant of a
person’s wants and behaviors acquired
through socialization processes with family
and other key institutions.
Subcultures
NationalitiesNationalities
ReligionsReligions
Racial groupsRacial groups
Geographic regionsGeographic regions
What Influences
Consumer Behavior?
Cultural FactorsCultural Factors
Social FactorsSocial Factors
Social Factors
Reference
groups
Social
Roles
Statuses
Family
Reference Groups
Reference groups are all the groups that have a direct (face to
face) or indirect influence on attitudes or behavior. Reference
groups influence members in at least three ways:
• expose an individual to new behaviors and lifestyles
• influence attitudes and self-concept
• create pressures for conformity that may affect product and brand
choices.
•Groups having a direct influence are called Membership
groups.
•In Primary groups , people interact fairly continuously and
informally, such as family, friends, neighbors, and coworkers.
•People also belong to Secondary groups, such as religious,
professional, and trade-union groups, which are more formal
and require less continuous interaction.
Reference Groups
People are also influenced by groups to which they do not
belong:
•Aspirational groups are those a person hopes to join
•Dissociative groups are those whose values or behavior an
individual rejects.
Where reference group influence is strong, marketers must
determine how to reach and influence the group’s opinion
leaders.
Family
FAMILY is the most important consumer buying organization in
society and family members constitute the most influential
primary reference group. There are two families in the buyer’s
life:
•The family of orientation consists of parents and siblings. From
this, a person acquires an orientation toward religion, politics, and
economics and a sense of personal ambition ,self-worth, and
love.
•A more direct influence on everyday buying behavior is the family
of procreation , the person’s spouse and children.
Roles and Status
A Role consists of the activities a person is expected to
perform. Each role in turn implies a Status. A senior vice
president of marketing may be seen as having more status
than a sales manager, and a sales manager may be seen as
having more status than an office clerk. People choose
products that reflect and communicate their role and their
actual or desired status in society
What Influences
Consumer Behavior?
Cultural FactorsCultural Factors
Social FactorsSocial Factors
Personal FactorsPersonal Factors
Personal Factors
Age
Values
Life cycle
stage
Occupation
Personality
Self-
concept
Wealth
Lifestyle
Age and Life Cycle Stage
• Our taste in food, clothes, furniture, and recreation is
often related to our age.
• It is also shaped by the family life cycle and the
number, age and gender of people in the household
at any point in time.
The Family Life Cycle
Occupation and Economic
Circumstances
• Occupation also influences consumption patterns.
• Product and brand choice are also affected by economic
circumstances: spendable income ,savings ,assets ,debts ,
borrowing power, and attitudes toward spending and
saving.
• Personality. Each person has personality characteristics that
influence his or her buying behavior. Personality means a
set of distinguishing human psychological traits that lead to
relatively consistent and enduring responses to
environmental stimuli (including buying behavior).
• Self Concept. It is how we view our selves. Consumers
often choose and use brands that relate with their actual
self-concept , although the match may instead be based on
the consumer’s ideal self-concept (how we would like to
view ourselves) or even on others’ self-concept(how we
think others see us)
Personality and Self-concept
Lifestyle and Values
• A lifestyle is a person’s pattern of living in the world as
expressed in activities, interests and opinions. It portrays
the person interacting with his or her environment.
• Values are the belief systems that underlie attitudes and
behaviors. Values go much deeper than behavior or
attitude and determine people’s choices and desires over
the long term.
Key Psychological Processes
Motivation
MemoryLearning
Perception
Motivation
• Freud’s Theory .Sigmund Freud assumed the psychological
forces shaping people’s behavior are largely unconscious,
and that a person cannot fully understand his or her own
motivations.
• Maslow’s Theory. Abraham Maslow explained that human
needs are arranged in a hierarchy from most to least pressing
—physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem
needs, and self-actualization. People will try to satisfy their
most important need first and then try to satisfy the next most
important.
Maslow’s
Hierarchy of
Needs
Motivation
• Herzberg’s Theory. Frederick Herzberg developed a two-
factor theory that distinguishes dissatisfiers (factors that
cause dissatisfaction) from satisfiers (factors that cause
satisfaction).The absence of dissatisfiers is not enough to
motivate a purchase; satisfiers must be present. Herzberg’s
theory has two implications. First, sellers should do their best
to avoid dissatisfiers. Second, the seller should identify the
major satisfiers or motivators of purchase in the market and
then supply them.
Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory
Perception is the process by which we select, organize, and
interpret information inputs to create a meaningful picture of
the world. It is the way to look at things , a way of regarding,
understanding, or interpreting something in your own personal
manner. People emerge with different perceptions of the same
object because of three perceptual processes:
•selective attention
•selective distortion
•selective retention
• Selective Attention .Attention is the allocation of processing
capacity to some stimulus. Voluntary attention is something
purposeful; involuntary attention is grabbed by someone or
something.
• Selective Distortion is the tendency to interpret information
in a way that fits our preconceptions. Consumers will often
distort information according to prior brand and product
beliefs and expectations.
• Selective Retention causes us to remember good points
about a product we like and forget good points about
competing products.
Learning and Memory
• Learning induces changes in our behavior arising from
experience.
• Memory may be short term or long term. Short-term
memory (STM) is a temporary and limited repository of
information and Long-term memory (LTM) is a more
permanent, essentially unlimited repository. All the
information and experiences we encounter as we go
through life can end up in our Long-term memory
Consumer Buying Process
Problem Recognition
Information Search
Evaluation
Purchase Decision
Postpurchase
Behavior
• The buying process starts when the buyer recognizes a
problem or need triggered by internal or external stimuli.
With an internal stimulus, one of the person’s normal
needs such as hunger, thirst ,etc rises . A need can also
be aroused by an external stimulus such as a friend’s new
car or a television ad for a vacation which inspires
thoughts about the possibility of making a purchase.
• The person then enters an information search: looking for
reading material, phoning friends, going online, and
visiting stores to learn about the product.
Consumer Buying Process
Sources of Information
Personal
ExperientialPublic
Commercial
• Evaluation. The consumer sees each product as a bundle
of attributes with varying abilities to deliver the benefits.
The attributes of interest to buyers vary by product.
Consumers will pay the most attention to attributes that
deliver the sought-after benefits.
Consumer Buying Process
A Consumer’s Evaluation of Brand
Beliefs About Laptops
Stages between Evaluation of
Alternatives and Purchase
• Purchase Decision. After Evaluation , two factors can
intervene between the purchase intention and the purchase
decision:
• The attitudes of others. The influence of another person’s
attitude depends on two things:
• The intensity of the other person’s negative attitude
toward our preferred alternative .
• Our motivation to comply with the other person’s
wishes.
• Unanticipated situational factors or perceived risk may
cause a person to change the purchase intention.
Consumer Buying Process
Perceived Risk
FunctionalFunctional
PhysicalPhysical
FinancialFinancial
SocialSocial
PsychologicalPsychological
TimeTime
• Postpurchase Behavior
• Postpurchase Satisfaction. Satisfaction is a function of the
closeness between expectations and the product’s
perceived performance.If performance falls short of
expectations, the consumer is disappointed; if it meets
expectations, the consumer is satisfied; if it exceeds
expectations, the consumer is delighted.
• Postpurchase Actions .A satisfied consumer is more likely
to purchase the product again and will also tend to say
good things about the brand to others. Dissatisfied
consumers may abandon or return the product.
• Postpurchase Uses and Disposal
Consumer Buying Process
How Customers Use and Dispose of Products
Any Queries ?

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Analyzing Consumer Markets / Marketing Management By Kotler Keller

  • 2. Sequence of the Lecture/Discussion • What Influences Consumer Behavior? • What major psychological processes influence consumer responses to the marketing program? • Consumer Buying Process
  • 3. What Influences Consumer Behavior? Cultural FactorsCultural Factors Social FactorsSocial Factors Personal FactorsPersonal Factors
  • 5. What is Culture? Culture is the fundamental determinant of a person’s wants and behaviors acquired through socialization processes with family and other key institutions.
  • 7. What Influences Consumer Behavior? Cultural FactorsCultural Factors Social FactorsSocial Factors
  • 9. Reference Groups Reference groups are all the groups that have a direct (face to face) or indirect influence on attitudes or behavior. Reference groups influence members in at least three ways: • expose an individual to new behaviors and lifestyles • influence attitudes and self-concept • create pressures for conformity that may affect product and brand choices. •Groups having a direct influence are called Membership groups. •In Primary groups , people interact fairly continuously and informally, such as family, friends, neighbors, and coworkers. •People also belong to Secondary groups, such as religious, professional, and trade-union groups, which are more formal and require less continuous interaction.
  • 10. Reference Groups People are also influenced by groups to which they do not belong: •Aspirational groups are those a person hopes to join •Dissociative groups are those whose values or behavior an individual rejects. Where reference group influence is strong, marketers must determine how to reach and influence the group’s opinion leaders.
  • 11. Family FAMILY is the most important consumer buying organization in society and family members constitute the most influential primary reference group. There are two families in the buyer’s life: •The family of orientation consists of parents and siblings. From this, a person acquires an orientation toward religion, politics, and economics and a sense of personal ambition ,self-worth, and love. •A more direct influence on everyday buying behavior is the family of procreation , the person’s spouse and children.
  • 12. Roles and Status A Role consists of the activities a person is expected to perform. Each role in turn implies a Status. A senior vice president of marketing may be seen as having more status than a sales manager, and a sales manager may be seen as having more status than an office clerk. People choose products that reflect and communicate their role and their actual or desired status in society
  • 13. What Influences Consumer Behavior? Cultural FactorsCultural Factors Social FactorsSocial Factors Personal FactorsPersonal Factors
  • 15. Age and Life Cycle Stage • Our taste in food, clothes, furniture, and recreation is often related to our age. • It is also shaped by the family life cycle and the number, age and gender of people in the household at any point in time.
  • 17. Occupation and Economic Circumstances • Occupation also influences consumption patterns. • Product and brand choice are also affected by economic circumstances: spendable income ,savings ,assets ,debts , borrowing power, and attitudes toward spending and saving.
  • 18. • Personality. Each person has personality characteristics that influence his or her buying behavior. Personality means a set of distinguishing human psychological traits that lead to relatively consistent and enduring responses to environmental stimuli (including buying behavior). • Self Concept. It is how we view our selves. Consumers often choose and use brands that relate with their actual self-concept , although the match may instead be based on the consumer’s ideal self-concept (how we would like to view ourselves) or even on others’ self-concept(how we think others see us) Personality and Self-concept
  • 19. Lifestyle and Values • A lifestyle is a person’s pattern of living in the world as expressed in activities, interests and opinions. It portrays the person interacting with his or her environment. • Values are the belief systems that underlie attitudes and behaviors. Values go much deeper than behavior or attitude and determine people’s choices and desires over the long term.
  • 21. Motivation • Freud’s Theory .Sigmund Freud assumed the psychological forces shaping people’s behavior are largely unconscious, and that a person cannot fully understand his or her own motivations. • Maslow’s Theory. Abraham Maslow explained that human needs are arranged in a hierarchy from most to least pressing —physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and self-actualization. People will try to satisfy their most important need first and then try to satisfy the next most important.
  • 23. Motivation • Herzberg’s Theory. Frederick Herzberg developed a two- factor theory that distinguishes dissatisfiers (factors that cause dissatisfaction) from satisfiers (factors that cause satisfaction).The absence of dissatisfiers is not enough to motivate a purchase; satisfiers must be present. Herzberg’s theory has two implications. First, sellers should do their best to avoid dissatisfiers. Second, the seller should identify the major satisfiers or motivators of purchase in the market and then supply them.
  • 25. Perception is the process by which we select, organize, and interpret information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. It is the way to look at things , a way of regarding, understanding, or interpreting something in your own personal manner. People emerge with different perceptions of the same object because of three perceptual processes: •selective attention •selective distortion •selective retention
  • 26. • Selective Attention .Attention is the allocation of processing capacity to some stimulus. Voluntary attention is something purposeful; involuntary attention is grabbed by someone or something. • Selective Distortion is the tendency to interpret information in a way that fits our preconceptions. Consumers will often distort information according to prior brand and product beliefs and expectations. • Selective Retention causes us to remember good points about a product we like and forget good points about competing products.
  • 27. Learning and Memory • Learning induces changes in our behavior arising from experience. • Memory may be short term or long term. Short-term memory (STM) is a temporary and limited repository of information and Long-term memory (LTM) is a more permanent, essentially unlimited repository. All the information and experiences we encounter as we go through life can end up in our Long-term memory
  • 28. Consumer Buying Process Problem Recognition Information Search Evaluation Purchase Decision Postpurchase Behavior
  • 29. • The buying process starts when the buyer recognizes a problem or need triggered by internal or external stimuli. With an internal stimulus, one of the person’s normal needs such as hunger, thirst ,etc rises . A need can also be aroused by an external stimulus such as a friend’s new car or a television ad for a vacation which inspires thoughts about the possibility of making a purchase. • The person then enters an information search: looking for reading material, phoning friends, going online, and visiting stores to learn about the product. Consumer Buying Process
  • 31. • Evaluation. The consumer sees each product as a bundle of attributes with varying abilities to deliver the benefits. The attributes of interest to buyers vary by product. Consumers will pay the most attention to attributes that deliver the sought-after benefits. Consumer Buying Process
  • 32. A Consumer’s Evaluation of Brand Beliefs About Laptops
  • 33. Stages between Evaluation of Alternatives and Purchase
  • 34. • Purchase Decision. After Evaluation , two factors can intervene between the purchase intention and the purchase decision: • The attitudes of others. The influence of another person’s attitude depends on two things: • The intensity of the other person’s negative attitude toward our preferred alternative . • Our motivation to comply with the other person’s wishes. • Unanticipated situational factors or perceived risk may cause a person to change the purchase intention. Consumer Buying Process
  • 36. • Postpurchase Behavior • Postpurchase Satisfaction. Satisfaction is a function of the closeness between expectations and the product’s perceived performance.If performance falls short of expectations, the consumer is disappointed; if it meets expectations, the consumer is satisfied; if it exceeds expectations, the consumer is delighted. • Postpurchase Actions .A satisfied consumer is more likely to purchase the product again and will also tend to say good things about the brand to others. Dissatisfied consumers may abandon or return the product. • Postpurchase Uses and Disposal Consumer Buying Process
  • 37. How Customers Use and Dispose of Products