Chapter 2 Consumer Reserch


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Consumer Behavior
Ninth Edition
Schiffman and Kanuk

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Chapter 2 Consumer Reserch

  1. 1. Chapter 2 Consumer Research
  2. 2. Chapter Outline <ul><li>Introduction to Quantitative and Qualitative Research </li></ul><ul><li>Overview of the Consumer Decision Process </li></ul><ul><li>Quantitative Research </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative Research </li></ul>
  3. 3. Quantitative Research <ul><li>Descriptive in nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Enables marketers to “predict” consumer behavior (positivism). </li></ul><ul><li>Research methods include experiments, survey techniques, and observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Findings are descriptive, empirical, and can be generalized to larger populations. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Qualitative Research <ul><li>Consists of depth interviews, focus groups, metaphor analysis, collage research, and projective techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>Administered by highly trained interviewer-analysts. </li></ul><ul><li>Findings tend to be subjective. </li></ul><ul><li>Small sample sizes. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Burke Research Uses a Variety of Projective Techniques weblink
  6. 6. Table 2-1 <ul><li>Observation </li></ul><ul><li>Experimentation </li></ul><ul><li>Questionnaires </li></ul><ul><li>Projective techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Depth interviews </li></ul><ul><li>Focus groups </li></ul>Data Collection Methods <ul><li>Close-ended </li></ul><ul><li>Attitude scales </li></ul><ul><li>Open-ended </li></ul><ul><li>Unstructured </li></ul>Types of Questions <ul><li>Describe target market </li></ul><ul><li>Results for strategic marketing decisions </li></ul><ul><li>Provide insights about ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Exploratory research before quantitative study </li></ul>Study Purpose Quantitative Research Qualitative Research
  7. 7. Table 2-1 (continued) <ul><li>Coded, tabulated, and entered into database </li></ul><ul><li>Use of statistical methods </li></ul><ul><li>Analyzed by researchers who collected data </li></ul><ul><li>Look for “key words” </li></ul><ul><li>Subjective </li></ul>Data Analysis <ul><li>Large </li></ul><ul><li>Probability samples </li></ul><ul><li>Small </li></ul><ul><li>Nonprobability samples </li></ul>Sampling Methods Quantitative Research Qualitative Research
  8. 8. The Consumer Research Process Figure 2.1
  9. 9. Developing Research Objectives <ul><li>Defining purposes and objectives helps ensure an appropriate research design. </li></ul><ul><li>A statement of objectives helps to define the type and level of information needed. </li></ul>Subaru Video
  10. 10. Discussion Questions <ul><li>Assume you are planning to open a new pizza restaurant near your campus. </li></ul><ul><li>What might be three objectives of a research plan for your new business? </li></ul><ul><li>How could you gather these data? </li></ul>
  11. 11. Secondary Data <ul><li>Data that has been collected for reasons other than the specific research project at hand </li></ul><ul><li>Includes internal and external data </li></ul>
  12. 12. Types of Secondary Data <ul><li>Internal Data </li></ul><ul><li>Data generated in-house </li></ul><ul><li>May include analysis of customer files </li></ul><ul><li>Useful for calculating customer lifetime value </li></ul><ul><li>External Data </li></ul><ul><li>Data collected by an outside organization </li></ul><ul><li>Includes federal government, periodicals, newspapers, books, search engines </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial data is also available from market research firms </li></ul>
  13. 13. U.S. Census Data weblink
  14. 14. Discussion Question Personal Privacy <ul><li>Many people do not like the fact that their personal data are used for marketing. </li></ul><ul><li>How can marketer’s justify their need for data? </li></ul><ul><li>How can they acquire data and maintain customer privacy? </li></ul>
  15. 15. Designing Primary Research <ul><li>Quantitative Research Designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include research design, data collection methods, instruments to be used, and the sample design </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Qualitative Research Designs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Include depth interviews, focus groups, projective techniques, and metaphor analysis </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Data Collection Methods Observational Research <ul><li>Helps marketers gain an in-depth understanding of the relationship between people and products by watching them buying and using products </li></ul><ul><li>Helps researchers gain a better understanding of what the product symbolizes </li></ul>
  17. 17. Observational research is often used to design products to meet needs.
  18. 18. Data Collection Methods Mechanical Observational Research <ul><li>Uses mechanical or electronic device to record consumer behavior or response </li></ul><ul><li>Consumers’ increased use of highly convenient technologies will create more records for marketers </li></ul><ul><li>Product audits which monitor sales are heavily used by companies </li></ul>
  19. 19. Foxwoods Casino Uses Mechanical Observational Research - Figure 2-2
  20. 20. Arbitron Mechanical Observation
  21. 21. Data Collection Methods Experimentation <ul><li>Can be used to test the relative sales appeal of many types of variables </li></ul><ul><li>An experiment is usually controlled with only some variables manipulated at a time while the others are constant </li></ul><ul><li>Can be conducted in laboratories or in the field </li></ul>
  22. 22. Discussion Question <ul><li>Experimentation is critical for direct marketers </li></ul><ul><li>What might direct marketers test in experiments? </li></ul><ul><li>How can they use the results? </li></ul>
  23. 23. Surveys Data Collection Methods Personal Interview Mail Telephone Online
  24. 24. Online Surveys Are Growing in Popularity weblink
  25. 25. Table 2.2 Comparative Advantages MAIL TELEPHONE PERSONAL INTERVIEW ONLINE Cost Low Moderate High Low Speed Slow Immediate Slow Fast Response rate Low Moderate High Self-selection Geographic flexibility Excellent Good Difficult Excellent Interviewer bias N/A Moderate Problematic N/A Interviewer supervision N/A Easy Difficult N/A Quality of response Limited Limited Excellent Excellent
  26. 26. Validity and Reliability <ul><li>If a study has validity it collects the appropriate data for the study. </li></ul><ul><li>A study has reliability if the same questions, asked of a similar sample, produce the same findings. </li></ul>
  27. 27. Attitude Scales <ul><li>Likert scales: easy for researchers to prepare and interpret, and simple for consumers to answer </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic differential scales: relatively easy to construct and administer </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior intention scales: also easy to construct and administer </li></ul><ul><li>Rank-order scales: subjects rank items in order of preference in terms of some criteria </li></ul>
  28. 28. Qualitative Collection Method Depth Interview <ul><li>Usually 30 minutes to 1 hour </li></ul><ul><li>Nonstructured </li></ul><ul><li>Interpreted by trained researcher </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to words as well as “body language” </li></ul>
  29. 29. Qualitative Collection Method Focus Group <ul><li>8-10 participants </li></ul><ul><li>Lasts about 2 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Always taped or videotaped to assist analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Often held in front of two-way mirrors </li></ul>
  30. 30. Online Focus Groups Are Gaining in Popularity
  31. 31. Figure 2.4 Focus Group Discussion Guide 1. Why did you decide to use your current cellular company? 2. How long have you used your current cellular company? 3. Have you ever switched services? When? What caused the change? 4. What do you think of the overall quality of your current service? 5. What are the important criteria in selecting a cellular service? Examples of Probe questions: a. Tell me more about that . . . b. Share your thinking on this . . . c. Does anyone see it differently . . .
  32. 32. Qualitative Collection Method Projective Techniques <ul><li>Research procedures designed to identify consumers’ subconscious feelings and motivations </li></ul><ul><li>Consist of a variety of disguised “tests” </li></ul>
  33. 33. Qualitative Collection Method Metaphor Analysis <ul><li>Based on belief that metaphors are the most basic method of thought and communication </li></ul><ul><li>Zaltman Metaphor Elicitation Technique (ZMET) combines collage research and metaphor analysis to bring to the surface the mental models and the major themes or constructs that drive consumer thinking and behavior. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Customer Satisfaction Measurement <ul><li>Customer Satisfaction Surveys </li></ul><ul><li>Gap Analysis of Expectations versus Experience </li></ul><ul><li>Mystery Shoppers </li></ul><ul><li>Customer Complaint Analysis </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of Customer Defections </li></ul>
  35. 35. Customer Satisfaction Survey
  36. 36. Sampling and Data Collection <ul><li>Samples are a subset of the population used to estimate characteristics of the entire population. </li></ul><ul><li>A sampling plan addresses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Whom to survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How many to survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to select them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Researcher must choose probability or nonprobabililty sample. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Table 2.4 Probability Sampling Designs Simple random sample Every member of the population has a known and equal chance of being selected. Systematic random sample A member of the population is selected at random and then every “nth” person is selected. Cluster (area) sample The population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as blocks), and the researcher draws a sample of the groups to interview. Stratified random sample The population is divided into mutually exclusive groups (such as age groups), and random samples are drawn from each group.
  38. 38. Data Analysis and Reporting Findings <ul><li>Open-ended questions are coded and quantified. </li></ul><ul><li>All responses are tabulated and analyzed. </li></ul><ul><li>Final report includes executive summary, body, tables, and graphs. </li></ul>