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Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD)
Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) Technology: C-SUCSeS Project
WMUK Rathnayake
Director/Natural Resource Management
National Focal Point – Sri Lanka
Training and Validation Workshop on Modules of Climate Smart Agriculture
Technologies in South Asia
BRAC CDM, Gazipur, Bangladesh
22.04.2024
Introduction
• Paddy cultivation
– Rainfed
– Irrigated
• Flood irrigation / keep standing water
• Alternative to flood irrigation
– Saturated soil culture
– Micro irrigation
– Alternate wetting and drying (AWD)
• AWD as a water saving technology
– Easy to use with the existing system
– Semi aquatic nature of the rice plant
– Optimum soil moisture (Field Capacity)
– Based on the need of water (soil type and crop growth stage)
Sensitivity to water stress
Late booting to
anthesis
Extremely Sensitive.
Vegetative stage
Less sensitive
PI to late
Booting
(Medium)
Filling
High
sensitive
Ripening
Not
sensitive
Establishment Panicle initiation Flowering Maturity
25 – 30 days 25 – 30 days
Vegetative Reproductive Maturity
Tillering and
root development
Technology
• 2 weeks after the crop establishment, irrigate the
field up to 5 cm and allow to drain until water level
goes down to 15 cm from the soil surface
Irrigate
the field
up to 5 cm
Allow to drain up to
15 cm from the soil
surface
soil surface
5 cm
15 cm
2 WAE
Technology
• Irrigate again up to 5 cm and allow to drain as above
• Continue the procedure until first flowering
2 WAE
Irrigation
Irrigation
Irrigation
Interval
Irrigate
the field
up to 5 cm
Allow to drain up to
15 cm from the soil surface
soil surface
Irrigation
1st flowering
Allow
to
drain
Allow
to
drain
Allow
to
drain
Irrigation
critical stage
(two weeks from
first flowering)
2 weeks before
Harvesting
Stop
Irrigation
Irrigation
Allow
to
drain
Maintain
Standing
water
Irrigate
the field
up to 5 cm
Allow to drain
up to
15 cm from the
soil surface
Technology
• Continue irrigation to
maintain 0–5cm water
level for 2 weeks from
first flowering
• After two weeks, stop
irrigation and allow
draining out up to 15
cm from the soil surface
• Two weeks before
expected date of
harvesting stop
irrigation gradually
Irrigation
Harvesting
critical stage
(two weeks from
first flowering)
2 weeks before
Harvesting
Stop
Irrigation
Allow
to
drain
Irrigation
Irrigation
Allow
to
drain
Irrigation
Interval
Start
Maintain
Standing
water
Irrigate
the field
up to 5 cm
Allow to drain up to
15 cm from the soil surface
Efficient utilization of water in rice fields -
Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD)
2 WAE
To measure water through the soil
• To measure water level in the soil, use a PVC pipe/tube
(diameter–4”, length–20 cm) making several cuts along
the wall 4’’
15 cm
05 cm
To measure water through the soil
• Insert the PVC tube to the soil up to 15 cm by
removing mud inside
5 cm
15 cm
Soil surface
• Measure the water level using
a ruler inside the tube
Important
• Pay attention to control weeds well
– during land preparation and
– before starting AWD (2 weeks from the establishment)
• Apply fertilizer when soil is moist
• AWD should not be applied for saline paddy fields
Benefits
• Reduce 2 – 3 number of irrigations per season to save
10 – 20 % total water use
• Saved water can be used to
• Expand the cultivation extend
• Cultivate long age rice varieties
• Implement mid season cultivation
• Start the next season on time
Development of Technology
• There was a need to save irrigation water
– Requirement: 3 to 5 ac ft/ac
– Normal usage: about 7 ac ft/ac
• Received the information from IRRI web site
• Conducted research for Sri Lankan condition
– On station research under research management
• Rice Research and Development Institute, Bathalagoda
– On -farm research under research management
• Polonnaruwa
– Parakkrama Samudrya with Department of Irrigation
– Dimbulaga with Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka
– On-farm research under farmer management
• Kurunegala
On station research
under research management
• Irrigation interval was found as 10 days in sandy loam soils.
• Higher yield / no yield reduction
• Water saved by 20% – 30%
Farmer participatory research
• Conducted farmer field trials
– Parakrama Samuddraya
• Collaboration with the
– Department of Irrigation
Farmer participatory research
• Collaboration with: Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka
• Location: Dimbulagala (Mahaweli - B)
System based applications
Minor tanks Major tanks
Paddy Field Field Channel
Paddy field
• Easy to handle
• Farmer Organization
• Less no of farmers
• Small extent
Upper Middle Lower
• Put a mark in
the field where
PVC tube was
installed
Irrigation will be decided according to the readings of upper part of the field
On farm research
under farmer management
• Extension officers were conducted on farm
demonstrations / trials in Monaragala, Polonnaruwa,
Kurunegala, Puttalam and Anuradhapura districts.
Department of Agriculture
Awareness of all collaborators on AWD
• Collaboration with
– Extension divisions of the
Department of Agriculture
– Provincial Department of
Agriculture
– Department of Irrigation
– Mahaweli Authority of Sri
Lanka
Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture
Dissemination of knowledge and experience with
farmers
• TV and radio programs
– Koratuwa program
– Govibimata Arunalu program, Rupavahini
– Thuneththa program, Rangiri Sri Lanka
– Kamatha program, Swarnavahini
Research Paper
Posters
Leaflet
Krushi puwath
News paper articles
Some Appreciations
Department of Irrigation
Mahaweli Authority
HARTI
Provincial Department (NWP)
Farmers
Implementation of AWD technology
C-SUCSeS project
• Kurunegala district
• Minor irrigated system
• 2024 Yala (dry) season
• With modified tube
Thank you !

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Alternate Wetting and Drying - Climate Smart Agriculture

  • 1. Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) Climate Smart Agriculture (CSA) Technology: C-SUCSeS Project WMUK Rathnayake Director/Natural Resource Management National Focal Point – Sri Lanka Training and Validation Workshop on Modules of Climate Smart Agriculture Technologies in South Asia BRAC CDM, Gazipur, Bangladesh 22.04.2024
  • 2. Introduction • Paddy cultivation – Rainfed – Irrigated • Flood irrigation / keep standing water • Alternative to flood irrigation – Saturated soil culture – Micro irrigation – Alternate wetting and drying (AWD) • AWD as a water saving technology – Easy to use with the existing system – Semi aquatic nature of the rice plant – Optimum soil moisture (Field Capacity) – Based on the need of water (soil type and crop growth stage)
  • 3. Sensitivity to water stress Late booting to anthesis Extremely Sensitive. Vegetative stage Less sensitive PI to late Booting (Medium) Filling High sensitive Ripening Not sensitive Establishment Panicle initiation Flowering Maturity 25 – 30 days 25 – 30 days Vegetative Reproductive Maturity Tillering and root development
  • 4. Technology • 2 weeks after the crop establishment, irrigate the field up to 5 cm and allow to drain until water level goes down to 15 cm from the soil surface Irrigate the field up to 5 cm Allow to drain up to 15 cm from the soil surface soil surface 5 cm 15 cm 2 WAE
  • 5. Technology • Irrigate again up to 5 cm and allow to drain as above • Continue the procedure until first flowering 2 WAE Irrigation Irrigation Irrigation Interval Irrigate the field up to 5 cm Allow to drain up to 15 cm from the soil surface soil surface Irrigation 1st flowering Allow to drain Allow to drain Allow to drain
  • 6. Irrigation critical stage (two weeks from first flowering) 2 weeks before Harvesting Stop Irrigation Irrigation Allow to drain Maintain Standing water Irrigate the field up to 5 cm Allow to drain up to 15 cm from the soil surface Technology • Continue irrigation to maintain 0–5cm water level for 2 weeks from first flowering • After two weeks, stop irrigation and allow draining out up to 15 cm from the soil surface • Two weeks before expected date of harvesting stop irrigation gradually
  • 7. Irrigation Harvesting critical stage (two weeks from first flowering) 2 weeks before Harvesting Stop Irrigation Allow to drain Irrigation Irrigation Allow to drain Irrigation Interval Start Maintain Standing water Irrigate the field up to 5 cm Allow to drain up to 15 cm from the soil surface Efficient utilization of water in rice fields - Alternate Wetting and Drying (AWD) 2 WAE
  • 8. To measure water through the soil • To measure water level in the soil, use a PVC pipe/tube (diameter–4”, length–20 cm) making several cuts along the wall 4’’ 15 cm 05 cm
  • 9. To measure water through the soil • Insert the PVC tube to the soil up to 15 cm by removing mud inside 5 cm 15 cm Soil surface • Measure the water level using a ruler inside the tube
  • 10. Important • Pay attention to control weeds well – during land preparation and – before starting AWD (2 weeks from the establishment) • Apply fertilizer when soil is moist • AWD should not be applied for saline paddy fields
  • 11. Benefits • Reduce 2 – 3 number of irrigations per season to save 10 – 20 % total water use • Saved water can be used to • Expand the cultivation extend • Cultivate long age rice varieties • Implement mid season cultivation • Start the next season on time
  • 12. Development of Technology • There was a need to save irrigation water – Requirement: 3 to 5 ac ft/ac – Normal usage: about 7 ac ft/ac • Received the information from IRRI web site • Conducted research for Sri Lankan condition – On station research under research management • Rice Research and Development Institute, Bathalagoda – On -farm research under research management • Polonnaruwa – Parakkrama Samudrya with Department of Irrigation – Dimbulaga with Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka – On-farm research under farmer management • Kurunegala
  • 13. On station research under research management • Irrigation interval was found as 10 days in sandy loam soils. • Higher yield / no yield reduction • Water saved by 20% – 30%
  • 14. Farmer participatory research • Conducted farmer field trials – Parakrama Samuddraya • Collaboration with the – Department of Irrigation
  • 15. Farmer participatory research • Collaboration with: Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka • Location: Dimbulagala (Mahaweli - B)
  • 16. System based applications Minor tanks Major tanks Paddy Field Field Channel Paddy field • Easy to handle • Farmer Organization • Less no of farmers • Small extent
  • 17. Upper Middle Lower • Put a mark in the field where PVC tube was installed Irrigation will be decided according to the readings of upper part of the field
  • 18. On farm research under farmer management
  • 19. • Extension officers were conducted on farm demonstrations / trials in Monaragala, Polonnaruwa, Kurunegala, Puttalam and Anuradhapura districts.
  • 21. Awareness of all collaborators on AWD • Collaboration with – Extension divisions of the Department of Agriculture – Provincial Department of Agriculture – Department of Irrigation – Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka
  • 23. Dissemination of knowledge and experience with farmers • TV and radio programs – Koratuwa program – Govibimata Arunalu program, Rupavahini – Thuneththa program, Rangiri Sri Lanka – Kamatha program, Swarnavahini Research Paper Posters Leaflet Krushi puwath News paper articles
  • 24. Some Appreciations Department of Irrigation Mahaweli Authority HARTI Provincial Department (NWP) Farmers
  • 25. Implementation of AWD technology C-SUCSeS project • Kurunegala district • Minor irrigated system • 2024 Yala (dry) season • With modified tube