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Ch 9 Discrete Control
                           Using PLCs and PCs

  Sections:
  1. Discrete Process Control
  2. Ladder Logic Diagrams
  3. Programmable Logic Controllers
  4. Personal Computers Using Soft Logic




          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
Discrete Process Control

Control systems that operate on parameters and
   variables that change at discrete moments in time
   Parameters and variables are also discrete, usually
   binary (0 or 1, off or on, open or closed, etc.)
Sensors       Limit switch          Contact/no contact
              Photo-detector        On/off
              Timer                 On/off
Actuators     Motor                 On/off
              Valve                 Open/closed
              Clutch                Engaged/not engaged
          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
Categories of Discrete Control

  1. Logic control – event-driven changes
  2. Sequencing – time-driven changes




          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
Logic Control

A switching system whose output at any moment is
  determined exclusively by the values of inputs
  No memory
  No operating characteristics that depend on time
  Also called combinational logic control




          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
Elements of Logic Control

        Basic elements, called logic gates:
         AND – output = 1 if all inputs = 1, zero otherwise
         OR – output = 1 if any input = 1, zero otherwise
         NOT – output = 1 if (single) input = 0, and vice versa
        Additional elements:
         NAND – combination of AND and NOT
         NOR – combination of OR and NOT




          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
AND Gate




               Electrical circuit illustrating the operation of the
               logical AND gate.
          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
OR Gate




                      Electrical circuit illustrating the operation of
                      the logical OR gate.

          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
NOT Gate




                        Electrical circuit illustrating the operation
                        of the logical NOT gate.

          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
Symbols for Logical Gates:
                      U.S. and ISO




          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
Sequencing

A switching system that uses internal timing devices to
  determine when to initiate changes in output variables
  Outputs are usually generated “open loop”
     No feedback that control function is executed
  Sequence of output signals is usually cyclical, as in a
  high production work cycle
     The signals occur in the same repeated pattern
     within each regular cycle
  Common sequencing devices:
     Timer – output switches on/off at preset times
     Counter – counts electrical pulses and stores them
          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
Ladder Logic Diagrams

A diagram in which various logic elements and other
   components are displayed along horizontal rungs
   connected on either end to two vertical rails
   Types of elements and components:
   1. Contacts - logical inputs (usually), e.g., limit
      switches, photo-detector
   2. Loads - outputs, e.g., motors, lights, alarms,
      solenoids
   3. Timers - to specify length of delay
   4. Counters - to count pulses received

          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
Ladder Logic Diagram




          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
Symbols for Common Elements
                      Used in Ladder Logic Diagrams




          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
Advantages of Ladder Logic Diagrams

 Familiar to shop personnel who must construct, test,
 maintain, and repair the control system
 Analogous to the electrical circuits used to accomplish
 logic and sequence control
 Principal technique for programming PLCs




          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
Programmable Logic Controller (PLC)

A microcomputer-based controller that uses stored
  instructions in programmable memory to
  implement logic, sequencing, timing, counting,
  and arithmetic functions through digital or analog
  modules, for controlling machines and processes
  Applications in both process industries and
  discrete manufacturing
  Introduced around 1970
  Replaced hard-wired electromechanical relay
  panels

          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
Components of a PLC




          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
Advantages of PLCs Compared to
                        Relay Control Panels
 Programming a PLC is easier than wiring a relay control
 panel
 PLC can be reprogrammed
 PLCs take less floor space
 Greater reliability, easier maintenance
 PLC can be connected to computer systems (CIM)
 PLCs can perform a greater variety of control functions




          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
PLC Components

1. Processor – executes logic and sequencing functions by
   operating on the PLC inputs to determine the appropriate
   output signals
2. Input/output module – connections to process
3. Memory unit – contains the programs of logic, sequencing,
   and I/O operations
4. Power supply – converts 120 V (ac) to dc voltages of ±5
   V compatible with process equipment
5. Programming device


           ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
 No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                                Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
Typical PLC Operating Cycle
1. Input scan – inputs are read by processor and stored in
   memory
2. Program scan – control program is executed
      Input values stored in memory are used in the control
      logic calculations to determine values of outputs
3. Output scan – output values are updated to agree with
   calculated values
   Time to perform the three steps (scan time) varies
   between 1 and 25 msec


           ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
 No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                                Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
Additional PLC Capabilities
 Analog control – PID control available on some PLCs for
 continuous processes
 Arithmetic functions – permits more complex control
 algorithms to be implemented than conventional logic and
 sequencing elements
 Matrix functions – e.g., linear programming for optimal
 control
 Data processing and reporting – business applications
    Blurs the distinction between PLCs and PCs



          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
PLC Programming

          Graphical languages:
          1. Ladder logic diagrams – most widely used
          2. Function block diagrams – instructions
             composed of operation blocks that transform
             input signals
          3. Sequential function charts – series of steps and
             transitions from one state to the next (Europe)
          Text-based languages:
          1. Instruction list - low-level computer language
          2. Structured text – high-level computer language
          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
Personal Computers Using Soft Logic

        Available in sturdy enclosures for plant environment
        Membrane-type keyboards to protect against dirt,
        moisture, etc.
        Can be ordered with I/O cards and other hardware to
        connect to machines and processes
        Installed with Windows for implementing control
        applications
        Can be programmed with soft logic - software that
        emulates the operations of the built-in control
        software in PLCs

          ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist.
No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book
                               Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.

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67042 ch09

  • 1. Ch 9 Discrete Control Using PLCs and PCs Sections: 1. Discrete Process Control 2. Ladder Logic Diagrams 3. Programmable Logic Controllers 4. Personal Computers Using Soft Logic ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 2. Discrete Process Control Control systems that operate on parameters and variables that change at discrete moments in time Parameters and variables are also discrete, usually binary (0 or 1, off or on, open or closed, etc.) Sensors Limit switch Contact/no contact Photo-detector On/off Timer On/off Actuators Motor On/off Valve Open/closed Clutch Engaged/not engaged ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 3. Categories of Discrete Control 1. Logic control – event-driven changes 2. Sequencing – time-driven changes ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 4. Logic Control A switching system whose output at any moment is determined exclusively by the values of inputs No memory No operating characteristics that depend on time Also called combinational logic control ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 5. Elements of Logic Control Basic elements, called logic gates: AND – output = 1 if all inputs = 1, zero otherwise OR – output = 1 if any input = 1, zero otherwise NOT – output = 1 if (single) input = 0, and vice versa Additional elements: NAND – combination of AND and NOT NOR – combination of OR and NOT ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 6. AND Gate Electrical circuit illustrating the operation of the logical AND gate. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 7. OR Gate Electrical circuit illustrating the operation of the logical OR gate. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 8. NOT Gate Electrical circuit illustrating the operation of the logical NOT gate. ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 9. Symbols for Logical Gates: U.S. and ISO ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 10. Sequencing A switching system that uses internal timing devices to determine when to initiate changes in output variables Outputs are usually generated “open loop” No feedback that control function is executed Sequence of output signals is usually cyclical, as in a high production work cycle The signals occur in the same repeated pattern within each regular cycle Common sequencing devices: Timer – output switches on/off at preset times Counter – counts electrical pulses and stores them ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 11. Ladder Logic Diagrams A diagram in which various logic elements and other components are displayed along horizontal rungs connected on either end to two vertical rails Types of elements and components: 1. Contacts - logical inputs (usually), e.g., limit switches, photo-detector 2. Loads - outputs, e.g., motors, lights, alarms, solenoids 3. Timers - to specify length of delay 4. Counters - to count pulses received ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 12. Ladder Logic Diagram ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 13. Symbols for Common Elements Used in Ladder Logic Diagrams ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 14. Advantages of Ladder Logic Diagrams Familiar to shop personnel who must construct, test, maintain, and repair the control system Analogous to the electrical circuits used to accomplish logic and sequence control Principal technique for programming PLCs ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 15. Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) A microcomputer-based controller that uses stored instructions in programmable memory to implement logic, sequencing, timing, counting, and arithmetic functions through digital or analog modules, for controlling machines and processes Applications in both process industries and discrete manufacturing Introduced around 1970 Replaced hard-wired electromechanical relay panels ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 16. Components of a PLC ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 17. Advantages of PLCs Compared to Relay Control Panels Programming a PLC is easier than wiring a relay control panel PLC can be reprogrammed PLCs take less floor space Greater reliability, easier maintenance PLC can be connected to computer systems (CIM) PLCs can perform a greater variety of control functions ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 18. PLC Components 1. Processor – executes logic and sequencing functions by operating on the PLC inputs to determine the appropriate output signals 2. Input/output module – connections to process 3. Memory unit – contains the programs of logic, sequencing, and I/O operations 4. Power supply – converts 120 V (ac) to dc voltages of ±5 V compatible with process equipment 5. Programming device ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 19. Typical PLC Operating Cycle 1. Input scan – inputs are read by processor and stored in memory 2. Program scan – control program is executed Input values stored in memory are used in the control logic calculations to determine values of outputs 3. Output scan – output values are updated to agree with calculated values Time to perform the three steps (scan time) varies between 1 and 25 msec ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 20. Additional PLC Capabilities Analog control – PID control available on some PLCs for continuous processes Arithmetic functions – permits more complex control algorithms to be implemented than conventional logic and sequencing elements Matrix functions – e.g., linear programming for optimal control Data processing and reporting – business applications Blurs the distinction between PLCs and PCs ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 21. PLC Programming Graphical languages: 1. Ladder logic diagrams – most widely used 2. Function block diagrams – instructions composed of operation blocks that transform input signals 3. Sequential function charts – series of steps and transitions from one state to the next (Europe) Text-based languages: 1. Instruction list - low-level computer language 2. Structured text – high-level computer language ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.
  • 22. Personal Computers Using Soft Logic Available in sturdy enclosures for plant environment Membrane-type keyboards to protect against dirt, moisture, etc. Can be ordered with I/O cards and other hardware to connect to machines and processes Installed with Windows for implementing control applications Can be programmed with soft logic - software that emulates the operations of the built-in control software in PLCs ©2008 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This material is protected under all copyright laws as they currently exist. No portion of this material may be reproduced, in any form or by any means, without permission in writing from the publisher. For the exclusive use of adopters of the book Automation, Production Systems, and Computer-Integrated Manufacturing, Third Edition, by Mikell P. Groover.