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Gametophyte & Sporophyte in
Brayopsida
Presented by…
Shrimali Neha C
Department Of Life Science
H.N.G.U ,Patan
Containt
• Introduction
• Gametophyte
• Sporophyte
Introduction
• Bryophyte are a groups of plants that include
• Mosses,liverworts and hornwort.
Brayopsida
• The Brayopsidasome constitute the largest class
of mosses, containing 95% of all moss species. It
consist of approximately 11,500 species
common through the whole world.
Gametophytic Phase Of Pogonatum:
• (i) External Features of Gametophyte:
• The plants are perennial,erect gametophytes
and can be differentiated into two regions:
• (a) Rhizome (b) Rhyzoids
• (a) The adult plant has a basal rhizome-like
structure which gives rise to many aerial shoots
of leafy shoots on the upper side and rhizoids on
the lower side.The aerial shoots form thick mat
like cushions.
• (b)Rhizoids:Rhizome is densely covered with
multicellular,thick walled rhizoids with oblique
septa.Many rhyzoids coil,twist and inter-wine to
form rope-like thick structure.Main functions of
the rhizods are anchorage and absorption.
Aerialshoot: these are erect and arise from the
rhizome.It consists of a central axis,the stem
which bears scaly and green leaves.Scaly leaves
are present on the basal portion of the stem
while normal leaves are present on the upper
part of the gametophore.
• External Structure Of The Leaf:
• The leaves are costate with long lanceolate
lamina and colourless base that en-sheaths the
stem.
• Each leaf can be differentiated into two parts:
• A sheathing base and apical limb.
• Sheathing Base
• It is colourless,broad membranous structure.It
clasps the stem closely and this provides the
external capilary conducting system of water
• Internal structure of poonatum
• 1 Rhizome
• Transereve section of rhizome is irregular in outline
• 2 Epidermis
• It is outer most layer.it composed of single layer of thick
walled cells.in the rhizome,numerous epidermal cells
extend to from the rhizoids
• Cortex
• It is inner to epidermis & is differentited into two parts
• Outer cortex , inner cortex,endodermis ,central strand
• Internally the stem of aerial branchis shows
similar structure with some differences
• 1.Rhiozoids absent
• 2.cortex is madeup of only hydroids
• 3.cortex is encircled by a discontinuous layer of
leptoids
• 4.endodermis absent
• Reproduction of Pogonatum:
• Pogonatum reproduces by two methods:
• (i) Vegetative Reproduction
• It takes place by following method:
• 1.By the devlopement of bud-like gemmae on
the rhizodes.
• 2.By Primary protonema:
• It devlope multi cellular buds which devlope
into leafy gemetospore.
• The Fragmentation of Rhizome.
• (ii) Sexual Reproduction:
• It is oogamous.Male reproductive structures are known as
antheridia and female reproductive structures are known as
archegonia. Majority of the species of pogonatum are dioecious
but P.microstomum is monoecious.These sex organs develop in
terminal clusters on the separate gametospores.
• Antheridial Head:
• A male plant may have several antheridial heads.The antheridia
develop on the tip of the male branches an appar like flower.It is
antheridial head.
• Such growth pattern of the gemetospore beyond the antheridial
head is know as proliferation.Many sterile,multicellular,hairs like
structure are also present in the antheridia.These were called as
paraphysis.
• Antheridium:
• A mature antheridium can be differentiated into
two parts.short stalk and club shaped body.It’s
body has a single layer jacket which incluses a
mass of biflegellate antherozoids.
• Archegonical Head:
• It is the terminal part of the female Gametophore.It is formed by the
perichaetial leaves and gives abud like appearance.
• Paraphyses are sterile structures consisting of a row of uniform cells. There
is no proliferation of the archegonial shoot because In the development of
archegonia the apical cells of the stem are utilized and thus the growth of
the stem ceases after the formation of archegonia.
• Mature Archegonium:
• A Mature archegonium is a flask shaped structure.It remains attached to
gemetophyte by a massive stalk.It consists of upper elongated neck and
basal globular portion called venter.The neck consists of six vertical rows
enclosed within about 6-9 neck canal cells.Venter is multilayered and
encloses a small venter canal cell and large egg cell.
• The multilayeredventer forms a calyptra to protect the developing
sporophyte.The superficial cells of calyptra produce papillate
outgrowths,which elongate and in later stages develop thick walls.Because
of these hairy covering on the sporophyte,Pogonatum is known as hair-cup
moss.
• Fertilization In Pogonatum:
• Water is essential for fertilization.The uper cells of the
antheridium ruptures and release mass of
antherozoids.The neck canal cells and venter canal cells
disintegrate to form a mucilaginous substance.The apital
cells of the neck separate widely from each other and
form a passage a leading to egg.
• Many antherozoids enter the archegonial neck because of
the chemotactic response,but only one of them fuses
with the egg to form zygote.More than one archegonia on
an archegonical branch may be fertilized,but only one
sporophyte reaches maturity.Fertilization ends the
gametophytic phase .
• Sporophytic Phase:
• After fertilization the zygote begins to increase in size and secretes a wall
around.It is diplolid oospore.It divides by transverse division to form an
upper epibasal cell and lower hypo basal cell.Both these cells devide by two
successive oblique interesting walls to form apical cells.Thus,the young
embryo has two growing points on either side.
• The derivatives of the upper apical cell form the capsule and operculum of
the seta.The derivatives of the lower apical cell form the foot and lower
part of the seta,The venter walls develops into calyptra and completely
encloses the developing embryo.
• Structure Of Mature Sporophyte:
• A mature sporophyte can be differentiated into foot,seta and capsule.
• (i)Foot:
• It is tepered and embedded in the issue of female gametophyte for
anchorage and absorption of mineral nutrients and water for developing
sporophyte.
• (ii)Seta:
• In continuation of foot is seta.It is long,slender,stalk like and bears the
capsule at the upper end.
• Internal Structure Of Seta:
• A transverse section of seta shows that it consists of an outer
single layered epidermis,parenchymaous cortex with a central
stand consisting of hydroids and leptoids.At maturity dew outer
layers just below the epidermis become thick walled.Its main
Functions are to raise the capsule,conduction of water and mineral
nutrients.
• Transverse Section Of Seta
• (iii)Capsule:
• It is elongated cylindrical and can be differntiated into following
parts:
• (a) Apophysis:
• In the central region of capsule the seta merges with apophysis.It is
the basal sterile part of the capsule composed of perenchymatous
cells.In comparison to other hair-cup-mosses it is indistinct in
Pogonatum.In the centre conducting stand is present which is
continuous with seta and columella.
• (b)Theca:
It is the fertile portion of the capsule.The longitudinal
section passing through the region shows the outermost
single layer epidermis which lacks stomata.
It is followed by two-two four celled thick chlorophylls
tissue.The central part of theca is occupied by sterile
columella.It is made up of paranchymatous cells.The
upper part of the columella is in contact with epiphragm
restricts the explosure of spore sacs while the basal part is
connected with the central tissue of apophysis.Besides
providing mechanical support to the capsule,the
columella also helps in the conduction of water and
nutrients.
• (c)Operculum:
• It is present at the tip of the columella and attached
to the mouth of theca.It appears likea lid.At the
base of the constriction a rim or diaphragm is
present.It is made up2-3 rows of thick walled
radially elongated cells.Annulus is absent.Just below
the operculum a tissue is present which stretches
like a drum head over the opening of the capsule
and closes it.It is knows as epiphragm.
• (d)Peristome:
• Amature peristome,consists of 16 to 32 teeth. These
arise from the rim of the diaphragm.
• Dispersal Of Spores:
• A maturity the capsule begins to dry up.The culumella and
other thin walled tissues lose water,shrivel up and form a
space in the centre of the capsule,The spores come to lie in
the space.Further drying and shriveling of the capsule wall
causes the operculum to fall.It exposes the peristome.At
this stage the capsule is horizontally placed due to
curvature of the seta below the hypophysis.
• Structure Of Spores:
• The spores are the first cell of the gemetophyte.The spore
wall is differentiated into two layers.The outer exospore
and the inner endospore.Cytoplasm contains
nucleus,mitochondria,granular endoplasmic
reticulum,plastids and ribozomes.The reserve food material
is in the form of lipid droplets.
• Germination Of Spores:
• Spore remains viable for longer period and germinates under
favourable conditions.Exospore ruptures and endospore protrudes
out the form of one or more germ tubes.
• It soon enlarges and forms a branched filamentous structure called
protonema. Filaments of the protonema grow in two different
direction.Some filaments grow prostrate on the surface of the
substrate or become upright in the air and are known as
chloronemal branches,while the other branches grow downward
into the soil and are called rhizoidal branches.
• These rhizoial branches have oblique cross walls.If expossed to
light, this branches may develop chlorophyll and become
transferred into the chloronemal branches.The main functions of
the rhizoidal branches are attachment,absoption of minerals and
water from soil.Chloronemal branches give rise to many buds.Each
buds developes into erect,leafy gemetophore.
• Alternation Of Generation In Pogonatum:
• The life cycle of pogonatum shows regular alternation of
two morphological distinct phases.
• (i)Haplophase:
• This Phase is dominant,independent,haploid and bears
gametes.It developes from the germination of the
spores.Male and Female Gemetes fuse to form zygote.
• (ii)Diploid Phase:
• Zygote is first cell of the sporophytic phase,develops into
sporogonium which produces spores.So,in pogonatum the
morphologically distinct phases constitute the life
cycle.The generation and sporogenic meiosis is known as
heteromorphic and diplohaplontic.
• Reference
• Botany For Degree Student
• Brayopsida
• Vasistha
• Anilkumar
Thank You

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Gametofite and sporofite in bryopsida

  • 1. Gametophyte & Sporophyte in Brayopsida Presented by… Shrimali Neha C Department Of Life Science H.N.G.U ,Patan
  • 3. Introduction • Bryophyte are a groups of plants that include • Mosses,liverworts and hornwort.
  • 4. Brayopsida • The Brayopsidasome constitute the largest class of mosses, containing 95% of all moss species. It consist of approximately 11,500 species common through the whole world.
  • 5. Gametophytic Phase Of Pogonatum: • (i) External Features of Gametophyte: • The plants are perennial,erect gametophytes and can be differentiated into two regions: • (a) Rhizome (b) Rhyzoids • (a) The adult plant has a basal rhizome-like structure which gives rise to many aerial shoots of leafy shoots on the upper side and rhizoids on the lower side.The aerial shoots form thick mat like cushions.
  • 6.
  • 7. • (b)Rhizoids:Rhizome is densely covered with multicellular,thick walled rhizoids with oblique septa.Many rhyzoids coil,twist and inter-wine to form rope-like thick structure.Main functions of the rhizods are anchorage and absorption. Aerialshoot: these are erect and arise from the rhizome.It consists of a central axis,the stem which bears scaly and green leaves.Scaly leaves are present on the basal portion of the stem while normal leaves are present on the upper part of the gametophore.
  • 8. • External Structure Of The Leaf: • The leaves are costate with long lanceolate lamina and colourless base that en-sheaths the stem. • Each leaf can be differentiated into two parts: • A sheathing base and apical limb. • Sheathing Base • It is colourless,broad membranous structure.It clasps the stem closely and this provides the external capilary conducting system of water
  • 9. • Internal structure of poonatum • 1 Rhizome • Transereve section of rhizome is irregular in outline • 2 Epidermis • It is outer most layer.it composed of single layer of thick walled cells.in the rhizome,numerous epidermal cells extend to from the rhizoids • Cortex • It is inner to epidermis & is differentited into two parts • Outer cortex , inner cortex,endodermis ,central strand
  • 10. • Internally the stem of aerial branchis shows similar structure with some differences • 1.Rhiozoids absent • 2.cortex is madeup of only hydroids • 3.cortex is encircled by a discontinuous layer of leptoids • 4.endodermis absent
  • 11. • Reproduction of Pogonatum: • Pogonatum reproduces by two methods: • (i) Vegetative Reproduction • It takes place by following method: • 1.By the devlopement of bud-like gemmae on the rhizodes. • 2.By Primary protonema: • It devlope multi cellular buds which devlope into leafy gemetospore. • The Fragmentation of Rhizome.
  • 12.
  • 13. • (ii) Sexual Reproduction: • It is oogamous.Male reproductive structures are known as antheridia and female reproductive structures are known as archegonia. Majority of the species of pogonatum are dioecious but P.microstomum is monoecious.These sex organs develop in terminal clusters on the separate gametospores. • Antheridial Head: • A male plant may have several antheridial heads.The antheridia develop on the tip of the male branches an appar like flower.It is antheridial head. • Such growth pattern of the gemetospore beyond the antheridial head is know as proliferation.Many sterile,multicellular,hairs like structure are also present in the antheridia.These were called as paraphysis.
  • 14. • Antheridium: • A mature antheridium can be differentiated into two parts.short stalk and club shaped body.It’s body has a single layer jacket which incluses a mass of biflegellate antherozoids.
  • 15. • Archegonical Head: • It is the terminal part of the female Gametophore.It is formed by the perichaetial leaves and gives abud like appearance. • Paraphyses are sterile structures consisting of a row of uniform cells. There is no proliferation of the archegonial shoot because In the development of archegonia the apical cells of the stem are utilized and thus the growth of the stem ceases after the formation of archegonia. • Mature Archegonium: • A Mature archegonium is a flask shaped structure.It remains attached to gemetophyte by a massive stalk.It consists of upper elongated neck and basal globular portion called venter.The neck consists of six vertical rows enclosed within about 6-9 neck canal cells.Venter is multilayered and encloses a small venter canal cell and large egg cell. • The multilayeredventer forms a calyptra to protect the developing sporophyte.The superficial cells of calyptra produce papillate outgrowths,which elongate and in later stages develop thick walls.Because of these hairy covering on the sporophyte,Pogonatum is known as hair-cup moss.
  • 16. • Fertilization In Pogonatum: • Water is essential for fertilization.The uper cells of the antheridium ruptures and release mass of antherozoids.The neck canal cells and venter canal cells disintegrate to form a mucilaginous substance.The apital cells of the neck separate widely from each other and form a passage a leading to egg. • Many antherozoids enter the archegonial neck because of the chemotactic response,but only one of them fuses with the egg to form zygote.More than one archegonia on an archegonical branch may be fertilized,but only one sporophyte reaches maturity.Fertilization ends the gametophytic phase .
  • 17. • Sporophytic Phase: • After fertilization the zygote begins to increase in size and secretes a wall around.It is diplolid oospore.It divides by transverse division to form an upper epibasal cell and lower hypo basal cell.Both these cells devide by two successive oblique interesting walls to form apical cells.Thus,the young embryo has two growing points on either side. • The derivatives of the upper apical cell form the capsule and operculum of the seta.The derivatives of the lower apical cell form the foot and lower part of the seta,The venter walls develops into calyptra and completely encloses the developing embryo. • Structure Of Mature Sporophyte: • A mature sporophyte can be differentiated into foot,seta and capsule. • (i)Foot: • It is tepered and embedded in the issue of female gametophyte for anchorage and absorption of mineral nutrients and water for developing sporophyte. • (ii)Seta: • In continuation of foot is seta.It is long,slender,stalk like and bears the capsule at the upper end.
  • 18. • Internal Structure Of Seta: • A transverse section of seta shows that it consists of an outer single layered epidermis,parenchymaous cortex with a central stand consisting of hydroids and leptoids.At maturity dew outer layers just below the epidermis become thick walled.Its main Functions are to raise the capsule,conduction of water and mineral nutrients. • Transverse Section Of Seta • (iii)Capsule: • It is elongated cylindrical and can be differntiated into following parts: • (a) Apophysis: • In the central region of capsule the seta merges with apophysis.It is the basal sterile part of the capsule composed of perenchymatous cells.In comparison to other hair-cup-mosses it is indistinct in Pogonatum.In the centre conducting stand is present which is continuous with seta and columella.
  • 19. • (b)Theca: It is the fertile portion of the capsule.The longitudinal section passing through the region shows the outermost single layer epidermis which lacks stomata. It is followed by two-two four celled thick chlorophylls tissue.The central part of theca is occupied by sterile columella.It is made up of paranchymatous cells.The upper part of the columella is in contact with epiphragm restricts the explosure of spore sacs while the basal part is connected with the central tissue of apophysis.Besides providing mechanical support to the capsule,the columella also helps in the conduction of water and nutrients.
  • 20. • (c)Operculum: • It is present at the tip of the columella and attached to the mouth of theca.It appears likea lid.At the base of the constriction a rim or diaphragm is present.It is made up2-3 rows of thick walled radially elongated cells.Annulus is absent.Just below the operculum a tissue is present which stretches like a drum head over the opening of the capsule and closes it.It is knows as epiphragm. • (d)Peristome: • Amature peristome,consists of 16 to 32 teeth. These arise from the rim of the diaphragm.
  • 21. • Dispersal Of Spores: • A maturity the capsule begins to dry up.The culumella and other thin walled tissues lose water,shrivel up and form a space in the centre of the capsule,The spores come to lie in the space.Further drying and shriveling of the capsule wall causes the operculum to fall.It exposes the peristome.At this stage the capsule is horizontally placed due to curvature of the seta below the hypophysis. • Structure Of Spores: • The spores are the first cell of the gemetophyte.The spore wall is differentiated into two layers.The outer exospore and the inner endospore.Cytoplasm contains nucleus,mitochondria,granular endoplasmic reticulum,plastids and ribozomes.The reserve food material is in the form of lipid droplets.
  • 22. • Germination Of Spores: • Spore remains viable for longer period and germinates under favourable conditions.Exospore ruptures and endospore protrudes out the form of one or more germ tubes. • It soon enlarges and forms a branched filamentous structure called protonema. Filaments of the protonema grow in two different direction.Some filaments grow prostrate on the surface of the substrate or become upright in the air and are known as chloronemal branches,while the other branches grow downward into the soil and are called rhizoidal branches. • These rhizoial branches have oblique cross walls.If expossed to light, this branches may develop chlorophyll and become transferred into the chloronemal branches.The main functions of the rhizoidal branches are attachment,absoption of minerals and water from soil.Chloronemal branches give rise to many buds.Each buds developes into erect,leafy gemetophore.
  • 23. • Alternation Of Generation In Pogonatum: • The life cycle of pogonatum shows regular alternation of two morphological distinct phases. • (i)Haplophase: • This Phase is dominant,independent,haploid and bears gametes.It developes from the germination of the spores.Male and Female Gemetes fuse to form zygote. • (ii)Diploid Phase: • Zygote is first cell of the sporophytic phase,develops into sporogonium which produces spores.So,in pogonatum the morphologically distinct phases constitute the life cycle.The generation and sporogenic meiosis is known as heteromorphic and diplohaplontic.
  • 24. • Reference • Botany For Degree Student • Brayopsida • Vasistha • Anilkumar