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The History of Plastics
Plastic Tech 1
Introduction
 Plastics are said to be the most versatile
materials on earth.
 Almost all of the products we use in our
daily lives contain plastics.
 How has the plastic industry changed the
world we live in?
Early Stages of Plastic
 Goes back as far as the Egyptians.
 Would wrap their dead with cloth and resin
which would harden into a shell.
 Would stop the body from decaying.
 Greek word plastikos
 Keratin
 First natural plastic used in the United States
 Made from fingernails, animal hoofs, horns, turtle
shells
 Early combs
Rubber’s Helping Hand
 Charles Goodyear's 1839
 Vulcanization process for natural
rubber
 Adding sulfur enhanced the elasticity
and strength of the natural
rubber “hard rubber”
 Process is still used today
The Modern Era
 Alexander Parkes 1862
 Developed the first early semi-synthetic plastic
 Parkesine
 Could be heated and formed
 Buttons, combs, small picture frames, pens
 High cost to manufacture slowed the growth
John Wesley Hyatt
 Celluloid 1868 John Wesley Hyatt
 First semi-synthetic commercial plastic
 Developed as a substitute for Ivory
 Combs, shirt collars & cuffs, billiard balls, film
 Very flammable material
Dr. Leo Baekeland
 Phenol-formaldehyde “Bakelite” 1909
 First 100% synthetic plastic
 Excellent electrical properties replaced rubber
for insulation
 Used for early records, phones, camera parts
 Thermoset resin
War Developments
 New plastics were developed due to
limited natural materials
 Rubber, Steel & Copper
 War effort products
 Airplane fabrics, gas masks, canteens,
radar cable insulation, synthetic rubber
Post War Developments
War developments increased
plastic production tremendously
 1960’s 6 billion lbs.
Polystyrene
 Furniture parts, packaging, toys
Nylon
 Gears, rope, fishing line, stockings
Post War Developments
Polyethylene
 Hoola Hoop, plastic bottle, paint brush
Teflon
 “Frictionless”- Du Pont Invention
Polyurethanes
 Flexible foam - cushions, dashboards
Polycarbonate
 Replaced glass- stronger
Current Day
 Since 1960’s the industry has grown
+-15% annually
 1983 the production surpassed iron &
steel
 Packaging industry is largest market
for plastics
 Plastic bottles, Tupperware, product
packaging
Why or why not Plastic?
 Advantages: Light, strong, flexible, or
rigid, colored or clear, will not rust or
corrode, electrical properties,
inexpensive
 Disadvantages: poor tolerance to
heat, hard to repair, non-
biodegradable
Review
 What was the name of the first all natural
plastic?
 Who developed the first commercial plastic?
 What was the name of the plastic that was
developed in 1909 which revolutionized the
plastic industry?
 What industry is the largest user of plastic?
Keratin
Packaging
Bakelite
John Wesley Hyatt

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15461349.ppt

  • 1. The History of Plastics Plastic Tech 1
  • 2. Introduction  Plastics are said to be the most versatile materials on earth.  Almost all of the products we use in our daily lives contain plastics.  How has the plastic industry changed the world we live in?
  • 3. Early Stages of Plastic  Goes back as far as the Egyptians.  Would wrap their dead with cloth and resin which would harden into a shell.  Would stop the body from decaying.  Greek word plastikos  Keratin  First natural plastic used in the United States  Made from fingernails, animal hoofs, horns, turtle shells  Early combs
  • 4. Rubber’s Helping Hand  Charles Goodyear's 1839  Vulcanization process for natural rubber  Adding sulfur enhanced the elasticity and strength of the natural rubber “hard rubber”  Process is still used today
  • 5. The Modern Era  Alexander Parkes 1862  Developed the first early semi-synthetic plastic  Parkesine  Could be heated and formed  Buttons, combs, small picture frames, pens  High cost to manufacture slowed the growth
  • 6. John Wesley Hyatt  Celluloid 1868 John Wesley Hyatt  First semi-synthetic commercial plastic  Developed as a substitute for Ivory  Combs, shirt collars & cuffs, billiard balls, film  Very flammable material
  • 7. Dr. Leo Baekeland  Phenol-formaldehyde “Bakelite” 1909  First 100% synthetic plastic  Excellent electrical properties replaced rubber for insulation  Used for early records, phones, camera parts  Thermoset resin
  • 8. War Developments  New plastics were developed due to limited natural materials  Rubber, Steel & Copper  War effort products  Airplane fabrics, gas masks, canteens, radar cable insulation, synthetic rubber
  • 9. Post War Developments War developments increased plastic production tremendously  1960’s 6 billion lbs. Polystyrene  Furniture parts, packaging, toys Nylon  Gears, rope, fishing line, stockings
  • 10. Post War Developments Polyethylene  Hoola Hoop, plastic bottle, paint brush Teflon  “Frictionless”- Du Pont Invention Polyurethanes  Flexible foam - cushions, dashboards Polycarbonate  Replaced glass- stronger
  • 11. Current Day  Since 1960’s the industry has grown +-15% annually  1983 the production surpassed iron & steel  Packaging industry is largest market for plastics  Plastic bottles, Tupperware, product packaging
  • 12. Why or why not Plastic?  Advantages: Light, strong, flexible, or rigid, colored or clear, will not rust or corrode, electrical properties, inexpensive  Disadvantages: poor tolerance to heat, hard to repair, non- biodegradable
  • 13.
  • 14. Review  What was the name of the first all natural plastic?  Who developed the first commercial plastic?  What was the name of the plastic that was developed in 1909 which revolutionized the plastic industry?  What industry is the largest user of plastic? Keratin Packaging Bakelite John Wesley Hyatt