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On-farm Evaluation of SRI in Tamiraparani Command Area, Tamil Nadu, India T.M. Thiyagarajan Dean Agricultural College & Research Institute Killikulam, Vallanadu 628 252 Tamil Nadu, India
Tamil Nadu INDIA
Tamil Nadu 7.5 m t 3.42 t/ha Annual rice production Average yield 2.19 m ha Gross rice area 5.79 m ha Net area sown 13.0 m ha Total geographical area
Water demand and supply in 2025 for Tamil Nadu (million ha m) 3.57 - 4.55 15.5-47.9% Demand for agricultural purposes Excess demand over supply 3.09 Available for agricultural purposes 1.65 Demand for non-agricultural purposes 4.74 Total water supply
System of Rice Intensification Young seedling Soft handling Wider spacing Weed incorporation Limited water
Experimental Results SRI evaluations were begun in 2001 by TNAU, preceding first extension to farmers in 2002
Two field experiments on SRI  conducted in India in Tamil Nadu Location :   Wetland experimental areas at Tamil Nadu   Agricultural University, Coimbatore Experiment I    :   Wet season (Sept. 2001- Jan. 2002)  hybrid rice CORH-2 (125 d) Experiment II :  Dry season (Feb. - June 2002)  hybrid rice ADTRH-1 (115 d)
Crop establishment factors Modified SRI planting: in the wet season,  14-day-old single seedling per hill; in dry season, direct wet seeding, 2-3 seeds manually sown,  but later thinned to single seedling per hill. P2 Conventional planting: 24-day-old seedlings; single seedling per hill.   P1
Irrigation factors Limited irrigation after crop establishment: irrigating to 2 cm depth after development of surface cracks; in the wet season, limited irrigation up to flowering stage, followed by conventional irrigation during grain filling;  in dry season, limited irrigation till maturity. I2 Conventional irrigation: irrigating to 5 cm depth one day after disappearance of surface water.   I1
Weed management factors  Weeds mechanically incorporated with a rotary weeder, used crisscross (five times) during the growing season.   W2 Conventional weeding: in the wet season, weeds were removed by manual weeding (three times); in the dry season, pre-emergence application of herbicide  Butachlor , followed by manual weeding (two times).   W1
Nutrient management factors The same as N1, plus green manure (fresh weight 6.25 t  ha -1 ). N2 Recommended amount of N (150 kg  ha-1), P 2 O (60 kg  ha-1), K 2 O (90 kg  ha-1) and Zn in splits applied.   N1
Water used for the rice hybrid CORH2  (wet season) 10259 3560 11 6699 Limited irrigation 8765 3560 9 5205 Limited irrigation Conventional  irrigation Conventional  irrigation 16907 15143 Total water used  (m 3  ha -1 ) 3560 3560 Cumulative rainfall during the crop period (m 3  ha -1 ) 16 14 Total number of irrigations 13347 11853 Total water irrigated (m 3  ha -1 ) Modified planting Conventional planting
Water used for the rice hybrid ADTRH1  (dry season) 8979 560 18 8419 Limited irrigation 6773 560 15 6213 Limited irrigation Conventional  irrigation Conventional  irrigation 17194 13966 Total water used  (m 3  ha -1 ) 560 560 Cumulative rainfall during the crop period (m 3  ha -1 ) 25 21 Total number of irrigations 16634 13406 Total water irrigated (m 3  ha -1 ) Modified SRI planting Conventional planting
Grain yield (kg ha -1 ) of rice hybrid CORH 2 under conventional and SRI 6290 7126 6707 5059 6268 Water saving irrigation 6413 6543 6269 Mean 6349 6908 6195 6199 Water saving irrigation 6858 7612 6343 5787 5893 6000 6737 6076 Mean  N2 N2 N1 N1 Conventional irrigation Conventional irrigation 6796 6126 Mean 6615 6838 6008 Weeds incorporated 6365 6841 6151 Weeds removed Mean Younger seedlings Conventional seedlings Factors
Grain yield (kg ha -1 ) of rice hybrid ADTRH 1 under conventional and SRI 6442 6612 6400 6391 6366 Water saving irrigation 5899 6610 6052 Mean 6080 6014 5809 5694 Water saving irrigation 6486 6941 6311 6265 6600 6261 6436 6226 Mean  N2 N2 N1 N1 Conventional  irrigation Conventional irrigation 6778 6205 Mean 6386 6890 6240 Weeds incorporated 6187 6682 6009 Weeds removed Mean Direct Seeded Conventional seedlings Factors
 
Labour Productivity ( US$ ) 3.91 4.64 SRI 3.85 4.71 Modified planting Conventional irrigation Mechanical  weeding 3.39 3.55 Conventional planting Limited  irrigation Conventional weeding 3.46 3.29 Conventional   Dry  season Wet  season Management options
SRI resulted in higher LAI during grain filling period
SRI method of planting resulted in higher root volume at panicle initiation, flowering and grain filling stages
Mechanical weeding Conventional weeding Root growth
Microbial population in rice rhizosphere 59 x 10 3 33 x 10 3 Phosphobacteria 66 x 10 3 39 x 10 3 Azotobacter 31 x 10 5 8 x 10 5 Azospirillum 105 x 10 6 88 x 10 6 Total bacteria SRI Conventional Microorganism
Effect of SRI on crop physiology 72.47 56.77 - - Cytokinin  (pmol g -1 ) 11.23 8.40 - - Root CEC  (mg 100g -1 ) 16.70 11.74 18.11 12.42 Nitrate reductase  (mg NO 2 g -1  h -1 ) 11.95 10.25 12.62 8.35 Soluble protein  (mg g -1 ) 3.13 2.60 3.20 2.76 Total Chlorophyll  (mg g -1 ) SRI Conventional SRI Conventional (ADTRH1) Dry season (CORH2) Wet season
Pest abundance in nursery Figures in parentheses are transformed values  ** significant difference (P<0.001) 12.5** 9.3  ±  2.6 (9.1) 0.8  ±  0.2 (0.9) Whorl maggot (% damaged leaves per seedling) 11.5** 0.2  ±  0.0 (0.8) 0.0  ±  0.0 (0.0) BPH (per seedling) 14.8** 0.4  ±  0.1 (0.9) 0.1  ±  0.0 (0.8) Green leaf hopper (per seedling) 19.3** 6.1  ±  0.5 (2.5) 0.5  ±  0.2 (0.9) Thrips (per seedling) 16.1** 20.4  ±  4.8 (19.1) 0.0  ±  0.0 (0.0) Cut worm (% damaged leaves per seedling) t  value Conventional cultivation (Mean  ± SE) SRI cultivation (Mean  ± SE) Insects and their damage / population
Pest abundance in main field Figures in parentheses are transformed values  ** significant difference (P<0.001) 4.5** 8.8  ±  1.4 (9.1) 5.6  ±  1.8 (5.9) Whorl maggot (% truncated leaves per hill) 14.4** 2.7  ±  0.2 (1.8) 1.1  ±  0.2 (1.2) BPH (per hill) 10.7** 1.1  ±  0.2 (1.2) 0.6  ±  0.1 (1.0) Green leaf hopper (per hill) 12.2** 20.2  ±  2.0 (4.1) 6.6  ±  0.1 (2.2) Thrips (per hill) 6.6** 23.2  ±  2.0 (19.1) 17.9  ± 1.9 (18.0) Whorl maggot (% damaged leaves per hill) t  value Conventional cultivation (Mean  ± SE) SRI cultivation (Mean  ± SE) Insects and their damage / population
Pest abundance in main field Figures in parentheses are transformed values  ** significant difference (P<0.001) NS : not significant 0.4 NS 0.9  ±  0.1 (1.1) 0.9  ±  0.1 (1.1) Earhead bug (No. per hill) 15.4** 6.5  ±  1.0 (11.8) 20.3  ±  1.6 (21.7) Leaf folder (scraped leaves per hill) 10.1** 7.3  ±  1.0 (10.0) 11.7  ±  1.3 (15.5) Stem borers (deadheart/white ear per hill) 9.3** 11.0  ±  1.5 (19.1) 5.0  ± 1.2 (6.8) Gall midge (% silver shoot  per hill) t  value Conventional cultivation (Mean  ± SE) SRI cultivation (Mean  ± SE) Insects and their damage / population
Prospects SRI offers scope for considerable reduction in water use,  seed requirements, labour for weeding, with concurrent increase in yield
Evaluation in Farmers’ Fields The Government of Tamil Nadu approved US$ 30,000 to conduct Adaptive Research Trials (ART) in 100 farmers’ fields in Tamiraparani River Command area in 2003-2004
Locations of ARTs in Tamiraparani Basin LEGEND ANICUTS IN THAMBIRA BARANI RIVER BASIN 1.Kodaimalalagian 2.Nadhiyunni 3. Kannadian 4.Arianayakiapuram 5. Palavor 6. Suthamalli 7. Maruthur  8. Srivaigundam LOCATION OF ART’s   KADAYANALLUR SANKARAN KOIL KALUGU MALAI KAYATHAR THENKASI SHENKOTAI COURTALLAM
Rotary weeder  (3-4 times) Herbicide + hand weeding , or 2 hand weedings Weed control 2.5 cm depth (up to PI :  after surface cracks develop in the soil;  after PI : 1 day after disappearance of water) 5 cm depth 1 day after disappearance of ponded water Irrigation 20 x 20 cm 15 x 10 cm 20 x 10 cm Planting density 14 days Single seedling  hill -1 21 – 30 days 2-3 seedlings hill -1 Seedling SRI Conventional rice cultivation Factors
SRI Training for Extension Personnel
SRI Training for Farmers
SRI Training for Farmers
SRI Nursery SRI Nursery
SRI Planting
Rotary weeder use
SRI nursery
Conventional nursery
Pulling out of seedlings Conventional SRI
Transport of seedlings Conventional SRI
Conventional planting
SRI planting
Transplanted field Conventional SRI
Conventional weeding
Using rotary weeder
Using cono weeder
Rotary weeder
Cono weeder
Conventionally weeded Mechanically weeded
Conventional irrigation
Water-saving irrigation
Crop growth at different stages Just transplanted Tillering Maturity
SRI farmer showing the difference in  no. of panicles to TNAU Vice- Chancellor
Grain yield assessment All panicles from 5 randomly chosen areas (1 m 2 ) were harvested from both conventional and SRI plots Panicle number and number of grains per panicle were counted Grains were separated, cleaned, weighed, and moisture % was estimated Yield is reported at 14 % moisture level
 
 
 
 
Benefits of SRI
Nursery is smaller and simpler  Wet land Garden land
Seed requirement is reduced Conventional : 60 – 75 kg ha -1 SRI  : 7.5 kg ha -1
Higher tillering in a reportedly shy-tillering variety (ASD16)
Multiple advantages of using weeder No need to use herbicides Weed incorporation into soil Less labour needed for weeding Incorporation of top dressed fertilizer Disturbance of the soil’s surface  aerates the top horizon Promotion of crop growth
Saving of irrigation water = 40 – 50 %
SRI crop resists lodging
Leaves remain green up to harvest
COSTS  OF  CULTIVATION  PER  HECTARE Saving in SRI system over conventional system – Rs. 2,369 (11 %)  19,060 21,429 167.5 222.5 85.5 52 2 2 8.5 9.5 Total 3500 3500 75 75 12.5 12.5 - - 1 1 Harvesting 8. 660 660 2 2 2 2 - - - - Plant Protection 7. 240 300 - - 6 7.5 - - - - Irrigation 6. 1520 3200 - 80 38 - - - - - Weeding 5. 3200 2400 75 55 5 5 - - - - Transplanting 4. 7254 7254 10 10 7 7 - - - - Manures & Fertilizers 3. 2005 2005 - - 12 12 2 2 7.5 7.5 Main Field Preparation 2. 681 2110 5.5 0.5 3 6 - - - 1 Nursery Preparation 1. SRI Con SRI Con SRI Con SRI Con SRI Con Cost (Rs.) Women’s Labour  @ Rs. 40 / manday Men’s Labour  @ Rs. 40 / manday Bullock pair @ Rs. 200 / hr Tractor hours @ Rs. 150 / hr Practices Sl. No.
Economics of Cultivation (ha -1 )   2.25 1.52 B : C ratio 6. US$ 519 US$ 242 Net return 5. US$ 414 US$ 466 Cost of cultivation 4. US$ 933 US$ 708 Gross return 3. US$ 63 US$ 49 Income from straw (Rs. 0.25 / kg) 2. US$ 870 US$ 659 Income from grains  (Rs. 5.00 / kg) 1. SRI practices Conventional practices Particulars Sl. No.
Joint Director of Agriculture (Thanjavur District) :  Initially a strong critic of SRI in 2003 has laid out more than 2000 SRI demo trials in 2004.
Thank You

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0407 On-Farm Evaluation of SRI in Tamiraparani Command Area, Tamil Nadu, India

  • 1. On-farm Evaluation of SRI in Tamiraparani Command Area, Tamil Nadu, India T.M. Thiyagarajan Dean Agricultural College & Research Institute Killikulam, Vallanadu 628 252 Tamil Nadu, India
  • 3. Tamil Nadu 7.5 m t 3.42 t/ha Annual rice production Average yield 2.19 m ha Gross rice area 5.79 m ha Net area sown 13.0 m ha Total geographical area
  • 4. Water demand and supply in 2025 for Tamil Nadu (million ha m) 3.57 - 4.55 15.5-47.9% Demand for agricultural purposes Excess demand over supply 3.09 Available for agricultural purposes 1.65 Demand for non-agricultural purposes 4.74 Total water supply
  • 5. System of Rice Intensification Young seedling Soft handling Wider spacing Weed incorporation Limited water
  • 6. Experimental Results SRI evaluations were begun in 2001 by TNAU, preceding first extension to farmers in 2002
  • 7. Two field experiments on SRI conducted in India in Tamil Nadu Location : Wetland experimental areas at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore Experiment I : Wet season (Sept. 2001- Jan. 2002) hybrid rice CORH-2 (125 d) Experiment II : Dry season (Feb. - June 2002) hybrid rice ADTRH-1 (115 d)
  • 8. Crop establishment factors Modified SRI planting: in the wet season, 14-day-old single seedling per hill; in dry season, direct wet seeding, 2-3 seeds manually sown, but later thinned to single seedling per hill. P2 Conventional planting: 24-day-old seedlings; single seedling per hill. P1
  • 9. Irrigation factors Limited irrigation after crop establishment: irrigating to 2 cm depth after development of surface cracks; in the wet season, limited irrigation up to flowering stage, followed by conventional irrigation during grain filling; in dry season, limited irrigation till maturity. I2 Conventional irrigation: irrigating to 5 cm depth one day after disappearance of surface water. I1
  • 10. Weed management factors Weeds mechanically incorporated with a rotary weeder, used crisscross (five times) during the growing season. W2 Conventional weeding: in the wet season, weeds were removed by manual weeding (three times); in the dry season, pre-emergence application of herbicide Butachlor , followed by manual weeding (two times). W1
  • 11. Nutrient management factors The same as N1, plus green manure (fresh weight 6.25 t ha -1 ). N2 Recommended amount of N (150 kg ha-1), P 2 O (60 kg ha-1), K 2 O (90 kg ha-1) and Zn in splits applied. N1
  • 12. Water used for the rice hybrid CORH2 (wet season) 10259 3560 11 6699 Limited irrigation 8765 3560 9 5205 Limited irrigation Conventional irrigation Conventional irrigation 16907 15143 Total water used (m 3 ha -1 ) 3560 3560 Cumulative rainfall during the crop period (m 3 ha -1 ) 16 14 Total number of irrigations 13347 11853 Total water irrigated (m 3 ha -1 ) Modified planting Conventional planting
  • 13. Water used for the rice hybrid ADTRH1 (dry season) 8979 560 18 8419 Limited irrigation 6773 560 15 6213 Limited irrigation Conventional irrigation Conventional irrigation 17194 13966 Total water used (m 3 ha -1 ) 560 560 Cumulative rainfall during the crop period (m 3 ha -1 ) 25 21 Total number of irrigations 16634 13406 Total water irrigated (m 3 ha -1 ) Modified SRI planting Conventional planting
  • 14. Grain yield (kg ha -1 ) of rice hybrid CORH 2 under conventional and SRI 6290 7126 6707 5059 6268 Water saving irrigation 6413 6543 6269 Mean 6349 6908 6195 6199 Water saving irrigation 6858 7612 6343 5787 5893 6000 6737 6076 Mean N2 N2 N1 N1 Conventional irrigation Conventional irrigation 6796 6126 Mean 6615 6838 6008 Weeds incorporated 6365 6841 6151 Weeds removed Mean Younger seedlings Conventional seedlings Factors
  • 15. Grain yield (kg ha -1 ) of rice hybrid ADTRH 1 under conventional and SRI 6442 6612 6400 6391 6366 Water saving irrigation 5899 6610 6052 Mean 6080 6014 5809 5694 Water saving irrigation 6486 6941 6311 6265 6600 6261 6436 6226 Mean N2 N2 N1 N1 Conventional irrigation Conventional irrigation 6778 6205 Mean 6386 6890 6240 Weeds incorporated 6187 6682 6009 Weeds removed Mean Direct Seeded Conventional seedlings Factors
  • 16.  
  • 17. Labour Productivity ( US$ ) 3.91 4.64 SRI 3.85 4.71 Modified planting Conventional irrigation Mechanical weeding 3.39 3.55 Conventional planting Limited irrigation Conventional weeding 3.46 3.29 Conventional Dry season Wet season Management options
  • 18. SRI resulted in higher LAI during grain filling period
  • 19. SRI method of planting resulted in higher root volume at panicle initiation, flowering and grain filling stages
  • 20. Mechanical weeding Conventional weeding Root growth
  • 21. Microbial population in rice rhizosphere 59 x 10 3 33 x 10 3 Phosphobacteria 66 x 10 3 39 x 10 3 Azotobacter 31 x 10 5 8 x 10 5 Azospirillum 105 x 10 6 88 x 10 6 Total bacteria SRI Conventional Microorganism
  • 22. Effect of SRI on crop physiology 72.47 56.77 - - Cytokinin (pmol g -1 ) 11.23 8.40 - - Root CEC (mg 100g -1 ) 16.70 11.74 18.11 12.42 Nitrate reductase (mg NO 2 g -1 h -1 ) 11.95 10.25 12.62 8.35 Soluble protein (mg g -1 ) 3.13 2.60 3.20 2.76 Total Chlorophyll (mg g -1 ) SRI Conventional SRI Conventional (ADTRH1) Dry season (CORH2) Wet season
  • 23. Pest abundance in nursery Figures in parentheses are transformed values ** significant difference (P<0.001) 12.5** 9.3 ± 2.6 (9.1) 0.8 ± 0.2 (0.9) Whorl maggot (% damaged leaves per seedling) 11.5** 0.2 ± 0.0 (0.8) 0.0 ± 0.0 (0.0) BPH (per seedling) 14.8** 0.4 ± 0.1 (0.9) 0.1 ± 0.0 (0.8) Green leaf hopper (per seedling) 19.3** 6.1 ± 0.5 (2.5) 0.5 ± 0.2 (0.9) Thrips (per seedling) 16.1** 20.4 ± 4.8 (19.1) 0.0 ± 0.0 (0.0) Cut worm (% damaged leaves per seedling) t value Conventional cultivation (Mean ± SE) SRI cultivation (Mean ± SE) Insects and their damage / population
  • 24. Pest abundance in main field Figures in parentheses are transformed values ** significant difference (P<0.001) 4.5** 8.8 ± 1.4 (9.1) 5.6 ± 1.8 (5.9) Whorl maggot (% truncated leaves per hill) 14.4** 2.7 ± 0.2 (1.8) 1.1 ± 0.2 (1.2) BPH (per hill) 10.7** 1.1 ± 0.2 (1.2) 0.6 ± 0.1 (1.0) Green leaf hopper (per hill) 12.2** 20.2 ± 2.0 (4.1) 6.6 ± 0.1 (2.2) Thrips (per hill) 6.6** 23.2 ± 2.0 (19.1) 17.9 ± 1.9 (18.0) Whorl maggot (% damaged leaves per hill) t value Conventional cultivation (Mean ± SE) SRI cultivation (Mean ± SE) Insects and their damage / population
  • 25. Pest abundance in main field Figures in parentheses are transformed values ** significant difference (P<0.001) NS : not significant 0.4 NS 0.9 ± 0.1 (1.1) 0.9 ± 0.1 (1.1) Earhead bug (No. per hill) 15.4** 6.5 ± 1.0 (11.8) 20.3 ± 1.6 (21.7) Leaf folder (scraped leaves per hill) 10.1** 7.3 ± 1.0 (10.0) 11.7 ± 1.3 (15.5) Stem borers (deadheart/white ear per hill) 9.3** 11.0 ± 1.5 (19.1) 5.0 ± 1.2 (6.8) Gall midge (% silver shoot per hill) t value Conventional cultivation (Mean ± SE) SRI cultivation (Mean ± SE) Insects and their damage / population
  • 26. Prospects SRI offers scope for considerable reduction in water use, seed requirements, labour for weeding, with concurrent increase in yield
  • 27. Evaluation in Farmers’ Fields The Government of Tamil Nadu approved US$ 30,000 to conduct Adaptive Research Trials (ART) in 100 farmers’ fields in Tamiraparani River Command area in 2003-2004
  • 28. Locations of ARTs in Tamiraparani Basin LEGEND ANICUTS IN THAMBIRA BARANI RIVER BASIN 1.Kodaimalalagian 2.Nadhiyunni 3. Kannadian 4.Arianayakiapuram 5. Palavor 6. Suthamalli 7. Maruthur 8. Srivaigundam LOCATION OF ART’s KADAYANALLUR SANKARAN KOIL KALUGU MALAI KAYATHAR THENKASI SHENKOTAI COURTALLAM
  • 29. Rotary weeder (3-4 times) Herbicide + hand weeding , or 2 hand weedings Weed control 2.5 cm depth (up to PI : after surface cracks develop in the soil; after PI : 1 day after disappearance of water) 5 cm depth 1 day after disappearance of ponded water Irrigation 20 x 20 cm 15 x 10 cm 20 x 10 cm Planting density 14 days Single seedling hill -1 21 – 30 days 2-3 seedlings hill -1 Seedling SRI Conventional rice cultivation Factors
  • 30. SRI Training for Extension Personnel
  • 31. SRI Training for Farmers
  • 32. SRI Training for Farmers
  • 33. SRI Nursery SRI Nursery
  • 38. Pulling out of seedlings Conventional SRI
  • 39. Transport of seedlings Conventional SRI
  • 51. Crop growth at different stages Just transplanted Tillering Maturity
  • 52. SRI farmer showing the difference in no. of panicles to TNAU Vice- Chancellor
  • 53. Grain yield assessment All panicles from 5 randomly chosen areas (1 m 2 ) were harvested from both conventional and SRI plots Panicle number and number of grains per panicle were counted Grains were separated, cleaned, weighed, and moisture % was estimated Yield is reported at 14 % moisture level
  • 54.  
  • 55.  
  • 56.  
  • 57.  
  • 59. Nursery is smaller and simpler Wet land Garden land
  • 60. Seed requirement is reduced Conventional : 60 – 75 kg ha -1 SRI : 7.5 kg ha -1
  • 61. Higher tillering in a reportedly shy-tillering variety (ASD16)
  • 62. Multiple advantages of using weeder No need to use herbicides Weed incorporation into soil Less labour needed for weeding Incorporation of top dressed fertilizer Disturbance of the soil’s surface aerates the top horizon Promotion of crop growth
  • 63. Saving of irrigation water = 40 – 50 %
  • 64. SRI crop resists lodging
  • 65. Leaves remain green up to harvest
  • 66. COSTS OF CULTIVATION PER HECTARE Saving in SRI system over conventional system – Rs. 2,369 (11 %) 19,060 21,429 167.5 222.5 85.5 52 2 2 8.5 9.5 Total 3500 3500 75 75 12.5 12.5 - - 1 1 Harvesting 8. 660 660 2 2 2 2 - - - - Plant Protection 7. 240 300 - - 6 7.5 - - - - Irrigation 6. 1520 3200 - 80 38 - - - - - Weeding 5. 3200 2400 75 55 5 5 - - - - Transplanting 4. 7254 7254 10 10 7 7 - - - - Manures & Fertilizers 3. 2005 2005 - - 12 12 2 2 7.5 7.5 Main Field Preparation 2. 681 2110 5.5 0.5 3 6 - - - 1 Nursery Preparation 1. SRI Con SRI Con SRI Con SRI Con SRI Con Cost (Rs.) Women’s Labour @ Rs. 40 / manday Men’s Labour @ Rs. 40 / manday Bullock pair @ Rs. 200 / hr Tractor hours @ Rs. 150 / hr Practices Sl. No.
  • 67. Economics of Cultivation (ha -1 ) 2.25 1.52 B : C ratio 6. US$ 519 US$ 242 Net return 5. US$ 414 US$ 466 Cost of cultivation 4. US$ 933 US$ 708 Gross return 3. US$ 63 US$ 49 Income from straw (Rs. 0.25 / kg) 2. US$ 870 US$ 659 Income from grains (Rs. 5.00 / kg) 1. SRI practices Conventional practices Particulars Sl. No.
  • 68. Joint Director of Agriculture (Thanjavur District) : Initially a strong critic of SRI in 2003 has laid out more than 2000 SRI demo trials in 2004.