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Climate-smart agriculture:
How modified crop/water management
with the System of Rice Intensification
(SRI) can contribute...
Although there has been controversy over some of
the high yields reported with the System of Rice
Intensification (SRI), a...
SPREAD OF SRI METHODS: 1st validations outside of
Madagascar were in China (1999 @ Nanjing Agric. University) and then in
...
Most attention has focused on SRI yield effects, with
little assessment of how SRI methods can help farmers
adapt to, as w...
Data (2013) from China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam
and Cambodia where SRI had government support:
> 3,466,710 farmers were ...
What does the System of Rice Intensification
involve?
Certain changes in how plants, soil, water, nutrients
are managed:
•...
Phenotype comparisons from Indonesia and
Liberia show differential expression of rice plants’
genetic potential with the s...
Results of a meta-analysis of 251 comparison trials across 8 countries
reported in 29 published studies between 2006 and 2...
PHENOTYPIC EVIDENCE ON WATER
PRODUCTIVITY
Comparative analysis of same-variety phenotypes of rice, with all
experimental c...
Picture of a rice plant phenotype in Indonesia:
223 tillers growing from a single seed with SRI
methods
Presented by SRI f...
Two rice plant phenotypes in Cuba -- of same
age
(52 DAS) and same variety (VN 2084), same
genetics
SRI plant on right was...
Comparisons of rice plant phenotypes of same
variety in Iran and Iraq, showing effects of
SRI management
Pictures sent to ...
Test plots at Al-Mishkhab research station at Najaf,
Iraq, where varietal responses to SRI management
were compared
SRI ma...
SRI effects on the soil biota are not as
easy to see, but they are equally crucial
for SRI results
Results from research a...
Beneficial effects of endophytic bacteria
associated with SRI practices seen in replicated trials at
Anjomakely, Madagasca...
Effects on root architecture of inoculating two rice varieties with
Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii E11 : (a) Rootlet...
SRI
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
IH H FH MR WR YRStage
Organdryweight(g/hill)
I H H FH MR WR YR
CK Yellow leaf
and sheath
Pani...
EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE RESILIENCE
which makes SRI ‘climate-smart agriculture’
* Drought resilience
* Resistance to lodging ca...
Visual evidence of drought resilience in Sri Lanka: rice
fields planted with same variety and served by the same
irrigatio...
Team from the International Water Management Institute
(IWMI) did evaluation in two districts of Sri Lanka comparing the r...
Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total
SRI area (ha) 1,133 7,267 57,400 117,267 204,467 252,467 301,067 941,068
SRI...
RESILIENCE
Two seasons of trials evaluating System of Wheat Intensification
(SWI) at the Indian Agricultural Research Inst...
Visual evidence of
orm resistance in Vietnam:
Adjacent paddy fields after
being hit by a tropical storm
in Dông Trù villag...
More visual evidence of storm resistance in Vietnam:
Adjacent
paddy fields in Trà Vinh province in the Mekong Delta, after...
Phenotypical explanation for resistance to
lodging
Lodging-related traits of the third internode from the top of rice plan...
Field evidence of disease and pest resistance
from Vietnam: evaluation by its National IPM Program with
data averaged from...
Visual evidence of resistance to both biotic and abiotic
stresses in E. Java, Indonesia: both fields were hit by brown
pla...
Data on resistance to cold temperatures in India:
Yield and meteorological data from an IPM experiment
affected by sudden ...
Data on reductions in GHG emissions
• Flooded rice paddies are a major source of methane (CH4);
with SRI, when flooding is...
Comparison of methane gas emissionComparison of methane gas emission
CT SRI
kgCH4/ha
0
200
400
600
800
1000
840.1
237.6
72...
SRI ideas and practices have been adapted and
extended to the broader System of Crop
Intensification (SCI) with many repor...
SWI wheat crop in Bihar state of India, Chandrapura
village, Khagarla district – these fields are the same age
and same va...
System of Tef Intensification in Ethiopia – yields of
3-6 t/ha with TP STI vs. 1 t/ha with broadcasting --
direct-seeded S...
SRI-Rice: ntu1@cornell.edu
Website:
http://sri.cals.cornell.edu
Thank you
1707 - Climate Smart agriculture: How modified crop/water management with SRI can contribute to climate-resilience and hig...
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1707 - Climate Smart agriculture: How modified crop/water management with SRI can contribute to climate-resilience and higher water productivity

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Authors: Amod K. Thakur and Norman Uphoff
Title: 1707 - Climate Smart agriculture: How modified crop/water management with SRI can contribute to climate-resilience and higher water productivity
Date: October 23-25, 2017
Presented at: 2017 Annual Meetings of ASA-CSSA-SSSA on ‘Managing Global Resources for a Secure Future
Venue: Tampa, Florida, USA

Published in: Environment
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1707 - Climate Smart agriculture: How modified crop/water management with SRI can contribute to climate-resilience and higher water productivity

  1. 1. Climate-smart agriculture: How modified crop/water management with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) can contribute to climate-resilience and higher water productivity Amod K. Thakur and Norman Uphoff ICAR-Indian Institute of Water Management, Bhubaneswar-751 023, Odisha, India, and SRI-Rice, Mann Library, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853, USA 2017 Annual Meetings of ASA-CSSA-SSSA on ‘Managing Global Resources for a Secure Future,’ October 23-25, 2017, Tampa, FL
  2. 2. Although there has been controversy over some of the high yields reported with the System of Rice Intensification (SRI), an agroecological crop/water management system developed in Madagascar, SRI has been gaining acceptance around the world. Measurable improvements in plant phenotype and substantial increases in average yield have been reported from >50 countries when SRI methods have been used, and not even necessarily used fully. SRI is a matter of degree > kind SRI is ideas, rather than a set technology
  3. 3. SPREAD OF SRI METHODS: 1st validations outside of Madagascar were in China (1999 @ Nanjing Agric. University) and then in Indonesia (1999-2000 @ Sukamandi rice research station). SRI methods have been validated to date in 58 countries ( http://sri.ciifad.cornell.edu/countries/index.html) Validation = better, more robust phenotypes from a given genotype (variety)
  4. 4. Most attention has focused on SRI yield effects, with little assessment of how SRI methods can help farmers adapt to, as well as buffer, the adverse stresses of climate change and at same time reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases from rice paddies. Achieving these three impacts qualifies SRI as ‘climate-smart agriculture,’ according to FAO: •Production increases 2. Adaptation to climatic stresses 3. Mitigation of global warming
  5. 5. Data (2013) from China, India, Indonesia, Vietnam and Cambodia where SRI had government support: > 3,466,710 farmers were using SRI methods on > 9,527,366 ha with average yield 6.22 t ha-1 vs. comparison yield of 4.56 t ha-1 = 40% increase with less water, seeds, other inputs – incl. less labor? Average increase in SRI yield (1.66 t ha-1 ) x SRI area (3.467 m ha) means that SRI increased rice production by 5.75 million tons. At a farmgate price of $150 ton-1 , this means that farmer incomes were increased by $862 million. Lower cost of production estimated @ $160 million* brings this to >$1 billion plus the value of water saved and lower GHG emissions. At a farmgate price of $300 ton-1 , value to farmers was >$2 billion. * Based on a 2013 study in India by TNAU/IWMI researchers of 2,234 farmers in 13 states Data reported in “Developments in the system of rice intensification (SRI),” N. Uphoff, in Achieving Sustainable Cultivation of Rice, Burleigh-Dodds, Cambridge, UK (2016)
  6. 6. What does the System of Rice Intensification involve? Certain changes in how plants, soil, water, nutrients are managed: • Wider spacing : transplanting of single seedlings in square pattern, usually 25x25 cm  reduction in plant population m-2 by 80-90% • Young seedlings : transplant before 4th phyllochron, when <15 days old; this promotes more vigorous tillering and greater root growth • Mostly aerobic soil conditions : stop continuous flooding; AWD avoids degeneration of roots and promotes more aerobic soil biota • Active soil aeration, using mechanical push-weeder to control weeds • Enhanced soil organic matter  better soil structure and functioning for better root growth and more abundant, diverse, active soil biota
  7. 7. Phenotype comparisons from Indonesia and Liberia show differential expression of rice plants’ genetic potential with the same varieties (same genotypes) These comparisons are extreme, but they show impact management can have
  8. 8. Results of a meta-analysis of 251 comparison trials across 8 countries reported in 29 published studies between 2006 and 2013 Average water use: Standard mgmt. = 15.33 million liters ha-1 SRI management = 12.03 million liters ha-1 With less water, SRI gave 11% more yield: 5.9 tons vs. 5.1 tons ha-1 Note: on-farm SRI yield increases are usually much more than this SRI = 22% reduction in total water use (irrig + rainfall) per ha SRI = 35% average reduction in irrigation water use per ha Total water use efficiency 52% higher -- 0.6 vs. 0.39 g rice per liter Irrigation WUE 78% greater -- 1.23 vs. 0.69 grams of rice per “Evaluation of water use, water saving and water use efficiency in irrigated rice production with SRI vs. traditional management,” P. Jagannath, H. Pullabhotla and N. Uphoff, Taiwan Water Conservancy (2013)
  9. 9. PHENOTYPIC EVIDENCE ON WATER PRODUCTIVITY Comparative analysis of same-variety phenotypes of rice, with all experimental conditions the same, except for management practices Trials at ICAR-Indian Institute of Water Management, Bhubaneswar SRI rice phenotypes showed higher water-use efficiency within plants as measured by the RATIO between photosynthesis and transpiration For each 1 millimol of water lost by transpiration, SRI plants fixed 3.6 micromols of CO2 -- while conventionally-grown plants fixed 1.6 micromoles Such efficiency becomes more important with climate change, and as water becomes a scarcer factor of production“An assessment of physiological effects of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) compared with recommended rice cultivation practices in India,” A.K. Thakur, N. Uphoff and E. Antony, Experimental Agriculture, 46(1), 77-98 (2010)
  10. 10. Picture of a rice plant phenotype in Indonesia: 223 tillers growing from a single seed with SRI methods Presented by SRI farmers in East Java, Indonesia, to Uphoff in 2009; in 2004, a Sri Lankan farmer showed him SRI panicle with 930 grains
  11. 11. Two rice plant phenotypes in Cuba -- of same age (52 DAS) and same variety (VN 2084), same genetics SRI plant on right was transplanted from the same nursery when 9 days old and put into an SRI growing environment  43 tillers vs. 5 tillers Note also the significant difference in the color of the
  12. 12. Comparisons of rice plant phenotypes of same variety in Iran and Iraq, showing effects of SRI management Pictures sent to Cornell by researchers at the national rice research stations at Haraz and Al-Mishkhab, respectively, showing how they found SRI methods inducing the growth of larger, healthier rice root systems
  13. 13. Test plots at Al-Mishkhab research station at Najaf, Iraq, where varietal responses to SRI management were compared SRI management methods induce the growth of larger root systems which also resist senescenceSRI practices (young seedlings, wider spacing, compost, etc.) were used in the left-hand plots of these paired plots, each with
  14. 14. SRI effects on the soil biota are not as easy to see, but they are equally crucial for SRI results Results from research at Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, ICRISAT, and Bogor Agricultural University (IPB) “A review of studies on SRI effects on beneficial soil organisms in rice soil rhizospheres,” I. Anas, O.P. Rupela, T.M. Thiyagarajan and N. Uphoff, Paddy
  15. 15. Beneficial effects of endophytic bacteria associated with SRI practices seen in replicated trials at Anjomakely, Madagascar, 2001 (Andriankaja thesis, 2002) CLAY SOIL Azospirillum in rice plant roots (103 CFU/mg) Tillers/plant Yield (t/ha) Farmer methods with no soil amendments 65 17 1.8 SRI methods with no soil amendments 1,100 45 6.1 SRI methods with NPK amendments 450 68 9.0 SRI cultivation with compost 1,400 78 10.5 LOAM SOIL SRI methods with no soil amendments 75 32 2.1 SRI methods with compost 2,000 47 6.6
  16. 16. Effects on root architecture of inoculating two rice varieties with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii E11 : (a) Rootlets per plant (no.); (b) Cumulative root length (mm); (c) Surface area (cm2 ); (d) Root biovolume (cm3 ) Y. G. Yanni et al., Australian Journal of Plant Physiology, 28: 845–870 (2001) Evidence of positive interactions between soil microbes and growth of rice plant roots Dark bars = inoculated roots; light bars = uninoculated
  17. 17. SRI 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 IH H FH MR WR YRStage Organdryweight(g/hill) I H H FH MR WR YR CK Yellow leaf and sheath Panicle Leaf Sheath Stem 47.9% 34.7% Average weight of rice plant organs at initial heading (IR), heading (H), full heading (FH), milky rice (MR), waxy rice (WR), yellow rice (YR) stages Phenotypical comparisons made by Dr. Tao Longxing at the China National Rice Research Institute in Hangzhou in 2002 (CK = control)
  18. 18. EVIDENCE OF CLIMATE RESILIENCE which makes SRI ‘climate-smart agriculture’ * Drought resilience * Resistance to lodging caused by wind and rain * Resistance to pests and diseases * Cold temperature tolerance A.K. Thakur and N. Uphoff, “How the System of Rice Intensification can contribute to climate-smart agriculture,” Agronomy Journal, 109: 1163- 1183 (2017).
  19. 19. Visual evidence of drought resilience in Sri Lanka: rice fields planted with same variety and served by the same irrigation system, which had dried up 3 weeks earlier –
  20. 20. Team from the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) did evaluation in two districts of Sri Lanka comparing the rice crops of 60 farmers who used SRI methods and 60 matched farmers using conventional methods. The paddy crop in that 2003/04 maha (main) season had been subjected to 75 days of severe drought. • On SRI-grown plants, 80% of the tillers formed panicles, while only 70% of tillers on rice plants grown under usual management did this. • In this drought-stressed season, even though farmer-practice fields had 10 times more rice plants per sq. meter, the number of panicle-bearing tillers per m-1 was 30% higher in the SRI fields. • Also, the number of grains panicle-1 on SRI plants was 115 vs. 87. • Harvested yield was 33% higher: 6.37 tons ha-1 vs. 4.78 tons ha-1 . • Under drought conditions, SRI-managed phenotypes demonstrated greater translocation of photosynthates into the grains. “The practice and effects of the System of Rice Intensification (SRI) in Sri Lanka,” Namara, Bossio, Weligamage and Herath, Quarterly Journal of International Agriculture (2008)
  21. 21. Year 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 Total SRI area (ha) 1,133 7,267 57,400 117,267 204,467 252,467 301,067 941,068 SRI yield (kg/ha) 9,105 9,435 8,805 9,075 9,300 9,495 9,555 9,252 Non-SRI yield (kg/ha) 7,740 7,650 7,005 7,395 7,575 7,710 7,740 7,545 SRI increment (t/ha)* 1,365 1,785 1,800# 1,680 1,725 1,785 1,815# 1,708 SRI yield increase* 17.6% 23.3% 25.7% 22.7% 22.8% 23.2% 23.5% 22.7% Grain increase (tons ) 1,547 12,971 103,320 197,008 352,705 450,653 546,436 1,664,640 Added net income due to SRI (million RMB)* 1.28 11.64 106.51 205.10 450.85 571.69 704.27 2,051 (>$300 m) * These comparisons for SRI paddy yield and profitability are made with the provincial average for Sichuan # In drought years (2006 and 2010), SRI yields were 12% higher than with conventional methods in more normal years (2004, 2005, 2007, 2008, 2009) Source: Data from the Sichuan Provincial Department of Agriculture PROVINCE-WIDE EVIDENCE OF SRI DROUGHT- RESISTANCE from Sichuan, China -- where 2006 and 2010 were drought years
  22. 22. RESILIENCE Two seasons of trials evaluating System of Wheat Intensification (SWI) at the Indian Agricultural Research Institute (IARI), Pusa, New Delhi, in the rabi seasons 2011/12 and 2012/13, comparing SWI methods used in Bihar state vs. IARI’s standard recommended practices (SRP) In a normal season, SWI had 30% yield advantage over SRP . In a climate-stressed season (high temperatures, then excess rain), SWI’s yield advantage over SRP was 46%. Yield reduction in climate-stressed season was 12.5% with SWI, while SRP reductions ranged from 18% to 31%. Economic net returns with SWI were 35% higher than with SRP. “Comparing System of Wheat Intensification (SWI) with standard recommended practices in the northwest plain zone of India,” S. Dhar, B.C. Barah, A.K. Vyas and N. Uphoff, Archives of Agronomy and Soil Science (2015)
  23. 23. Visual evidence of orm resistance in Vietnam: Adjacent paddy fields after being hit by a tropical storm in Dông Trù village, Hanoi province, 2005 SRI field and plant on left; conventionally-managed field and plant on right The same rice variety was grown in both fields. Serious lodging on right, but not on the left.
  24. 24. More visual evidence of storm resistance in Vietnam: Adjacent paddy fields in Trà Vinh province in the Mekong Delta, after a tropical storm had passed over them; SRI plot is on the right.
  25. 25. Phenotypical explanation for resistance to lodging Lodging-related traits of the third internode from the top of rice plants as affected by N rates (kg ha-1) and management practices during 2008 late season and 2009 double season, Hubei province, China  N fertilizer application Manage- ment practice# Breaking resistanc e (g cm) Bending moment (g cm) Internod e length (cm) Dry weight/ length (mg cm-1 )   Diamete r (mm) 0 application* SRI 449a 953a 7.4a 40.4a 4.90a   MRMP 385b 809a 7.5a 39.0a 4.80a   RMP 350bc 609b 8.6a 28.2b 4.27b               180-195 kg/ha** SRI 515a 1287a 8.7a 56.9a 5.77a   MRMP 498ab 1171a 9.2ab 46.8ab 5.45ab   RMP 330bc 1070b 10.8b 37.8b 5.10b # SRI: System of Rice Intensification; RMP: Recommended management practices; MRMP: Modified RMP: same seedling age, water mgmt, nutrient mgmt. and weeding as for SRI; but plant density = 2x SRI (½ of RMP) *Average for 2 seasons: 2009 early and 2009 late **Average for 3 seasons: 2008 late, 2009 early and 2009 late Data from “Evaluation of System of Rice Intensification methods applied in the double rice-cropping systems in Central China,” Wu, Huang, Shah and Uphoff, Advances in Agronomy, Vol. 132 (2015)
  26. 26. Field evidence of disease and pest resistance from Vietnam: evaluation by its National IPM Program with data averaged from on-farm trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06 Spring season Summer season SRI plots Farmer plots Differ- ence SRI plots Farmer Plots Differ- ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf folder* 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5% Brown plant hopper* 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0% Average 55.5% 70.7% * Insects m-2
  27. 27. Visual evidence of resistance to both biotic and abiotic stresses in E. Java, Indonesia: both fields were hit by brown planthopper (BPH) and then by a tropical storm -- standard practices on left, organic SRI on right Modern improved variety (Ciherang) – no yield Traditional aromatic variety (Sintanur) - 8 t/ha
  28. 28. Data on resistance to cold temperatures in India: Yield and meteorological data from an IPM experiment affected by sudden unexpected cold spell (ANGRAU, Andhra Pradesh) PeriodPeriod Mean max.Mean max. temp.temp. 00 CC Mean min.Mean min. temp.temp. 00 CC No. ofNo. of sunshinesunshine hourshours 1 – 151 – 15 NovNov 27.727.7 19.219.2 4.94.9 16–3016–30 NovNov 29.629.6 17.917.9 7.57.5 1 – 15 Dec1 – 15 Dec 29.129.1 14.614.6 8.68.6 16–31 Dec16–31 Dec 28.128.1 12.212.2 ## 8.68.6 # Sudden drop in minimum temp. for 5 days, 16-21 December (9.2-9.9o C ) SeasonSeason Normal (t/ha)Normal (t/ha) SRI (t/ha)SRI (t/ha) Rabi (winter) 2005-06Rabi (winter) 2005-06 2.252.25 3.473.47 Kharif (monsoon) 2006Kharif (monsoon) 2006 0.21*0.21* 4.164.16 * Low yield was due to cold injury (see below)
  29. 29. Data on reductions in GHG emissions • Flooded rice paddies are a major source of methane (CH4); with SRI, when flooding is stopped, methane emissions are reduced without offsetting increase in nitrous oxide (N2O) • An evaluation for GIZ in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam found a significant reduction in CH4 of 20%, with NS 1.4% reduction in N2O (significant that there was no increase) (Dill et al., 2013) • A life-cycle analysis (LCA) in Andhra Pradesh, India found SRI management compared to standard practices reduced global warming potential (GWP) emissions by >25% per ha, and by >60% per kg of rice produced (Gathorne-Hardy et al., 2013) • Another study by IARI researchers in India found that SRI methods lowered GWP per hectare by 28% (Jain et al., 2013) • Carbon dioxide (CO2) is reduced with less use of inorganic fertilizers and agrochemicals, less production and transport
  30. 30. Comparison of methane gas emissionComparison of methane gas emission CT SRI kgCH4/ha 0 200 400 600 800 1000 840.1 237.6 72 % Treatment Emission (kg/ha) CO2 ton/ha equivalentCH4 N2O CT 840.1 0 17.6 SRI 237.6 0.074 5.0
  31. 31. SRI ideas and practices have been adapted and extended to the broader System of Crop Intensification (SCI) with many reports of increased climate resilience • Wheat (SWI) -- India, Nepal, Ethiopia, Mali • Sugarcane (SSI) -- India, Cuba, Kenya, Tanzania • Finger millet (SFMI) -- India, Ethiopia, Nepal, Malawi • Sorghum and tef – Ethiopia • Maize -- India Also reports on SCI benefits for mustard, soya bean, black gram, green gram, red gram, tomatoes, chillies, eggplant, sesame, green leafy
  32. 32. SWI wheat crop in Bihar state of India, Chandrapura village, Khagarla district – these fields are the same age and same variety
  33. 33. System of Tef Intensification in Ethiopia – yields of 3-6 t/ha with TP STI vs. 1 t/ha with broadcasting -- direct-seeded STI used by >2 million farmers in
  34. 34. SRI-Rice: ntu1@cornell.edu Website: http://sri.cals.cornell.edu Thank you

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