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Perfumes

silambarasan I
silambarasan I
silambarasan IMOTHER THERESA POST GRADUATE AND RESEARCH INSTITUTE OF HEALTH SCIENCES

Classification of perfumes. Perfume ingredients listed as allergens in EU regulation.

Perfumes

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PERFUMES
SILAMBARASAN I
M PHARM(PHARMACEUTICS)
MTPG & RIHS
PERFUMES-DEFINITION
 Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aromatic compounds,
fixatives and solvents used to give the human body, animal, food objects
and living spaces a pleasant scent.
 It has been used for centuries by mankind.
 Perfumes are supposed to release a continuous pleasant fragrance that will
provide a long lasting feeling of freshness.
 Initially it was only used for religious purpose but now it has become an
ornament of sophistication for both men and women.
ADVANTAGES
 Enjoy the wafting fragrance of a well perfumed person passing by side.
 Smell more pleasing.
DISADVANTAGES
 Some volatile organic chemical(VOC) such as Formaldehyde,Ethanol,D-
limonene cause eye, nose and throat irritation, difficulty in breathing ,allergy
symptoms and headaches.
 Chemicals may irritate others, especially in tight spaces.
 Contact dermatitis ,an allergic reaction in the skin can occur.
 Diethyl phthalate ,cause irritation and absorbed through the skin and
accumulate in human fat tissue.
REASONS FOR USING PERFUMES
 To mask body Odour.
 Helps to get rid of anxiety and depression.
 To deepen spirituality.
 For religious purpose.
 To be fresh and chilled throughout the day.
HISTORY OF PERFUMES
 Egyptians were the first who used perfume for personal enjoyment, but
the production of perfume was reserved for the priests and they used it in
religious purpose.
 Greek used an extraordinary amount of perfume and for each part of the
body they used a different fragrance for hygiene of the body.
 Two talented Arabian chemists – Jābir ibn Hayyān and Al-Kindi established
the perfume industry.
 Romans used perfume as a part of luxury.

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Perfumes

  • 2. PERFUMES-DEFINITION  Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aromatic compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give the human body, animal, food objects and living spaces a pleasant scent.  It has been used for centuries by mankind.  Perfumes are supposed to release a continuous pleasant fragrance that will provide a long lasting feeling of freshness.  Initially it was only used for religious purpose but now it has become an ornament of sophistication for both men and women.
  • 3. ADVANTAGES  Enjoy the wafting fragrance of a well perfumed person passing by side.  Smell more pleasing.
  • 4. DISADVANTAGES  Some volatile organic chemical(VOC) such as Formaldehyde,Ethanol,D- limonene cause eye, nose and throat irritation, difficulty in breathing ,allergy symptoms and headaches.  Chemicals may irritate others, especially in tight spaces.  Contact dermatitis ,an allergic reaction in the skin can occur.  Diethyl phthalate ,cause irritation and absorbed through the skin and accumulate in human fat tissue.
  • 5. REASONS FOR USING PERFUMES  To mask body Odour.  Helps to get rid of anxiety and depression.  To deepen spirituality.  For religious purpose.  To be fresh and chilled throughout the day.
  • 6. HISTORY OF PERFUMES  Egyptians were the first who used perfume for personal enjoyment, but the production of perfume was reserved for the priests and they used it in religious purpose.  Greek used an extraordinary amount of perfume and for each part of the body they used a different fragrance for hygiene of the body.  Two talented Arabian chemists – Jābir ibn Hayyān and Al-Kindi established the perfume industry.  Romans used perfume as a part of luxury.
  • 7. HISTORY OF PERFUMES  The oldest perfumery was discovered on the island of Cyprus 4,000 years ago indicating that perfume manufacturing was on an industrial scale.  The Hungarians introduced the first modern perfume, made of scented oils blended in an alcohol solution at the command of Queen Elizabeth of Hungary.  France is the birthplace of modern perfumery. Franceprovided to grow aromatic plants for perfume industry with raw materials. Even today, France remains the centre of the European perfume design and trade.  England and Germany also contributed a lot in modernization of perfumery.
  • 8. NOTES IN PERFUMES The essential oil used in perfumes are classified according to volatility or rate they diffuse into the air, 1) Top notes 2) Middle notes 3) Base notes
  • 9. TOP NOTES  Top notes are the most volatile and are first perceptible Odour from a perfume.  Top notes are usually of short duration lasting a few minutes to maybe 30 minutes. Eg: Lavender ,cinnamon, clove
  • 10. MIDDLE NOTES  Otherwise called as HEART NOTES  These make an appearance once the top notes evaporate.  These may last for 30 minutes to about an hour. Eg: Clove , Lavender, Jasmine , Rose
  • 11. BASE NOTES  Base notes are appear while middle notes are fading.  Base notes are the least volatile and will last for a longer period of time.  These are the aromas that will last for several hours or longer. Eg:Myrrh,Sandalwood ,Vanilla
  • 12. CLASSIFICATION OF PERFUMES  On the basis of Concentration of fragrance and Duration of lasting,
  • 13. CLASSIFICATION OF PERFUMES 1)Traditional perfumes 2)Modern perfumes
  • 14. TRADITIONAL PERFUMES A)SINGLE FLORAL:  Fragrance that are dominated by a scent from one particular flower called soliflore. Eg; Serge Lutens Sa majeste la rose which is dominated by rose B)FLORAL BOUQUET:  Containing the fragrance of several flowers in a scent Eg: wood,leather,chypre,fougere
  • 15. 2)MODERN PERFUMES 1. Bright floral: Fragrance from one or several flowers.e.g. Estee lauder’s Beautiful 2.Green: Fragrance from cut grass or leaf.e.g. Calvin Klein’s Eternity 3.Aquatic: A clean smell reminiscent of ocean. e.g. Davidoff Cool Water 4. Citrus: Has freshening effect. e.g. Faberge Brut 5.Fruity: Aromas of fruits other than citrus. e.g. Ginestet Botrytis 6.Gourmand: Scent with edible or desert like qualities. e.g.Thierry Mugler’s Angel.
  • 16. AROMATIC SOURCES Fragrances used in perfume can be found from following sources: a) Plant Source:  Barks, flowers, blossoms, fruits, resin, roots,seeds, woods etc. b) Animal Source:  Musk, civet, honeycomb etc. c) Synthetic Source:  Calone, synthetic terpenes etc.
  • 17. COMPOSITION OF PERFUMES  Perfumes are mainly composed of :- 1. Essential oils :- Derived from natural aromatic plant extracts and/or synthetic aromatic chemicals. E.g. limonene, geraniol, citral etc. 2. Fixatives :- Natural or synthetic substances used to reduce the evaporation rate. E.g. benzyl benzoate, benzyl alcohol etc. 3. Solvents :- The liquid in which the perfume oil is dissolved in usually 98% ethanol and 2% water. Alcohol allows fragrance to spread along with it and does not permit microbial growth in perfume.
  • 18. MANUFACTURING PROCESS  Perfumescanbe manufactured by following steps: I. Collection II. Extraction III. Blending IV. Aging
  • 19. MANUFACTURE OF PERFUMES I. Collection:  Before manufacturing process begins the sources of suitable fragrances are collected in the manufacturing centre. II. Extraction: Oils are extracted from plants and other substances by several methods like: a. Steam distillation: steam is passed through plant materials held in a still, whereby the essential oil turns to gas. This gas is then passed through tubes, cooled, liquefied and collected.
  • 20. MANUFACTURE OF PERFUMES b. Solvent extraction:  The flower parts are dissolved in benzene or petrolatum that retains the fragrance of the flower.  Alcohol is used to dissolve the fragrance and heated to obtain it after evaporation of alcohol. c. Enfleurage:  Otherwise called as pomade.  Flowers are kept in glass sheet with grease that absorb the fragrance of flowers and then extracted with alcohol.  Expensive and time consuming process.
  • 21. MANUFACTURE OF PERFUMES d. Expression:  Also called as cold pressing.  The citrus fruits or plants are manually or mechanically pressed until all the oil is squeezed out.  The result is a watery mixture of essential oil and which will separate.
  • 22. MANUFACTURE OF PERFUMES III. Blending:  Once the perfume oils are collected, they are ready to be blended together according to a master formula .  After the scent has been created, it is mixed with alcohol. Most perfumes are made of about 10-20% perfume oils dissolved in alcohol and traces of water. IV. Aging:  Fine perfume is often aged for several months or even years after blending to ensure that the correct scent has been achieved.
  • 23. PERFUME INGREDIENTS LISTED AS ALLERGENS IN EU REGULATIONS
  • 24. PERFUME INGREDIENTS LISTED AS ALLERGENS IN EU REGULATIONS
  • 25. PERFUME INGREDIENTS LISTED AS ALLERGENS IN EU REGULATIONS
  • 27. REFERENCES  Butler H. , Poucher's Perfumes, Cosmetics and Soaps, by Kluwer Academic Publishers, 10th edition, Pg. no. 13-66  https://cosmeticobs.com/en/articles/cosmetics-glossary-5/to-be-labelled-allergens-484  Slideshare
  • 28. “THANK YOU FOR SPREADING THE FRAGRANCE”