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PERFUMES -INTRODUCTION
Presented by-RASHMI SINHA
M.Pharm(1st year)
Regd. No-1961611011
Subject code-MPH204T
Seminar code-MPH206 S/A
Subject name-Cosmetics and
Cosmeceuticals
CONTENTS
 INTRODUCTION
 NOTES OF PERFUME
 MANUFACTURING PROCESS
 RESEARCH ARTICLE
 CONCLUSION
WHAT IS A PERFUME
Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aromatic
compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give the human
body, animal, food objects and living spaces a pleasant scent.
Perfumes are supposed to release a continuous pleasant
fragrance that will provide a long lasting feeling of freshness.
Initially it was only used for religious purpose but now it has
become an ornament of sophistication for both men and
women.
NOTES OF PERFUME
Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as having three
sets of notes, making the harmonious scent accord.
These notes are created carefully with knowledge of the
evaporation process of the perfume.
The three notes are:
a. Top notes
b. Middle notes
c. Base notes
NOTES OF PERFUME
i)TOP NOTE-They are generally the lightest of all
notes and recognized immediately after application. Top notes
consist of small, light molecules with high volatility that
evaporate quickly. Common fragrances of top notes include
citrus (lemon, orange zest),light fruits (grape, berries) and
herbs (clary sage, lavender).
ii)MIDDLE NOTE-The middle notes, or the
heart notes, make an appearance once the top notes
evaporate. The middle note compounds form the
"heart" or main body of a perfume and act to mask the
often unpleasant initial impression of base notes, which
become more pleasant with time . Common fragrances of
middle notes includes rose, lemon, lavender, nutmeg
and jasmine.
iii)BASE NOTE -Base notes or bottom or dry
notes appear while middle notes are fading. The base
and middle notes together are the main theme
of a perfume. Base notes bring depth and solidity to a
perfume . Common fragrances of base notes include
sandalwood, vanilla , amber and musk.
MANUFACTURING PROCESS
Perfumes can be manufactured by
following steps:
I. Collection
II. Extraction
III. Blending
IV. Aging
i. Collection:
Before manufacturing process begins the sources of suitable
fragrances are collected in the manufacturing centre.
ii. Extraction:
Oils are extracted from plants and other substances
by several methods like:
a. Steam distillation:
steam is passed through plant materials held in a still, whereby the
essential oil turns to gas. This gas is then passed through tubes,
cooled, liquefied and collected.
b. Solvent extraction:
The flower parts are dissolved in benzene or petrolatum that retains
the fragrance of the flower . Alcohol is used to dissolve the fragrance
and heated to obtain it after evaporation of alcohol.
c. Enfleurage:
Flowers are kept in glass sheet with grease that absorb the fragrance
of flowers.
d. Expression:
The citrus fruits or plants are manually or mechanically pressed until
all the oil is squeezed out
iii. Blending:
Once the perfume oils are collected, they are ready
to be blended together according to a formula
determined by a master in the field, known as a "nose.”
After the scent has been created, it is mixed with alcohol.
Most full perfumes are made of about 10-20% perfume
oils dissolved in alcohol and a trace of water.
iv. Aging:
Fine perfume is often aged for several months or even years
after blending to ensure that the correct scent has been
achieved.
RESEARCH ARTICLE-1
A chromatochemometric approach for evaluating and selecting
the perfume maceration time.
A.CHISVERT et.al carried out a chemometric treatment of the
data obtained by gas chromatography (GC) with flame
ionization detector (FID) has been proposed to study the
maceration time involved in perfumes manufacture with the
final purpose of reducing this time but preserving the
organoleptic characteristics of the perfume . For carrying out
this evaluation 7 perfumes were evaluated.
The result showed a reduction upto 57% has
been achieved with respect to the maceration time initially
established.
PERFUME 1
PERFUME 2
PERFUME 3 PERFUME 4
PERFUME 5
PERFUME 6
PERFUME 7
RESULTS-
The compounds corresponding to the significant
GC–FID peaks in each LDA model corresponding to each one
of the 7 perfumes under study were tried to be elucidated by
means of their mass spectrum and the results were that up
to reduction of 57% has been achieved with respect to the
maceration time initially established.

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PERFUMES - A Guide to Notes, Manufacturing and Research

  • 1. PERFUMES -INTRODUCTION Presented by-RASHMI SINHA M.Pharm(1st year) Regd. No-1961611011 Subject code-MPH204T Seminar code-MPH206 S/A Subject name-Cosmetics and Cosmeceuticals
  • 2. CONTENTS  INTRODUCTION  NOTES OF PERFUME  MANUFACTURING PROCESS  RESEARCH ARTICLE  CONCLUSION
  • 3. WHAT IS A PERFUME Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aromatic compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give the human body, animal, food objects and living spaces a pleasant scent. Perfumes are supposed to release a continuous pleasant fragrance that will provide a long lasting feeling of freshness. Initially it was only used for religious purpose but now it has become an ornament of sophistication for both men and women.
  • 4. NOTES OF PERFUME Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as having three sets of notes, making the harmonious scent accord. These notes are created carefully with knowledge of the evaporation process of the perfume. The three notes are: a. Top notes b. Middle notes c. Base notes
  • 6. i)TOP NOTE-They are generally the lightest of all notes and recognized immediately after application. Top notes consist of small, light molecules with high volatility that evaporate quickly. Common fragrances of top notes include citrus (lemon, orange zest),light fruits (grape, berries) and herbs (clary sage, lavender). ii)MIDDLE NOTE-The middle notes, or the heart notes, make an appearance once the top notes evaporate. The middle note compounds form the "heart" or main body of a perfume and act to mask the often unpleasant initial impression of base notes, which become more pleasant with time . Common fragrances of middle notes includes rose, lemon, lavender, nutmeg and jasmine.
  • 7. iii)BASE NOTE -Base notes or bottom or dry notes appear while middle notes are fading. The base and middle notes together are the main theme of a perfume. Base notes bring depth and solidity to a perfume . Common fragrances of base notes include sandalwood, vanilla , amber and musk.
  • 8. MANUFACTURING PROCESS Perfumes can be manufactured by following steps: I. Collection II. Extraction III. Blending IV. Aging
  • 9. i. Collection: Before manufacturing process begins the sources of suitable fragrances are collected in the manufacturing centre. ii. Extraction: Oils are extracted from plants and other substances by several methods like: a. Steam distillation: steam is passed through plant materials held in a still, whereby the essential oil turns to gas. This gas is then passed through tubes, cooled, liquefied and collected.
  • 10. b. Solvent extraction: The flower parts are dissolved in benzene or petrolatum that retains the fragrance of the flower . Alcohol is used to dissolve the fragrance and heated to obtain it after evaporation of alcohol. c. Enfleurage: Flowers are kept in glass sheet with grease that absorb the fragrance of flowers. d. Expression: The citrus fruits or plants are manually or mechanically pressed until all the oil is squeezed out
  • 11. iii. Blending: Once the perfume oils are collected, they are ready to be blended together according to a formula determined by a master in the field, known as a "nose.” After the scent has been created, it is mixed with alcohol. Most full perfumes are made of about 10-20% perfume oils dissolved in alcohol and a trace of water. iv. Aging: Fine perfume is often aged for several months or even years after blending to ensure that the correct scent has been achieved.
  • 12. RESEARCH ARTICLE-1 A chromatochemometric approach for evaluating and selecting the perfume maceration time. A.CHISVERT et.al carried out a chemometric treatment of the data obtained by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector (FID) has been proposed to study the maceration time involved in perfumes manufacture with the final purpose of reducing this time but preserving the organoleptic characteristics of the perfume . For carrying out this evaluation 7 perfumes were evaluated. The result showed a reduction upto 57% has been achieved with respect to the maceration time initially established.
  • 15. RESULTS- The compounds corresponding to the significant GC–FID peaks in each LDA model corresponding to each one of the 7 perfumes under study were tried to be elucidated by means of their mass spectrum and the results were that up to reduction of 57% has been achieved with respect to the maceration time initially established.