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Perfumes

perfumes

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PERFUMES
PRESENTED BY:
ALISHA BANSAL
&
M.PHARM(PHARMACEUTICS)
1ST YEAR
INTRODUCTION
• The word perfume used today is derived from the Latin word “per
fumum”, meaning through smoke.
• Perfumery, or the art of making perfumes, began in ancient
Mesopotamia and Egypt but it was developed and further refined
by the Romans and Persians.
• In ancient times, dabs of fragrance helped a person smell more
pleasing.
• Nowadays, we use fragrances in the form of perfumes, deodorants,
lotions, hair products, soaps and cosmetics to please, attract
people.
DEFINITION:
• Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aromatic
compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give the human
body, animal, food objects and living spaces a pleasant
scent.
• Perfumes are supposed to release a continuous pleasant
fragrance that will provide a long lasting feeling of
freshness. Fragrance substances can be derived from
natural sources or chemical synthesis.
• Initially it was only used for religious purpose but now it
has become an ornament of sophistication for both men
and women. Fragrances provide the consumer with a
desired fresh smell or mask unpleasant odors.
• Fragrance substances are also used in aromatherapy and
are sometimes present in herbal products.
COMPOSITION OF PERFUME
• Perfumes are mainly composed of –
1. Essential oils: Derived from natural aromatic plant
extracts and/or synthetic aromatic chemicals. E.g.
limonene, linalool, geraniol, citral etc.
2. Fixatives: Natural or synthetic substances used to
reduce the evaporation rate. E.g. benzyl benzoate,
benzyl alcohol etc.
3. Solvents: The liquid in which the perfume oil is
dissolved in is usually 98% ethanol and 2% water.
Alcohol allows fragrance to spread along with it and
does not permit microbial growth in the perfume.
Types of flavorings used in foods
1. Natural flavouring substances: They are
obtained from plant or animal raw materials,
by physical, microbiological or enzymatic
processes.
2. Nature-identical flavouring substances: They
are obtained by synthesis or isolated through
chemical processes. They cannot contain any
artificial flavoring substances.
3. Artificial flavoring substances: They are not
indentified in a natural product intended for
human use.
Natural Perfumers
• Ambrette seed oil
• Coco absolute
• Coffee absolute
• Pink lotus absolute

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Perfumes

  • 2. INTRODUCTION • The word perfume used today is derived from the Latin word “per fumum”, meaning through smoke. • Perfumery, or the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt but it was developed and further refined by the Romans and Persians. • In ancient times, dabs of fragrance helped a person smell more pleasing. • Nowadays, we use fragrances in the form of perfumes, deodorants, lotions, hair products, soaps and cosmetics to please, attract people.
  • 3. DEFINITION: • Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aromatic compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give the human body, animal, food objects and living spaces a pleasant scent. • Perfumes are supposed to release a continuous pleasant fragrance that will provide a long lasting feeling of freshness. Fragrance substances can be derived from natural sources or chemical synthesis. • Initially it was only used for religious purpose but now it has become an ornament of sophistication for both men and women. Fragrances provide the consumer with a desired fresh smell or mask unpleasant odors. • Fragrance substances are also used in aromatherapy and are sometimes present in herbal products.
  • 4. COMPOSITION OF PERFUME • Perfumes are mainly composed of – 1. Essential oils: Derived from natural aromatic plant extracts and/or synthetic aromatic chemicals. E.g. limonene, linalool, geraniol, citral etc. 2. Fixatives: Natural or synthetic substances used to reduce the evaporation rate. E.g. benzyl benzoate, benzyl alcohol etc. 3. Solvents: The liquid in which the perfume oil is dissolved in is usually 98% ethanol and 2% water. Alcohol allows fragrance to spread along with it and does not permit microbial growth in the perfume.
  • 5. Types of flavorings used in foods 1. Natural flavouring substances: They are obtained from plant or animal raw materials, by physical, microbiological or enzymatic processes. 2. Nature-identical flavouring substances: They are obtained by synthesis or isolated through chemical processes. They cannot contain any artificial flavoring substances. 3. Artificial flavoring substances: They are not indentified in a natural product intended for human use.
  • 6. Natural Perfumers • Ambrette seed oil • Coco absolute • Coffee absolute • Pink lotus absolute
  • 7. CHEMICAL ODOR • Allyl hexanoate: Pineapple • Benzaldehyde: Bitter almond • Cinnamic aldehyde: Cinnamon • Ethyl propionate: Fruity • Limonene: Orange • Methyl salicylate: Wintergreen
  • 8. Natural Flavorant According to U.S CFR, natural flavorant are described as the essential oil, oleoresin, essence or extractive, protein hydrolysate , distillate or any product of roasting, heating, or enzymolysis , which contains the flavoring constituents derived from a spice, fruit or fruit juice, vegetable or vegetable juice, edible yeast, herb, bark, bud, root, leaf or any other edible portions of a plant, meat, seafood, poultry, eggs, dairy products or fermentation products thereof, whose primary function in food is flavoring rather than nutritional.
  • 9. Natural Flavor • UK Food Law defines a natural flavor as a flavoring substance(s) which is(are) obtained by physical, enzymatic or microbiological processes, from material of vegetable or animal origin subjected to a process normally used in preparing food for human consumption. • Perfume consists mostly of chemicals called volatile organic compounds(VOCs). • An aroma compound (odorant, aroma, fragrance, flavor) is a chemical compound that has a smell or odor.
  • 10. A chemical compound has a smell/odor when two conditions are met: 1. The compound needs to be volatile, so that it can be transported to the olfactory system. 2. It should be in sufficiently high concentration to be able to interact with one or more olfactory receptors.
  • 11. Advantages & Disadvantages ADVANTAGES • Enjoy the wafting fragrance of a well perfumed person passing by the side. • Smell more pleasing. DISADVANTAGES • Chemicals may irritate others. • Contact dermatitis, an allergic reaction in the skin can occur. • Some VOCs (formaldehyde, ethanol, d-limonene) may cause eye, nose, throat irritation. • DEP(diethylphthalate) is an irritant and suspected hormone disrupter that is absorbed through the skin.
  • 12. AROMA COMPOUNDS • Aroma compounds are classified on the basis of functional groups as: Alcohols Aldehydes Amines Esters Ethers Ketones Lactones Terpenes Thiols
  • 13. AROMATICS SOURCE • Bark, seeds, woods,resins • Flowers and blossoms • Fruits • Leaves and twigs PLANT SOURCE • Ambergris • Castoreum • Civet • Honeycomb • Musk ANIMAL SOURCES • Linalool and coumarin are synthesized from terpenes • Orchid scents SYNTHETIC SOURCES
  • 14. Method Of Preparation • Essential oils can be extracted using a variety of methods such as :  Steam distillation- used especially to purify liquids that are not very volatile and are immiscible with water.  Maceration- flavor compounds and phenolic materials are leached .  Expression- separation process of aromatic compounds from raw materials.  Enflurage- Enfleurage is a process that uses odorless fats that are solid at room temperature to capture the fragrant compounds exuded by plants.
  • 17. FRAGRANCE NOTES • Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as having three sets of ‘notes’, making the harmonious scent accord. • These notes are created carefully with knowledge of evaporation proces of the perfume. TOP NOTE The scents that are perceived immediately on application of a perfume. Top notes consist of small light molecules that evaporate quickly. Also called the head notes. MIDDLE NOTES The middle note compounds form the “heart” or main body of perfume and act to mask the often unpleasant initial impression of base notes, which become more pleasant with time. They are also known as heart notes.
  • 18. BASE NOTES The scent of a perfume that appears close to the departure of the middle notes. The base and middle notes together are the main theme of a perfume. Base notes bring depth and solidity to a perfume. Compounds of this class of scents are typically rich and “deep” and are ussually not perceived until 30 minutes after application.
  • 20. • Single floral: Fragrances that are dominated by a scent from one particular flower. Ex: daisy, sunflower. • Floral Bouquet: containing the combination of several flowers in a scent. • Ambery: A large fragrances class featuring the scents of vanilla and animal scents together with flowers and woods. Can be enhanced by camphorous oils and incense resins. • Woody: Fragrances that are dominated by woody scents, topically of sandalwood and cedar. PATCHOULI, with its camphorceous smell, is commonly found in these perfumes. Ex: sandalwood(chandan)
  • 21. • Leather: A family of fagrances which features the scents of honey, tobacco, wood, and wood tars in its middle or base notes and a scent that alludes to leather. • Chypre: French meaning is cyprus. This includes fragrances built on a similar accord consisting of bergamot, oakmoss, patchouli and labdanum. This family of fragrances is named after a perfume by Francois Coty. • Fougere: Means fern in French, built on a base of lavender, coumarin, and oakmass. Many men’s fragrances belong to this family of fragrances, which is characterised by its sharp herbaceous and woody scent.
  • 23. • Bright Floral: Combining the traditional single Floral and Floral Bouquet categories. • Green: a lighter and modern interpretation of the chypre type. • Oceanic/Ozone: The newest category in perfume history, a very clean, modern smell leading to many of the modern androgynous perfumes. • Citrus or Fruity: An old fragrances family that untill recently consisted mainly of ‘freshening’ due to the low tenacity of citrus scents.
  • 24. Classification based on CONCENTRATION Type % Aromatic compounds Perfume extract 15-40% Eau de Perfume(EdP) 10-20% Eau de Toilette(EdT) 5-15% Eau de Cologne(EdC) 3-8%
  • 25. How can fragrance substance become skin allergens? • To cause a skin allergy, a certain minimum amount of the fragrance substance must penetrate the skin and attach to a skin protein. Only once the fragrance substance is attached to a skin protein can it provoke a cascade of events in our immune system which ultimately ends in allergy symptoms. • Skin allergy to fragrance ingredients occurs when an individuals skin has been exposed to a certain minimum dose of a fragrance allergen. • The symptoms are redness, swelling, basically described as ‘skin rash’.
  • 26. Perfumes Ingredients listed as allergens in EU regulation • The Cosmetics Regulation 1223/2009 lists the 26 most known allergic substances. • These substances must appear on the label of your cosmetic product when present in the finished formula. ALLERGEN An allergen is commonly defined as “any substance, often a protein, that induces an allergy.”
  • 27. Conti… • Cosmetics directive required that the presence of any of these 26 substances be indicated in the list of ingredients when its concentration exceeds 0.001% in leave on products and 0.01% in rinse off products. • Such labelling allows patients who are allergic to one or more of these 26 fragrance chemicals to avoid products containing them.
  • 28. Perfumes Ingredients listed as allergens in EU regulation • List A: Fragrance chemicals, which according to existing knowledge, are most frequently reported and well-recognised consumer allergens. Amyl cinnamal Amylcinnamyl alcohol Benzyl alcohol Benzyl salicylate Cinnamyl alcohol Cinnamal Citral Coumarin Eugenol Geraniol Hydroxycitronellal Hydroxymethylpentyl-cyclohexenecarboxaldehyde Isoeugenol
  • 29. • List B: Fragrance chemicals, which are less frequently reported and thus less documented as consumer allergens. Anisyl alcohol Benzyl benzoate Benzyl cinnamate Citronellol Farnesol Hexyl cinnamaldehyde Lilial d-Limonene Linalool Methyl heptine carbonate 3-Methyl-4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2-cyclohexen-1-yl)-3- buten-2-one
  • 30. STORAGE OF PERFUMES • Fragrance compounds in perfumes degrades or break down if stored improperly in the presence of heat, light and oxygen. • An open bottle will keep its aroma intact for several years, as long as it is well stored. • Perfumes are best preserved when kept in light-tight aluminum bottles and are refrigerated at a relatively low temperatures between 3-7◦C. • Sprays have the advantage of isolating fragrance inside a bottle and preventing it from mixing with dust, skin, and detritus(waste or debris) which would degrade and alter the quality of perfume.