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Perfume new

perfumes :history,notes in perfume,types,preparation,ingredients causing allergic reaction.

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Presented by:
Nayanthara.ps
Dept. of Pharmaceutics
KMCH College Of
Pharmacy
Subject incharge:
DR.Arulkumaran
Presented on:18/9/18
WHAT IS PERFUME
• Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential
oils or aromatic compounds, fixatives and
solvents used to give the human body,
animal, food objects and living spaces a
pleasant scent.
2
KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY,
DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
• It has been used for centuries by mankind.
• Perfumes are supposed to release a continuous
pleasant fragrance that will provide a long lasting
feeling of freshness.
• The word perfume derives from the Latin
"per fumum", meaning through smoke.
3
KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY,
DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
HISTORY OF PERFUME
• Perfumery, or the art of making perfumes,
began in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt
and was further refined by the Romans and
Persians.
• The Egyptians were the first who used
perfume for personal enjoyment, but the
production of perfume was reserved for the
priests and they used it in religious purpose.
4
KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY,
DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
NOTES IN PERFUME
• Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as having
three sets of notes, making the harmonious scent
accord.
• These notes are created carefully with knowledge
of the evaporation process of the perfume.
The three notes are:
a.Top notes
b.Middle notes
c.Base notes
Each of these levels, however, has its own primary
purpose. 5
KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY,
DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
6
KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY,
DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS

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Perfume new

  • 1. Presented by: Nayanthara.ps Dept. of Pharmaceutics KMCH College Of Pharmacy Subject incharge: DR.Arulkumaran Presented on:18/9/18
  • 2. WHAT IS PERFUME • Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils or aromatic compounds, fixatives and solvents used to give the human body, animal, food objects and living spaces a pleasant scent. 2 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 3. • It has been used for centuries by mankind. • Perfumes are supposed to release a continuous pleasant fragrance that will provide a long lasting feeling of freshness. • The word perfume derives from the Latin "per fumum", meaning through smoke. 3 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 4. HISTORY OF PERFUME • Perfumery, or the art of making perfumes, began in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt and was further refined by the Romans and Persians. • The Egyptians were the first who used perfume for personal enjoyment, but the production of perfume was reserved for the priests and they used it in religious purpose. 4 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 5. NOTES IN PERFUME • Perfume is described in a musical metaphor as having three sets of notes, making the harmonious scent accord. • These notes are created carefully with knowledge of the evaporation process of the perfume. The three notes are: a.Top notes b.Middle notes c.Base notes Each of these levels, however, has its own primary purpose. 5 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 6. 6 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 7. NOTES IN PERFUME a) Top notes: They are generally the lightest of all notes and recognized immediately after application. Top notes consist of small, light molecules with high volatility that evaporate quickly. Common fragrances of top notes include citrus (lemon, orange zest), light fruits (grape, berries) and herbs (clary sage, lavender). 7 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 8. b) Middle Notes: • The middle notes, or the heart notes, make an appearance once the top notes evaporate. • The middle note compounds form the "heart" or main body of a perfume. • Act to mask the often unpleasant initial impression of base notes, which become more pleasant with time. • Common fragrances of middle notes includes rose, lemon, ylang ylang, lavender, nutmeg and jasmine. 8 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 9. NOTES IN PERFUME c)Base notes: Base notes or bottom or dry notes appear while middle notes are fading. The base and middle notes together are the main theme of a perfume. Base notes bring depth and solidity to a perfume. Common fragrances of base notes include sandalwood,vanilla,amber and musk. Fig: Three notes of perfume 9 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 10. 10 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 11. CLASSIFICATION OF PERFUMES Traditional perfumes appeared at the beginning of the 20th century and it has following subcategories: Single Floral (or soliflore): perfumes that have a dominant scent of just one flower. Floral Bouquet : perfumes whose scent is a combination of several flowers. Oriental or Amber : these have sweet and slightly animalic scents. Woody : made of agarwood, sandalwood, cedarwood, and vetiver which give of woody scents. 11 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 12. CLASSIFICATION OF PERFUMES Leather : scents that are reminiscent of leather but made of scents of honey, tobacco, wood and wood tars. Chypre : Scents of bergamot, oakmoss, and labdanum. Fougère (French for “fern”): Has base of lavender, coumarin and oakmoss and is predominantly men's perfume. 12 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 13. CLASSIFICATION OF PERFUMES • Perfumes can further be classified into following classes: 1. Bright floral: Fragrance from one or several flowers. e.g. Estee lauder’s Beautiful 2. Green: Fragrance from cut grass or leaf. e.g. Calvin Klein’s Eternity 3. Aquatic/oceanic: A clean smell reminiscent of ocean. e.g. Davidoff Cool Water Citrus: Has freshening effect. E.g. Faberge Brut 4. Fruity: Aromas of fruits other than citrus. (black currant), mango, passion fruit e.g. Ginestet Botrytis 6. Gourmand: Scent with edible or desert like qualities. (vanilla, tonka bean ) e.g. Thierry Mugler’s Angel. 13 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 14. 14 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 15. AROMATIC SOURCES Fragrances used in perfume can be found from following sources: a) Plant Source: Barks, flowers, blossoms, fruits, resin, roots, seeds, woods etc. b) Animal Source: Musk, civet, honeycomb etc. c) Synthetic Source: Calone, synthetic terpenes etc. 15 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 16. MANUFACTURING PROCESS Perfumes can be manufactured by following steps: I. Collection II. Extraction III. Blending IV. Aging 16 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 17. MANUFACTURE OF PERFUME I. Collection: Before manufacturing process begins the sources of suitable fragrances are collected in the manufacturing centre. II. Extraction: Oils are extracted from plants and other substances by several methods like: a. Steam distillation: steam is passed through plant materials held in a still, whereby the essential oil turns to gas. This gas is then passed through tubes, cooled, liquefied and collected. 17 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 18. MANUFACTURE OF PERFUME b. Solvent extraction: The flower parts are dissolved in benzene or petrolatum that retains the fragrance of the flower. Alcohol is used to dissolve the fragrance and heated to obtain it after evaporation of alcohol. c. Enfleurage: Flowers are kept in glass sheet with grease that absorb the fragrance of flowers. d. Expression: The citrus fruits or plants are manually or mechanically pressed until all the oil is squeezed out. 18 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 19. MANUFACTURE OF PERFUME III. Blending: • Once the perfume oils are collected, they are ready to be blended together according to a formula • determined by a master in the field, known as a "nose.” • After the scent has been created, it is mixed with alcohol. Most full perfumes are made of about 10- 20% perfume oils dissolved in alcohol and a trace of water. IV. Aging: • Fine perfume is often aged for several months or even years after blending to ensure that the correct scent has been achieved. 19KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 20. COMPOSITION OF PERFUME Perfumes are mainly composed of – 1. Essential oils: Derived from natural aromatic plant extracts and/or synthetic aromatic chemicals. E.g. limonene, linalool, geraniol, citral etc. 2. Fixatives: Natural or synthetic substances used to reduce the evaporation rate. E.g. benzyl benzoate, benzyl alcohol etc. 3. Solvents: The liquid in which the perfume oil is dissolved in is usually 98% ethanol and 2% water. Alcohol allows fragrance to spread along with it and does not permit microbial growth in the perfume. 20 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 21. INGREDIENTS CAUSING ALLERGIC REACTION  Annex III of EU Cosmetic Regulation 1223/2009 currently lists 26 allergens.  Mostly found in fragrances and essential oils that, if present at certain levels or higher, must be listed as part of the product’s ingredient listing. 21 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 22. • All of which must be listed in the ingredients list on the label or packaging of a product if they are present in concentrations greater than 0.001% in leave-on products and 0.01% in rinse-off products. • The listing of these 26 allergens was intended to alert customers of their presence so they can avoid using the product if they are allergic to those chemicals. 22 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 23. List A: • Fragrance chemicals, which according to existing knowledge, are most frequently reported and well-recognised consumer allergens. Isoeugenol Cyclohexenecarbox - aldehyde Amyl cinnamal Benzyl alcohol ,Benzyl Amylcinnamyl alcohol Cinnamyl alcohol salicylate Cinnamal Citral Coumarin Eugenol Geraniol 23 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 24. • List B: Fragrance chemicals, which are less frequently reported . Benzyl benzoate Benzyl cinnamate Hexyl cinnamaldehyde Citronellol d-Limonene Farnesol Linalool Methyl heptine carbonate 3-Methyl-4-(2,6,6-trimethyl-2- cyclohexen-1-yl)-3-buten-2- one Lilial, Anisyl alcohol 24 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 25. • Furthermore, two fragrances (natural mixtures) were added Oak moss Tree moss 25 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 26. INGREDIENTS CAUSING ALLERGIC REACTION Ingredients Use Side effects Sandal wood Fragrance Hypersensitivity Limonene Slightly astringent smell Irritates the skin Benzyl alcohol Fixative Skin irritant causing redness and pain Benzyl benzoate Fixative; sweet balsamic odor Skin irritation like blister, itching, scaling, redness. Acetone Solvent Inhalation cause dryness of mouth & throat Ethyl acetate Solvent Defatting effect on skin & may cause drying & cracking 26 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 27. • Benzaldehyde—narcotic, lung and eye irritant, nausea, abdominal pain, may cause kidney damage • Benzyl acetate—carcinogen, eye and lung irritation, coughing • Benzyl alcohol—headaches, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, drops in blood pressure, muscle twitching, convulsions • Camphor—dizziness, confusion, nausea, muscle twitching, convulsions 27 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 28. • Ethanol—muscle twitching, fatigue, respiratory irritation (even in low amounts), drowsiness, impaired vision • Ethyl acetate—eye and respiratory irritation • Limonene—carcinogenic • Linalool—respiratory disturbances; in animals: depression, central nervous system disorders • Methylene chloride—banned by the FDA due to to severe toxic effects; however, the ban is not enforced due to “trade secrets.” 28 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS
  • 29. 29 KMCH COLLEGE OF PHARMACY, DEPT.OF PHARMACEUTICS