Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 8


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Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 8

  1. 1. Chapter 8: CognitionMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. The Cognitive Experience• Cognitive Experience is: – The process of gathering, organizing, and using information in order to adapt to the world – Primarily unseen – Behind all areas of development 8-2
  3. 3. Sensorimotor Experience• Jean Piaget created theories about how children come to know about their world.• The Sensorimotor Stage is Piaget’s first stage in development. – Children from birth to age 2 are in the sensorimotor stage. – Sensorimotor refers to the coordination of sense perception and muscle movements. 8-3
  4. 4. Sensorimotor Experience• Assimilation refers to the process of taking in new information and processing it.• Accommodation describes what happens when this new information refines or expands previous mental categories. 8-4
  5. 5. Sensorimotor Experience• Infants acknowledge the existence of things that they can see, touch, taste, smell, or hear.• Young infants lack object permanence. – Object permanence is the ability to remember an object or person even though it cannot be seen, touched, smelled, or heard. – Gaining awareness of object permanence is a gradual process. 8-5
  6. 6. Preoperational Stage• The Preoperational Stage is characterized by the beginning of language and the ability to pretend.• Preoperational children can still use mental images for their thinking process.• Children in this stage have increased memory of past events.• Children in this stage have an improved ability to predict. ? Have you noticed 2-year olds who are beginning to use symbols and better reasoning skills? 8-6
  7. 7. Piaget’s Major Points• Piaget believed knowledge is functional.• Piaget believed children construct new knowledge as they grow and mature.• Piaget believed that there is a connection between successive periods of development.• Piaget referred to children’s ability to construct a plan as intentionality. 8-7
  8. 8. Vygotsky’s Major Points• Vygotsky believed that cognitive activities stem from social interactions.• Vygotsky believed that knowledge is co- constructed.• The Zone of Proximal Development – Vygotsky used this term to identify the difference between what children can do on their own and what they can further do with guidance. 8-8
  9. 9. Vygotsky’s Major Points• Vygotsky believed that: – Language plays a vital role in cognition – Problem solving works best in a positive, responsive environment – The sharing of cultural activities between child and adult helps children understand their world 8-9
  10. 10. Pretend Play What are differences between 1-year old pretend play and 2-year old pretend play? 8-10
  11. 11. Supporting Cognitive Development• Cognitive Development depends on security and attachment. – Children whose needs are met consistently will feel trusting and comfortable. • Children who feel comfortable will explore their environment. – Exploring the environment leads to cognitive development! 8-11
  12. 12. Supporting Cognitive Development• To support cognitive development: – Invite and encourage exploration and curiosity – Encourage children to interact with one another to solve problems – Introduce vocabulary and whole language development naturally, don’t force 8-12
  13. 13. Supporting Cognitive Development• To support cognitive development: – Plan opportunities for creativity – Use discovery-oriented, hands-on, collaborative and open-ended experiences Are flashcards and drills appropriate for toddlers? Why or why not? 8-13
  14. 14. Children with Special Needs• Early Childhood Inclusion – Learning about the world in a natural setting, or as least restrictive as possible, is significant for the development and learning of young children with special needs. – Access to a wide range of learning opportunities and play-based activities and environments is a key characteristic of high-quality early childhood inclusion programs. 8-14
  15. 15. Children with Special Needs• Early Childhood Inclusion – Benefits children with and without disabilities, caregivers, and families. • Inclusion programs provide better developmental outcomes, skills learned in a natural setting, peer models for social interactions and competence • Provides greater understanding and opportunity for diverse friendships • Modifications for the included child can result in more creative problem solving for all children 8-15
  16. 16. Online Learning Center• See Chapter 8 of the text’s Online Learning Center for chapter quizzes, Theory Into Action activities, Video Observations, and more. 8-16