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Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 2


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(c) McGraw-Hill 2011

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
  • Why is overstimulation a larger problem than lack of stimulation?
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Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 2

  1. 1. Chapter 2: Infant-Toddler EducationMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. What Infant-Toddler Education is Not N• Infant-toddler education is not infant stimulation.• Infant-toddler education is not babysitting.• Infant-toddler education is not a “watered-down” version of a preschool model. 2-2
  3. 3. Infant-Toddler Education is Not Stimulation• In this text, education does not mean “stimulation.”• Stimulation is something that people do to babies; allowing them to have sensory experiences is different because then they have choices about what to take in.• Stimulation in the form of sensory experiences should come from interactions with the environment and people.• In group settings, overstimulation may be a larger problem than lack of stimulation. 2-3
  4. 4. Infant-Toddler Education is Not Babysitting• Trained infant-toddler caregivers understand how care and education go together.• While instinctually good caregiving is important, caregivers benefit from knowing how to manage: – Difficult behaviors – Babies whose needs are hard to determine – Babies who lack the behaviors that attract adults 2-4
  5. 5. Infant-Toddler Education is Not a “Watered-Down” Version of the Preschool Model• Infants and toddlers need to use their exploratory urges.• Most preschool activities are developmentally inappropriate for infants.• Toddlers do not use materials in the same manner as preschool children. 2-5
  6. 6. What is Infant-Toddler Education?• Infant-toddler education is built on a curriculum.• Curriculum is assessed by observing and recording.• Education facilitates problem solving.• The Adult has a role in facilitating problem solving. 2-6
  7. 7. Curriculum as the Foundation of Infant-ToddlerEducation• What is an infant-toddler curriculum? – A plan for learning and development – A plan centered on connections and relationships – A plan that links education and care – A framework for decision-making based on a philosophy that guides action 2-7
  8. 8. Curriculum as the Foundation of Infant-ToddlerEducation• The curriculum depends on caregivers determining what children need.• The curriculum depends on children’s interests.• There is no way to separate intellectual needs from other needs and interests. 2-8
  9. 9. Curriculum as the Foundation of Infant-ToddlerEducation• The curriculum must have goals or outcomes.• Outcomes generally address these domains: – Cognitive – Physical – Social-emotional 2-9
  10. 10. Curriculum as the Foundation of Infant-ToddlerEducation• An infant-toddler curriculum depends on caregivers who have skills in: – Understanding typical and atypical development – Understanding diversity – Observation 2-10
  11. 11. Assessing the Effectiveness of the Curriculum:Observing and Recording• Observation is a skill that should be developed and practiced every day.• Some useful observation methods include: – Anecdotal and running records – Daily logs and two-way journals – Documentation 2-11
  12. 12. Assessing the Effectiveness of the Curriculum:Observing and Recording• Ongoing assessment tells caregivers: – How a child is doing – A child’s needs and interests – What a child might need next – How to design an individualized program 2-12
  13. 13. Education as Facilitating Problem-Solving• Infants and toddlers face daily problems including: – Physical problems (hunger or discomfort) – Manipulative problems (grasping objects or balancing blocks) – Social and emotional problems (separation) 2-13
  14. 14. Education as Facilitating Problem-Solving• Caregivers facilitate learning by: – Allowing children to solve their own problems – Recognizing problems as learning opportunities – Not protecting children from all problems – Being actively and receptively present while children are solving problems 2-14
  15. 15. The Four Skills Adults Need to FacilitateProblem-Solving• Determining optimum stress levels – Caregivers observe children to learn how much stress is too little, too much, or just right. – Optimum stress is just the right amount of stress.• Providing attention – Meeting children’s needs for attention without manipulative motives. 2-15
  16. 16. The Four Skills Adults Need to FacilitateProblem-Solving• Providing feedback – Caregivers should provide clear feedback so infants and toddlers know the consequences of their actions. – Caregivers can verbalize the reaction they see in a child. 2-16
  17. 17. The Four Skills Adults Need to FacilitateProblem-Solving• Modeling – Adults need to perform behaviors, actions, and interactive styles that the children can learn and imitate. 2-17
  18. 18. Toddler Education and School Readiness – Infant-toddler education can give children the foundation they need for success later in school. – There are programs to help low-income families catch their children up for school readiness 2-18
  19. 19. Online Learning Center• See Chapter 2 of the text’s Online Learning Center for chapter quizzes, Theory Into Action activities, Video Observations, and more. 2-19