Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 10


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Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 10

  1. 1. Chapter 10: EmotionsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. What are emotions and feelings?• Emotions – Come from within an individual, though they may be motivated by external events• Feelings – Refers to a physical sense of, or an awareness of, an emotional state – Involve the capacity to respond to an emotional state 10-2
  3. 3. The Development of Emotions and Feelings• Newborns’ emotions are related to immediate experiences and sensations.• Young infants’ emotional responses are not well refined.• Toddlers may express pride, embarrassment, shame, and empathy. 10-3
  4. 4. The Development of Emotions and Feelings• All feelings are good. – All feelings carry energy and have a purpose. – Some are “yes!” feelings, while others are “no!” feelings. 10-4
  5. 5. The Development of Emotions and Feelings• Examples of “yes!” feelings include: – Joy, pleasure, delight, satisfaction, and power• Examples of “no!” feelings are: – Fear and anger 10-5
  6. 6. Temperament and Resiliency• Temperament is an individual’s behavior style and way of responding to the world.• Temperament is influenced by genetics (nature) and interactions (nurture).• Chess and Thomas mention three basic temperament types. 10-6
  7. 7. Temperament and Resiliency• The three temperament types include: – Easy, flexible – Feisty, spirited, difficult – Slow-to-warm• A significant percentage of children have a blend of these temperament types. 10-7
  8. 8. Temperament and Resiliency• What are the nine characteristics of temperament? 1. Activity Level 1. Intensity of Reaction 2. Rhythmicity 2. Threshold of Reaction 3. Approach-withdrawal 3. Distractibility 4. Adaptability 4. Quality of Mood • Attention span 10-8
  9. 9. Temperament and Resiliency What is the “Goodness of Fit” model? How does it apply to children with different temperaments? 10-9
  10. 10. Temperament and Resiliency• Resiliency is the ability to thrive despite adverse environmental conditions.• Fostering resiliency can result in new strengths.• Resilient children have: – An active approach to life’s challenges – An ability to see the world as a positive place – An understanding of cause and effect 10-10
  11. 11. Helping Infants and Toddlers Cope with Fears• The causes of fear change as infants grow into toddlers. – A common fear in the first year is stranger anxiety. – Common fears in toddlerhood include animals, the dark, and imaginary creatures.• Caregiver acceptance is vital to helping children recognize, identify, and accept their own feelings. 10-11
  12. 12. Helping Infants and Toddlers Cope with Fears• To help children cope with fears: How do – Accept all fears as real and valid you handle – Give the child support fear? – Use foresight to prevent fearful situations – Prepare toddlers for potentially frightening situations by telling them what to expect – Break frightening situations into manageable parts – Couple the unfamiliar with the familiar – Give children the time to adjust to something new 10-12
  13. 13. Helping Infants and Toddlers Cope with Anger• Recognize that children’s anger is real.• Pay attention and reflect on what you perceive is coming from the child.• Be sure that infants and toddlers don’t become too frustrated throughout the day.• Teach children your (appropriate) ways of dealing with anger. 10-13
  14. 14. Helping Infants and Toddlers Cope with Anger• Allow infants to cry in anger, and redirect angry toddlers’ energy to pounding clay or telling people how they feel.• Allow children to use self-calming techniques like thumb or finger sucking or sharing feelings. 10-14
  15. 15. Developing Self-Direction and Self-Regulation• Self-Actualization involves regulating from within that brings about constant extension and maturing of the personality.• According to Maslow, self-actualizing is a process, not an end product.• Optimal stress gives children a chance to try out their own strengths. 10-15
  16. 16. Developing Self-Direction and Self-Regulation• In order to help children develop a sense of self- direction and self-regulation: – Help children pay attention to their perceptions – Allow quiet time – Provide an appropriate environment and stable relationships – Give choices – Encourage independence 10-16
  17. 17. The Emotional Brain• The brain is emotional!• Early emotional exchanges foster brain growth.• Warm, nurturing care encourages neural connections.• Respectful relationships are prerequisites for healthy emotional growth. 10-17
  18. 18. The Emotional Brain• Current brain research highlights the following related to emotional development in young children: – Emotional and social development is connected to cognition and language – To much stress can lead to problems with self- regulation – Brain specialization in the first three years plays a significant role in self-regulation and emotional growth – Brain growth and neural development inform and support Developmentally Appropriate Practice 10-18
  19. 19. Children with Special Needs• Challenges and Trends 1) The importance of recognizing that basic child development principles are key to effective early intervention services and program practices 3) Work force development 5) A lack of measurable research data to support best practices in education 10-19
  20. 20. Children with Special Needs• Challenges and trends 4) The early intervention process often lacks integration and coordination 5) Funding 10-20
  21. 21. Online Learning Center• See Chapter 10 of the text’s Online Learning Center for chapter quizzes, Theory Into Action activities, Video Observations, and more. 10-21