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Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 11


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Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 11

  1. 1. Chapter 11: Social SkillsMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. What is Socialization?• Socialization: – The process of learning the standards and expectations of a specific culture – Learning social skills is part of the socialization process. – Children need the care and support of trusted adult during this process. 11-2
  3. 3. Early Social Behaviors• Attachment is prime factor in the development of social skills. – Another early social behavior is imitation. – Early smiling is also a social behavior. – Within first few months, infants are effective at non- verbal communication and have attached themselves to specific people. 11-3
  4. 4. Stages of Psychosocial Development• Erickson’s first three stages include: – Trust versus mistrust – Autonomy versus shame and doubt – Initiative versus guilt 11-4
  5. 5. Trust• Trust is the first stage of psychosocial development.• If infants’ needs are consistently met, they learn to develop a sense of basic trust.• Part of developing trust means coping with separation. 11-5
  6. 6. Separation• Helping children through separation involves: – Being honest and stating facts (including emotional facts) – Offering support – Welcoming things from home – Allowing children individual ways of feeling comforted 11-6
  7. 7. Separation• Sometimes adults have a difficult time dealing with childrens separation issues.• Parents have separation anxieties of their own.• Separation involves a range of feelings How do you deal with separation? 11-7
  8. 8. Autonomy• Autonomy is Erickson’s second stage of psychosocial development. – Autonomy occurs when an infant has reached his or her second year. – When infants become toddlers, they begin to perceive themselves as individuals. – Children begin to learn self-help skills during this stage. 11-8
  9. 9. Autonomy• Toddlers’ “NO!” is a sign of developing autonomy.• Rejecting behaviors are normal for toddlers. They show developing independence.• By capitalizing on toddlers’ drive for independence, you can promote the development of self-help skills. 11-9
  10. 10. Autonomy• Independence in toilet training (which is part of a child’s growing autonomy) depends on: – Physical control – Cognitive understanding – Emotional willingness 11-10
  11. 11. Initiative• Initiative is Erickson’s term for the stage during which older toddlers create, invent, and explore.• Caregivers should respond to initiative by providing information, resources, freedom, and encouragement. 11-11
  12. 12. Guidance and Discipline• Guidance and discipline are part of the on-going process of teaching social skills to children. – Guidance is the philosophical approach to teaching the standards and expectations of your culture. – Discipline means the specific techniques used to accomplish this task.• One’s guidance philosophy determines ones discipline techniques. 11-12
  13. 13. Security and Control for Infants• Guidance in the first year must be accepting and trust building.• Infants do not require discipline because their limits come naturally from their own limitations. 11-13
  14. 14. Limits for Toddlers• Toddlers need to know that there are limits.• Limits are rules of behavior. How do limits provide security? 11-14
  15. 15. Biting• To address biting: – Know why the child is biting by learning what is behind the behavior 11-15
  16. 16. Biting• Reasons for biting include: – Expressions of anger – Expressions of curiosity – Means for gaining attention – A need for a strong interaction 11-16
  17. 17. Biting• The best way to stop biting is to prevent it!• When a child is biting (or using other aggressive behaviors), try to re-direct the urge to a positive expression of the underlying emotion. 11-17
  18. 18. Negativism• If you want to stop negativism, avoid challenges.• Try stating limits in positive terms. What are some positive ways to tell a child to “get off of the table”? 11-18
  19. 19. Guidance and Discipline• General considerations related to guidance and discipline that should be considered: – Plan your environment; avoid trouble spots – Appreciate uniqueness of each child – Natural consequences are sometimes the best teacher – Avoid any discipline technique that inflict pain – Cultivate family-caregiver partnerships – Model behavior you want to teach 11-19
  20. 20. Teaching Prosocial Behavior• Prosocial Behavior: – Must be taught – Should be modeled by caregivers – Helps children care about other children – Depends on cooperation • Cooperation can be taught through everyday caregiving tasks. 11-20
  21. 21. The Special Need of All Children• Self-esteem is a special need of all children.• Self-esteem is the valuing of the self.• Self-esteem stems from secure and nurturing attachment during infancy.• For toddlers, self-esteem is related to the successful completion of tasks.• Adults who feel good about themselves tend to pass that feeling on to children. 11-21
  22. 22. Online Learning Center• See Chapter 11 of the text’s Online Learning Center for chapter quizzes, Theory Into Action activities, Video Observations, and more. 11-22