Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 9


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Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 9

  1. 1. Chapter 9: LanguageMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. The Progression of Language Development• Language: – Is the systematic arrangement of arbitrary symbols that has generalized meaning – Represents experiences and events through abstract symbols and words 9-2
  3. 3. The Progression of Language Development• Social interactions are crucial to language development.• The ability to acquire language seems to be innate.• Maturation aids in the ability to learn words and understand symbols. 9-3
  4. 4. The Progression of Language Development• The “three I’s” of language development – Innate abilities have to be present – Children need to Interact with others – Imitation occurs as a result of these interactions 9-4
  5. 5. Receptive Language: 0 to 1 year• Infants react to being spoken to from birth. – Initially, this response is more to the pitch and tone of the voice than the meaning behind the words.• True receptive language means children respond to the meaning behind the words.• When children are spoken to meaningfully, they understand what is being said. 9-5
  6. 6. Expressive Language—1 year to first words• Fast Mapping – Fast Mapping is a process in which a young child uses context cues to make a quick and reasonably accurate guess about the meaning of an unfamiliar word. Do you remember fast mapping when you were young? 9-6
  7. 7. Expressive Language—1 year to first words• Children refine language and develop grammar rules on their own. – Children learn these rules from genuine conversations with adults. – You don’t need to emphasize rules. – You should not correct grammar errors. How did you learn grammar rules? 9-7
  8. 8. What Language Allows a Child to Do• Language allows children to: – Clarify needs and gather information – Label their experiences – Increase their adaptation and coping skills – Develop reasoning skills 9-8
  9. 9. The Brain and Early Language Development• Nature and nurture work together for healthy brain growth.• Language development depends on early neural connections. – These connections are stimulated through responsive interactions with others. 9-9
  10. 10. The Brain and Early Language Development• During the first few months, a child’s brain is very responsive and flexible (neuroplastic).• As young children acquire language, their brains become increasingly specialized.• Experience relates to vocabulary. – Infants need to hear words from people around them. 9-10
  11. 11. Fostering Language Development• Engage young children in dialogue during caregiving and play times.• Describe what is happening as it occurs—use labels that children need to learn.• Talk with young children; go beyond the entertainment approach—really listen.• Provide young children with interesting experiences that can provide conversation material.• Read books aloud. 9-11
  12. 12. Early Literacy• Literacy: The ability to listen and speak, and eventually to read and write.• Children develop an awareness of oral and written language in an interrelated way.• Oral language is fundamental to literacy. 9-12
  13. 13. Early Literacy• To support literacy development: – Be sensitive to child-initiated literacy and language interactions – Use story book/picture book sharing as a tool to foster emergent literacy – Understand that the family setting, where parents express pleasure in reading and writing, plays an important role in emergent literacy Would Vygotsky agree that sharing behaviors are correlated with the development of language and literacy? 9-13
  14. 14. Cultural Differences, Bilingualism, andDual Language Learners• Children in child care are influenced by the caregiver’s culture.• A child can be bicultural and still be English- speaking, or may be bicultural and bilingual.• Infants can learn 2 languages from day one.• Bilingualism is a skill to be valued and nurtured. 9-14
  15. 15. Cultural Differences, Bilingualism, andDual Language Learners• If bilingualism is a goal: – Establish a relationship in the target language early on – Consider having two caregivers related to the child, one in each language – Be concerned about the quality of verbal communication in your environment 9-15
  16. 16. Children with Special Needs• Supporting Parents and Families – The family is the most important influence on the development and learning of any young child. – Effective partnerships with families are build on trust and develop over time. – Family activities need to be supported and encouraged. 9-16
  17. 17. Children with Special Needs• Supporting Parents and Families – Families can feel strengthened by concrete information – Caregivers should provide observational information to parents so they can “see” their child’s progress. – Caregivers need to respect family privacy. – Caregivers are vital, but are not therapists! 9-17
  18. 18. Online Learning Center• See Chapter 9 of the text’s Online Learning Center for chapter quizzes, Theory Into Action activities, Video Observations, and more. 9-18