Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 5


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Infants, Toddlers & Caregivers Ch 5

  1. 1. Chapter 5: AttachmentMcGraw-Hill/Irwin © 2011 McGraw-Hill Higher Education. All rights reserved.
  2. 2. What is Attachment?• Attachment: – Is a complex, on-going process – Involves a responsiveness to an infant – Involves a closeness to an infant – Is an affectionate bond that forms between individuals that endures through space and time 5-2
  3. 3. Brain Research• The basic building blocks of the brain include: – Neurons: The basic building blocks – Axon: Output fiber of a neuron – Dendrite: Input fiber of a neuron – Synapses: Connections formed through experiences 5-3
  4. 4. Brain Research• Unused synapses are pruned.• Used synapses are maintained.• Early experiences help to form stable pathways. 5-4
  5. 5. Attachment• How does attachment to caregivers differ from attachment to parents? – Caregivers know the attachment is for a shorter period. – Caregiver attachment starts later in life. – Caregiver attachment is secondary to parent attachment. 5-5
  6. 6. Milestones of Attachment• Milestones of attachment include: – Trying to follow a departing parent – Crying – Pulling away from strangers 5-6
  7. 7. Milestones of Attachment• Extremely close infant-adult relationships are formed through mutually-responsive behavior, including: – Touching – Feeding – Fondling – Eye contact How is autonomy related to attachment? 5-7
  8. 8. Toddler Separation Issues• Securely attached toddlers may have difficulty with separation.• Ways to assist caregivers in helping parents with separation include: – Allow the child his or her feelings – Help the parent leave immediately when good-byes are said – Discourage the parent from “sneaking away” 5-8
  9. 9. Toddler Separation Issues• During separation, remind parents that secondary attachments to caregivers are in addition to parental attachments—they do not replace them. Parents and family members are superstars in the toddler’s eyes! 5-9
  10. 10. Measuring Attachment• Mary Ainsworth created the strange situation to measure attachment between mother and child.• Securely attached infants and toddlers seem comfortable in a new setting and explore independently as long as the parent is present.• Insecure avoidant attachment is indicative of children who do not seek closeness to the parent nor seem depressed when the parent departs. 5-10
  11. 11. Measuring Attachment• Insecure ambivalent attachment patterns involve positive and negative reactions to parents.• Disorganized-disoriented patterns of behavior are evidenced by children who approach the parent while looking away at the same time. These 4 descriptions of attachment focus only on mother and child attachment, and are based on research from the 1970’s. A lot has changed since then! How might a child’s attachment behavior be misinterpreted? 5-11
  12. 12. Measuring Attachment• Children from some cultures may live in extended families and have multiple attachments. Children and their families come in many varieties! 5-12
  13. 13. Attachment Issues• Some infants are born without a strong set of attachment behaviors. – Adults may find it hard to interact with these children. – Caregivers need to find ways to work with these children. – Caring for more than 12 babies in one caregiving environment works against developing attachment with each child. 5-13
  14. 14. Attachment Issues• A primary-caregiver system helps promote attachment.• If a baby has no attachment or negative attachment: – Families and caregivers should try working together to promote attachment. – Outside help may be necessary if the child does not respond to other interventions. – Without help, these children may fail to thrive, may become passive, and may lack trust. 5-14
  15. 15. Attachment Issues• Infants need ongoing, reciprocal, responsive interactions to promote attachment.• Remember: Exemplary infant child care that promotes attachment helps children gain a sense of security and trust. 5-15
  16. 16. Children with Special Needs• What is early intervention? – The process of identifying young children with disabilities or “at risk for developing disabilities. – Creating a plan for supports so children can achieve their full potential. – Plan focuses on developmental needs of the child. – A multidisciplinary approach. 5-16
  17. 17. Children with Special Needs• The laws that guide early intervention: – Education for All Handicapped Children Act (1975) – Education of the Handicapped Act (1986) – Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act (2004) 5-17
  18. 18. Children with Special Needs• Benefits and challenges of early intervention: – It can support young children with disabilities early in their development in overcoming obstacles. – Recognizing the difference between temporary and permanent delays and differences. – Assisting families in their efforts to find the most appropriate resources. 5-18
  19. 19. Online Learning Center• See Chapter 5 of the text’s Online Learning Center for chapter quizzes, Theory Into Action activities, Video Observations, and more. 5-19