Infants Toddlers and Twos Chapter 2 (7th)


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  • BUT remember: each child is affected differently by social, cultural, and environmental influencesAND they move through these developmental sequences at widely varying rates.
  • Overt learning means that another person can see the response or the learning whereas internal learning occurs without an obvious change in the observable behavior.
  • Note what makes up the nervous system as shown on page 30. Also make a note of what brain cells are called and how that affects the brain’s weight.The newborn’s brain is constantly taking in information that it gets through the environment using his/her senses. The brain records this information-pathways in the brain are formed.If there is a change in the environment, infants form new pathways to adapt to the change.
  • Bullet 2-read it then say: Adults are logical thinkers(consider facts, analyze, draw conclusions), young children are prelogical thinkers(may have an inaccurate understanding of their experiences).
  • Have students give definitions to SchemesAdaptationAccommodationAssimilationEquilibriumDisequilibriumEquilibrationOrganization
  • Note the chart on page 49-very interesting!
  • Language plays a critical role in cognitive developmentHave students give definitions of the four basic components of language
  • Discuss the meanings of these verbal and nonverbal messages
  • Infants Toddlers and Twos Chapter 2 (7th)

    1. 1. Chapter 2 Birth to Thirty-six Months: Physical and Cognitive Developmental Patterns ©2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.
    2. 2. Differences between Development and Learning  A controversy: – Nature versus Nurture – The best conclusion to date is that child development is a very complex process occurring through natural sequences and patterns that depend on learning and experience, among other processes. ©2011 Cengage Learning.
    3. 3. Development  Cumulative sequences and patterns that represent progressive, refined changes that move a child from simple to more complex physical, cognitive, language, social, and emotional growth and maturity ©2011 Cengage Learning.
    4. 4. Learning  The acquisition of knowledge and skills through systematic study, instruction, practice, and/or experience  Both overt and internal learning occurs during the first three years of life. ©2011 Cengage Learning.
    5. 5. Patterns of Physical Development  Neurological Development – The brain is a complex system which is divided into three main parts:  Hindbrain (autonomic systems)  Midbrain (connector)  Forebrain (includes cerebral cortex), marks us as human – Brain development during infancy is best promoted when caregivers provide tasks that challenge children‘s emerging skills and abilities. – On the other hand, unresponsive, harmful, stressful, or neglectful caregiving behaviors affect the development of the brain negatively. ©2011 Cengage Learning.
    6. 6. Patterns of Physical Development • Reflexes • Physical milestones for height, weight, etc. • Hearing and Vision • Teething • Milestones for fine and gross motor control – Stability, Locomotion, and Manipulation • Sleep Patterns • Toilet Learning ©2011 Cengage Learning.
    7. 7. Patterns of Cognitive and Language Development  Cognitive Development – Piaget’s theory of reasoning  Newborns use all their senses— listening, seeing, tasting, touching, and smelling—to learn about their world.  Central to Piaget‘s theory is that there are stages of cognitive development; that is, four-month-olds are cognitively different from 24-month-olds. Piaget contended that the sequence of development is the same for all children. However, the age and rate at which it occurs differs from child to child.  Piaget‘s first two stages of cognitive development involve children between birth and three years of age. – Sensorimotor – Preoperational ©2011 Cengage Learning.
    8. 8. Patterns of Cognitive and Language Development  All people use these processes and functions—assimilation, accommodation, and equilibration— continually through life.  Cognitive Structures  Knowledge Construction  Types of Knowledge – Physical knowledge – Logico-mathematical knowledge – Social-arbitrary knowledge ©2011 Cengage Learning.
    9. 9. Patterns of Cognitive and Language Development  Play and Cognitive Development  Play is the child‘s laboratory for cognitive trial and error and rehearsal for real-life problem solving.  There are many types of Exploratory and Pretend Play for infants and toddlers. ©2011 Cengage Learning.
    10. 10. Patterns of Cognitive and Language Development  Cognitive Development – Vygotsky’s sociocultural theory  For Vygotsky, knowledge is co-constructed through social interactions.  The most important tool for humans is language.  Higher cognitive processes develop from verbal and nonverbal social interactions.  Scaffolding involves changing the support given a learner in the course of teaching a skill or concept. ©2011 Cengage Learning.
    11. 11. Patterns of Cognitive and Language Development  Language Development  Language is a tool for thinking.  When adults and children talk with infants and toddlers, they provide examples of the four basic components of language: – Phonology – Semantics – Syntax – Pragmatics  Provide a language rich environment ©2011 Cengage Learning.
    12. 12. Patterns of Cognitive and Language Development  Infants must learn strategies for sending verbal and nonverbal messages to others: – Eye contact – Coo – Babble – Jargon – Telegraphic Speech – Baby signs ©2011 Cengage Learning.
    13. 13. Children with Special Rights  A new perspective: – Reframing services for children with identified special needs from a ―deficit model‖ approach (i.e., focusing on what children lack) to a special rights approach – Teachers must start their work focusing on what each child can do independently and adding on what she is entitled to learn with assistance. – The first source of information should be the child and family, then specialists who provide ‗at-risk‘ services. ©2011 Cengage Learning.
    14. 14. Children with Special Rights • Common areas of special rights infants and toddlers may have regarding physical and cognitive/language development: – Children with Motor Disabilities – Children Biologically at-risk – Children with Visual Disabilities – Children with Hearing Disabilities – Children who are Medically Fragile – Children with Cognitive or General Development Disorders – Children with Language and Communication Disorders ©2011 Cengage Learning.
    15. 15. Spotlight on Research  Cleft Lip/Palate and Socio-emotional development – It has been long assumed that children with cleft deformities would suffer from a variety of social and emotional outcomes. – The importance of early intervention is evident for children with cleft lip/palate. – By age 7, children showed nearly equivalent levels of adjustment (for those with early intervention). – Interventions to facilitate positive mother-child social interactions are particularly vital. ©2011 Cengage Learning.
    16. 16. Checkpoint Discussion Questions • Explain how the growth of the brain demonstrates the complex interaction between nature (i.e., genetics or biology) and nurture (i.e., environmental factors). • Name the major milestones for motor development from birth to three years of age. • How is toilet learning a complex developmental accomplishment? • Why do infant and toddler teachers need to be aware of developmental patterns in such areas as seeing (vision), sleeping, and teething? ©2011 Cengage Learning.
    17. 17. Checkpoint Discussion Questions  Discuss Piaget‘s stages of cognitive development in terms of learning experiences for two-year-olds. Include concepts such as assimilation, accommodation, and disequilibrium in your answer.  Provide a specific example of each of Piaget‘s types of knowledge.  Use Vygotsky‘s theory to explain how you would scaffold a toddler with the skill of dressing, including the concept of private speech. ©2011 Cengage Learning.
    18. 18. Checkpoint Discussion Questions  Explain the typical pattern of language development and the role adults play in the process.  Why should infant and toddler educators think about a child having special rights rather than special needs?  Explain three special rights very young children might have in relationship to physical and cognitive/language development. ©2011 Cengage Learning.