Elements & principles of design


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Elements and Principles of Design

Elements & principles of design

  1. 1. ELEMENTS OF DESIGN VISUAL The elements of design are the tools artists use to create art.
  3. 3. Line is a mark on a surface that describes a shape or outline. It can create texture and can be thick and thin. Types of line can include actual, implied, vertical, horizontal, diagonal and contour. Characteristics of line – – Active – Static – Aggressive/passive – Sensual/mechanical – Directional – Defines boundaries – Implies volume or mass – Suggests motion or emotion – Forms patterns and textures
  5. 5. • Line defines contours; most basic visual element. • Line in art may mean a single thin stroke • It may signify the meeting edge of two areas • It may refer to the contours – as in sculpture • Line can display strong suggestion of movement • Line can produce a sense of tranquility
  6. 6. Barnett Newman, Dionysius, 1944, 67x49in. Barnett Newman, Yellow Painting, 1949 Barnett Newman, (The Cry) 36x24in., ink on paper
  7. 7. Late Gothic/ Early Renaissance from 1305 BOLD DIAGONAL Giotto, Pieta (Lamentation) fresco
  8. 8. Caravaggio The Calling of St. Matthew, 1599-1600
  9. 9. Gentileschi, Judith Slaying Holofernes, 1620
  10. 10. Line can create volume
  11. 11. Line can create movement
  12. 12. • Larger lines in the foreground • Smaller lines in the back ground give an illusion of distances, space and perspective.
  13. 13. Implied Line • Implied Line is the line inside the object within in the art work. For example, an image of a soldier standing tall has an implied vertical line in the stance. Each of the lines imply different meanings. • A vertical line can imply nobility. • A horizontal can imply calm or rest. • A diagonal line can imply movement. A curvilinear line can imply grace.
  14. 14. Nobility and Movement
  15. 15. Diego Rivera, The Flower Carrier, 1935, 48x48 in. Note lines implied by directional gazes
  16. 16. Pierre-Auguste Renoir Le déjeuner des canotiers, 1880–1881 Oil on canvas, 129.5 × 172.7 cm
  17. 17. Morandi, Giorgio Still Life (The Blue Vase) 1920 Oil on canvas
  18. 18. Caravaggio, Supper at Emmaus, c.1601
  19. 19. A VENETIAN WOMAN John Singer Sargent (American, b.1856, d.1925) 1882 oil on canvas 93 3/4 x 52 1/2 in. (238.1 x 133.4 cm)
  20. 20. A VENETIAN WOMAN John Singer Sargent (American, b.1856, d.1925) 1882 oil on canvas 93 3/4 x 52 1/2 in. (238.1 x 133.4 cm) Lines used to create emphasis
  21. 21. Hokusai, Katsushika The Great Wave Off Kanagawa From "Thirty-six Views of Mount Fuji" 1823-29 Color woodcut 10 x 15 in. Lines can curve . . .
  22. 22. Jean Honore Fragonard, The Bathers, 1761
  23. 23. Venus at Her Mirror ("The Rokeby Venus") Implied GRACE
  24. 24. Giotto The Mourning of Christ c. 1305 Fresco Cappella dell'Arena, Padua • Contour line is the outside line, or the line that distinguishes the outer edge of the object within the art work. Contour Line
  25. 25. THE EXPRESSIVE QUALITY OF THE JAGGED LINES IN THE WORK . . . Clyfford Still, 1957, No.1
  26. 26. Georgia O’Keeffe, Red, White and Blue, 1931
  27. 27. Johann Koerbecke German, c. 1420 - 1491 The Ascension, 1456/1457 tempera on panel, 92.7 x 64.8 cm (36 1/2 x 25 1/2 in.) Curved, smooth Jagged Jagged, zig-zag straight
  28. 28. Clyfford Still American, 1904 - 1980 1948-C, (1948) Oil on canvas 80 7/8 x 68 3/4 in. complex contour lines formed by these complex shapes
  29. 29. A mark with length and direction. A continuous mark made on a surface by a moving point. Ansel Adams Gustave Caillebotte
  30. 30. • 3 artists exemplify the usage of line – Pablo Picasso – Henri Matisse – Vincent Van Gogh
  31. 31. Vincent Van Gogh “Starry Night”
  32. 32. Vincent Van Gogh (1853-1890). Oil on paper.
  34. 34. Frank Lloyd Wright, Fallingwater, 1936-37
  35. 35. Frank Gehry, Disney Concert Hall
  36. 36. Giusti Garden, Verona, Italy
  37. 37. Shape is an area that is contained within an implied line, or is seen and identified because of color or value changes. •Shapes have two dimensions, length and width, and can be geometric or free- form. •Shape: geometric and organic shapes; positive and negative shapes; abstract shapes; and outlined shapes.
  38. 38. Square Triangle Circle Box Pyramid Sphere Geometric Shapes
  39. 39. Shape / Form • A shape is an area that is defined in some way by a line, an edge, a color or a texture. If we traced around its outline we would have a shape, silhouette • Shapes can be geometric – look as if they were made with a ruler. • Organic – irregular, uneven shapes of nature.
  40. 40. Hendrik van Steenwyck St. Jerome in his Study 1624Oil on panel 27 x 21.7 cm Bequeathed as part of the Princes Gate Collection, 1978 P.1978.PG.423 How many shapes can you find?
  41. 41. Frank Stella, Wolfeboro II, 1966 CLOSED, GEOMETRIC
  42. 42. THE UPSTAIRS Charles Sheeler (American, b.1883, d.1965) 1938 oil on canvas 19 1/2 x 12 3/4 in. (49.5 x 32.4 cm) Lines create planes; planes suggest volume
  43. 43. An enclosed area defined and determined by other art elements; 2-dimensional.
  44. 44. M.C. Escher
  45. 45. Takashi Murakami
  46. 46. Space -Actual space is a three-dimensional volume that can be empty or filled with objects. It has width, height, and depth. Various techniques can be used to show such visual depth or space. Space: two-dimensional and three dimensional space; creating space with different sized and overlapping shapes; and linear perspective. SPACE
  47. 47. • Open and Closed – In a painting, if the viewer’s eyes are led off the canvas, the space is open, or the painting has an open frame. If the viewer’s eyes are kept in the center of the canvas and all the characters and action are within the edges of the frame, the artist has composed a closed space or closed frame. • Positive and Negative – Positive space takes up space, negative space is empty. The positive is the material, the negative is the absence of material.
  48. 48. Open and Closed Space Raphael Crucifixion with Sts Mary Virgin, Mary Magdalen, ohn and Jerome c. 1503 Grunewald The Mocking of Christ 1503 Grunewald’s piece exhibits and open frame, the action leads the eyes all over the canvas and off the edges of the frame. Raphael’s piece exhibits a closed frame, the action is centered and the viewer is focused on the main action.
  49. 49. Positive Space • Positive space is the space that an object occupies. • On the left hand side picture, the positive space is the area that the bottles take up. • On the right hand side picture, the positive space is shown as the black objects.
  50. 50. Negative Space • Negative space is opposite of positive. • Negative space is the space around an object. • On the left hand side picture, the negative space is the white area around the bottles. • On the right hand side picture, the negative space is shown as the black area surrounding the bottle.
  51. 51. Artists often use positive space and negative space to manipulate an object. For instance, an artist might deliberately leave a cutout area white, which would be a negative space. Then, they might add some kind of pattern in that space to trick the viewer’s eyes.
  52. 52. Brancusi, The Kiss, 1917 Positive and Negative… All positive space, no negative space, no room between them. Canova, 19th Century, NeoClassical (Reproduction) Lots of negative space employed to create tension, dynamic embrace.
  53. 53. CONTINUOUS, INFINITE, EVER PRESENT • Space is the area between and around objects. • The space around objects is often called negative space; negative space has shape. • Space can also refer to the feeling of depth. Real space is three- dimensional; in visual art when we can create the feeling or illusion of depth we call it space.
  54. 54. Space Since objects in our environment look smaller when they are farther away, the easiest way to show depth is to vary the size of objects, with closer objects being larger and more distant objects being smaller. As well, we perceive objects that are higher on the page and smaller as being further away than objects which are in the forefront of a picture. Overlapping, vertical, and diminishing Edward Degas
  55. 55. We live in a three-dimensional world of depth. When we look around us, some things seem closer, some further away. The artist can also show the illusion of depth by using the following means: Size Vertical Location Overlapping Linear Perspective
  56. 56. Depth of Field The human eye, like the camera, has a limited depth of field. In other words we focus on one level and the objects in front or behind are often blurred. When Diego Velazquez painted Las Meninas he, along with many artists painted everything in focus. This was part of the magic of painting as the viewers perception was thereby expanded. This painting by Diego Velazquez has a defined foreground, middle ground and background.
  57. 57. The foreground in focus
  58. 58. The middle ground in focus
  59. 59. The background in focus
  60. 60. • Value can be flat or graduated • Can be created by using shading, line or dots. • Lines can be used to create value in hatching or cross-hatching • Dots can be used to create value. • Value can be subdued • Strong • Contrasting Value
  61. 61. Value refers to the degree of dark and light. Value contrasts help us to see and understand a two dimensional work of art. Value contrast is also evident in colors, which enables us to read shapes in a painting.
  62. 62. Value Scale The above graphic is called a Value Scale. Tonal graduations in color from light to dark produce perspective. Graduation of tone can add interest to a shape. A graduation from light to dark will cause the eye to move along the shape. Using black and white paint, many artists make a rectangular value scale with ten values. Pure white will be at one end, then mix varying amounts of black and white to create eight shades of gray, increasing in value, ending with pure black.
  63. 63. Hatching and cross-hatching Rembrandt
  64. 64. •Dramatic use of light creates value. •Light is used to attract our attention to the most important part of the painting •The relative lightness or darkness is the value. A black-and-white photo or movie involves not only black and white, but also different values of gray.
  65. 65. Cast shadows are the dark shapes tha t emanate from an object onto another surface, revealing the direction and quality of the light source.
  66. 66. • Color is very expressive and an exciting element of art. It appeals strongly to the senses and emotions. • Color can communicate in all different ways, it can be very powerful thing in art work. Art works can communicate by color alone. It can cause emotional reactions. COLOR
  67. 67. HUE – the name of a color VALUE – the lightness or darkness of a color INTENSITY – the brightness or dullness of a color MONOCHROMATIC – many values of one color ANALOGOUS – colors side by side on the color wheel COMPLEMENTARY – colors opposite on the color wheel WARM vs. COOL – red, yellow, orange – blue, green, violet
  68. 68. Primary Colors • Red, blue, yellow • Cannot be produced by intermixing other colors • All other colors are mixed from these 3 colors
  69. 69. Secondary Colors Orange, green, violet Colors mixed from a combination of 2 primary colors Red + Blue = Violet Blue + Yellow = Green Red + Yellow = Orange
  70. 70. Tertiary Color • Red-orange • Yellow-orange • Yellow-green • Blue-green • Blue-violet • Red-violet
  71. 71. • Red • Yellow • Orange Mark Rothko Warm colors come towards the viewer Warm Colors
  72. 72. Cool Colors • Blue • Green • Violet • Cool colors move back, away from the viewer
  73. 73. Color wheel
  74. 74. Color Schemes Color groupings that create distinct color harmony • Monochromatic One color plus white and black • Analogous 3 – 5 colors next to each other on the color wheel • Complementary 2 colors directly opposite each other on the color wheel Vincent Van Gogh
  75. 75. Monochromatic one color plus black and white Violet, black and white were used in this painting
  76. 76. Analogous at least 3 – 5 colors next to each other on the color wheel
  77. 77. Complementary Colors 2 colors directly opposite each other on the color wheel These colors when mixed create hues of brown Red and green above
  78. 78. What your favorite color says about you! • Red – You are a nonconformist. You work hard, are very optimistic, never let your mood down, and are quick to react. • Orange – You are warm and friendly and use care in choosing your friends. You have a strong sense of justice, and are not impressed by material things. • Yellow – You are interested in people and are glad to be of service to others. You are critical of mind and learn through observation. • Green – You are a very good conversationalist and like people. You have a keen wit and tend to be alert at all times. • Blue – You are devoted and truthful and tend not to show your feelings readily. People tend to have confidence in you. • Purple – You like to live like royalty and enjoy a sense of luxury. You enjoy beautiful things and have a tendency to the romantic. • White –You are sincere in mind and heart, you cooperate well, you are efficient and orderly. • Gray – You seek perfection and are a good manager. You are very objective and seek constant development. • Black – You are very self-assured and like meeting interesting people. You are critical in your choice of companions and seek perfection. • Brown – You are patient and a hard worker. You are always ready to help others, have a strong sense of family loyalty, and do not take uncalculated risks.
  79. 79. Texture is the surface quality of an object. There are two categories of texture: real texture and implied texture. •Real texture refers to how the object would feel if it was touched. •Implied texture refers to something that has been made to look as if it has texture through drawing or painting techniques
  80. 80. • Real texture is texture that actually exists – what you can actually feel • Implied texture -created to look like the real object on a flat surface Texture can be •Grained •Rough •Corrugated •Smooth •Furry •Shiny •Prickly
  81. 81. Van Gogh close up When we look at a photograph or a painting of the texture of a surface such as glass or velvet leather, we see patterns of light and dark that create the effect of texture Simulated texture; a two dimensional surface that imitates real texture, simulated textures copy or imitate real textures.
  82. 82. Texture can be surprising. The smooth texture of skin in this close up of a marble sculpture by Bernini is remarkable. Notice the veins, soft waves, in the top of the male hand. Also, notice the smooth texture of the drapery.
  83. 83. Oppenheim, Fur Covered Cup Camille Claudel’s The Waltz 1891-1905 Creating texture… Transition from smooth skin to rough, bumpy, rippling base
  84. 84. PERSPECTIVE Perspective refers to the “point of view”. There are several different types of perspective: aerial, atmospheric, linear or one-point, and two-point perspective for a horizon line.
  85. 85. Aerial Perspective • Aerial perspective is a “bird’s view,” seen from above, high angle. Aerial view of the grand canyon
  86. 86. Atmospheric perspective
  87. 87. Leonardo da Vinci’s Mona Lisa 1507 Raphael’s Cowper Madonna Atmospheric Perspective gives the illusion of a great distance in the background of the image.
  88. 88. Linear Perspective Linear Perspective is also referred to as one-point- perspective. This perspective leads the eyes to a vanishing point that disappears deep into the image. The lines leading to the vanishing point created by the rails are called orthogonals.
  89. 89. Two-Point Perspective