Nuclear power in pakistan


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A brief outlook about nuclear power generation in Pakistan.

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Nuclear power in pakistan

  1. 2. Nuclear Power In Pakistan By: Shahrukh Saleem M.Sc Electrical Power
  2. 3. Synopsis <ul><li>Pakistan is the 7th nuclear weapon state and nuclear power. </li></ul><ul><li>As of 2009, the nuclear power plants make up to 2.4% share of the total generation, where the electricity made by fossil fuel (coal, gas & oil) is 65.2 % and 33.9% of it is from the Hydro power. </li></ul><ul><li>At present, Pakistan has two nuclear reactors of 425 MW power to generate electricity. The third nuclear reactor will be operational in mid-2010. </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) is responsible for all nuclear energy and research applications in the country. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Generation Share in Pakistan Nuclear Generation Thermal Generation Hydel Generation
  4. 5. Civilian Nuclear Program
  5. 6. Brief Introduction <ul><li>Pakistan’s first nuclear power reactor is a small (125 MWe) Canadian pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR) which started up in 1971 and which is under international safeguards – KANUPP near Karachi, which is operated at reduced power. KANUPP-2 and KANUPP-3 are under construction and are being built by PAEC. </li></ul><ul><li>The KANUPP-2 (1000 MWe) and KANUPP-3 (1000 Mwe) are a part of Pakistan's civilian nuclear program. </li></ul><ul><li>The three units of nuclear power plant are under IAEA safeguards. </li></ul><ul><li>KANUPP is supplying power to KESC & is not controlled by National Power Control Center. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Contd.. <ul><li>The second unit is Chashma-1 in Punjab, a 325 MWe (300 MWe net) pressurised water reactor (PWR) supplied by China National Nuclear Corporation CNNC under safeguards. </li></ul><ul><li>It started up in May 2000 and is also known as CHASNUPP-1. Construction of its twin, Chashma-2, started in December 2005. </li></ul><ul><li>A safeguards agreement with IAEA was signed in 2006 and grid connection is expected in 2011. </li></ul><ul><li>CHASNUPP 1 supplies power to WAPDA & is controlled by NPCC. </li></ul>
  7. 8. Contd.. <ul><li>The third nuclear power reactor is Pakistan Nuclear Power Fuel Complex (1000 MWe) pressurized water reactor , constructed indigenously by Pakistan's PAEC, under IAEA safeguards. </li></ul><ul><li>The main part of the plant is designed on the model of CHASMA Nuclear Power Plant. </li></ul><ul><li>The 90% of work of plant is done and will generate electricity in 2010. </li></ul>
  8. 9. Pakistan Nuclear Power Reactors
  9. 10. Fuel - Uranium
  10. 11. Fuel cycle <ul><li>Enriched fuel for the PWRs is imported from China. </li></ul><ul><li>China then in 2007 deferred development of its CNP-1000 type which is the only one able to be exported. </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan is now exploring the possibility of smaller units with higher local content. </li></ul><ul><li>The government has set a target of producing 350 tonnes U 3 O 8 per year from 2015 to meet one third of anticipated requirements then. Low grade ore is known in central Punjab at Bannu Basin and Suleman Range. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Fuel Enrichment Plants <ul><li>A small uranium centrifuge enrichment plant at Kahuta has been operated by the PAEC since 1984. </li></ul><ul><li>A newer plant is reported to be at Gadwal. It is not under safeguards. </li></ul><ul><li>Other plants in the pipeline are, Pakistan Nuclear Power Fuel Complex which would be under IAEA safeguards & the enrichment plant at Chak Jhumra, Faisalabad, in Punjab. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Radioactive Waste Management
  13. 14. Nuclear Wastes <ul><li>The PAEC has responsibility for radioactive waste management. </li></ul><ul><li>A Radioactive Waste Management Fund is proposed in a new proposed policy. </li></ul><ul><li>Waste Management Centres are proposed for Karachi and Chashma. </li></ul><ul><li>Used fuel is currently stored at each reactor in pools. Longer-term dry storage at each site is proposed. The question of future reprocessing remains open. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Nuclear Regulation
  15. 16. Regulatory Authority <ul><li>Pakistan Nuclear Regulatory Authority is responsible for licensing and supervision, and in respect to the Chashma reactors it works closely with China's NNSA, National Nuclear Security Administration. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Nuclear Power Plants in Pakistan CHASHNUPP-1 KANUPP-1
  17. 18. Active Nuclear Power Plants in Pakistan
  18. 19. Karachi Nuclear Power Plant KANUPP
  19. 20. KANUPP <ul><li>KANUPP (Karachi Nuclear Power Plant) is located at Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan. KANUPP is Pakistan's first nuclear power plant and is the first nuclear power plant in the Muslim world to be constructed. </li></ul><ul><li>Karachi is a single unit PHWR with a total gross capacity of 137 MW. </li></ul><ul><li>It is located at Paradise Point on the arid Arabian Sea coast, about 15 miles to the west of Karachi. </li></ul><ul><li>It has been in commercial operation since 1972. </li></ul><ul><li>KANUPP is a part of Karachi Nuclear Power Complex (KNPC) and is owned and operated by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC). </li></ul>
  21. 23. General Plant Features <ul><li>Owner/Operator: Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission </li></ul><ul><li>Prime contractor and designer: Canadian General Electric Company Ltd. </li></ul><ul><li>Reactor type: CANada Deutrium Uranium (CANDU) Pressurized Heavy Water (PHWR) </li></ul><ul><li>Heat transferred to steam cycle: 432.8 MW (thermal) </li></ul><ul><li>Gross output: 137,000 kWe </li></ul><ul><li>Net station output: 125,000 kWe </li></ul><ul><li>Generation/ transmission voltage: 15/132 kV </li></ul><ul><li>Capital cost (1971): Rs. 428.026 Million </li></ul><ul><li>Overall station efficiency: 27.42% </li></ul>
  22. 24. Waste Management <ul><li>Radioactive waste released from KANUPP occur in solid, liquid and gaseous forms. </li></ul><ul><li>Solid waste and resins are stored within plant site in adequately shielded places. Over 99% of the radioactive substances produced in the reactor remain entrapped inside the fuel. </li></ul><ul><li>Used nuclear fuel discharged to-date is stored in water-filled bays - a safe arrangement for storage. </li></ul><ul><li>The low level solid waste is stored in concrete trenches located in an isolated area near the plant. The trenches are capped and their surface is regularly monitored for any activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid waste is disposed after chemical and radiological analysis. </li></ul><ul><li>Gaseous wastes are passed through high efficiency filters before discharge. On line monitors are also installed on the stack to measure the activity released to the atmosphere. </li></ul>
  23. 25. Chashma Nuclear Power Plant – CHASNUPP 1
  24. 26. CHASNUPP - 1 <ul><li>The Plant is located in the province of Punjab near Chashma Barrage on the left bank of River Indus </li></ul><ul><li>The construction of Chashma Nuclear Power Plant Unit-1 (CHASNUPP-1), the second nuclear power plant in Pakistan, was started in 1992 with the help of People's Republic of China. It has been in commercial operation since September 2000. </li></ul><ul><li>CHASNUPP-1 is a two-loop, single unit, PWR plant with gross output of 325 MWe & net output of 300 MWe and life span of 40 years. </li></ul>
  26. 28. Plant Technical Features
  27. 29. Chashma Nuclear Power Plant II, III & IV <ul><li>Chashma Nuclear Power Plant II is a nuclear power station under construction at Kundian, Punjab, Pakistan. </li></ul><ul><li>The site is located south of Mianwali, near the Chashma Barrage and on the left bank of the Indus River. </li></ul><ul><li>CHASNUPP-2 will be a single-unit plant of 300 MWe class and include a two-loop pressurized water reactor nuclear steam supply system furnished by CNNC. </li></ul><ul><li>CHASNUPP III & IV units will both have generation capacity of 340MWe and a design life of 40 years </li></ul>
  28. 30. Nuclear Power – Research & Development
  29. 31. R&D and Other Activities <ul><li>Research is also being carried out by Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission for safe operation of the Nuclear Power Plants. </li></ul><ul><li>Applied System Analysis group of Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission is commissioned for Energy, electricity and nuclear power planning for Pakistan and analysis of related economic, financial and environmental issues. </li></ul><ul><li>Pakistan also has a 10 MW research reactor, PARR-Reactor, of 1965 vintage operated by the Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Another &quot;multipurpose&quot; reactor, a 50 MWt PHWR near Khushab, started operating in 1998 and is evidently for producing weapons-grade plutonium. A similar or possibly larger heavy water reactor has been under construction at Khushab since about 2002 </li></ul>
  30. 32. Thank You!