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Enabling policies inclusive asia_2015

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Slides from a presentation @Inclusive Agribusiness Southeast Asia Roundtable September 23-24 2015, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

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Enabling policies inclusive asia_2015

  1. 1. Themes Sessions: Enabling Policies for Inclusive Business 14:30 – 17:00 h Roundtable, Inclusive Agribusiness 23 Sept 2015
  2. 2. • Policies as enablers • “Essential” background Scope
  3. 3. • Which policy domains are most important for creating direct and indirect incentives for more and more rewarding smallholder engagement in agricultural markets? • What specific examples of policies influencing inclusive agribusiness can we draw on? • What instruments do governments have at their disposal? • What policy-informing and influencing processes are relevant for priority domains and instruments? • What constructive next steps could Grow Asia take to support policy dialogue and better understanding of policy issues? Policies as enablers: Focus questions
  4. 4. Enablers for Inclusiveness Investment Financial Services Technology and R&D Transfer and Distribution Infrastructure Physical and Digital Connectivity Business Linkages Upstream and downstream links Labor Capacity Human Resource Development Country-specific Political Environment Business Climate Norms, Rules and Regulations Land Tenure and Property Rights National and Regional Policies Immediate Enablers Useful Enablers Necessary Conditions Sufficient Conditions Essential Enablers Micro Level Enablers specific to agri-food sub-sectors Macro Level Enablers specific to country or region Enablers of Inclusive Agribusiness Figure 2. Conceptual Framework for the Enablers of Inclusive Agribusiness
  5. 5. Scope of supportive policies Policies which foster social equity and inclusion of smallholder farmers Policies which promote market access (“Free market”) Policies aimed at investment liberalization Policies which support good governance Policies which incentivize companies to include smallholders Essential Enablers at macro-level: Policy
  6. 6. A. Economic management  Macroeconomic policy that is business-friendly  Fiscal policy  Debt policy B. Structural  Trade  Financial Sector  Business regulatory Essential Enablers at macro-level: Policy Types of policies
  7. 7. D. Social inclusion / equity Gender Equity (public resource) Building human resources Social protection Sustainability of environmental institutions B. Public sector management & institutions Property rights (rule based governance) Quality of budgetary & financial management Efficiency of revenue mobilization Quality of public administration Transparency, accountability & corruption Essential Enabler at macro-level: Policy Types of policies
  8. 8. Governance indicators: ASEAN
  9. 9. Agribusiness models that enable inclusiveness Supply Chain Farming & Food Production Processing & Post Harvest Distribution, Wholesale & Retail Marketing & Sales Contract farming (Nucleus estate & Multi partite schemes ++++ Contract farming between processing & manufacturing firms and small farmers ++++ Farmer-owned business links with agribiz ++ Upstream links between agribiz and smallholders + +++ Land concession arrangements + ++ Farmer-owner businesses & cooperatives’ links to agribusiness firms ++ Agribiz links with smallholder farmers ++++ Downstream links between agribbiz and smallholders ++ Management contracts (Sharecropping ) ++ “Inclusive”arrangements forsmallfarmers (Key: ++++ High adoption; +++ Moderate; ++ Low; + Infrequent)
  10. 10. Country Sector / Industry 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2011 Brunei Agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing 0.97 1.16 1.02 0.95 0.76 0.64 Cambodia Agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing 50.12 51.44 37.84 32.40 36.02 36.68 Indonesia Agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing 17.55 15.36 15.61 13.13 15.34 14.72 Lao PDR Agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing 45.06 41.81 43.48 36.25 29.72 28.37 Malaysia Agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing 14.89 12.61 8.45 8.36 10.49 11.99 Myanmar Agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing 57.26 59.99 57.24 46.69 36.36 38.24 Philippines Agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing 19.14 18.89 13.97 12.66 12.31 12.78 Singapore Agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing 0.34 0.16 0.10 0.05 0.03 0.03 Thailand Agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing 10.01 9.10 8.52 9.23 10.86 11.63 Vietnam Agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing 38.74 27.18 24.53 20.97 20.58 22.02 ASEAN Agriculture, hunting, forestry, fishing 14.85 13.07 11.54 10.80 12.68 13.08 Source: UNCTAD Stat (2013) BACKDROP ASEAN: The Structure of Economy by Industry (in percent to total GDP)
  11. 11. Top Agri-Food Players in ASEAN
  12. 12. 1 Demographics – Population growth, Urbanization, Growing middle class (increased income) Declining & ageing farmer population 2 Diet changes 3 Declining performance of agriculture 4 Environmental degradation/ Loss of land and water resources 5 Climate change 6 Increase in oil prices/biofuel expansion 7 Rapid transformation of supply chains 8 ASEAN Economic Community 2015 9 Urban and Peri-Urban Agriculture (UPA) 10 Biotechnology 11 Farmers as Entrepreneurs (away from subsistence) Change agents in the agriculture-food security landscape
  13. 13. Country Urban population, % of total population 1990 2000 2012 Brunei 68.6 71.2 76.0 (2011) Cambodia - 16.0 22.0 Indonesia 30.9 42.1 49.8 (2010) Lao PDR 15.4 22.0 34.2 (2011) Malaysia 51.1 (1991) 62.0 72.4 Myanmar 24.8 29.1 30.8 Philippines 51.9 (1993) 48.0 48.9 (2011) Singapore 100.0 100.0 100.0 Thailand 18.0 31.1 45.1 Vietnam 19.5 24.2 31.9 Urbanization Source: ADB Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific. 2013 Asia by 2050 will be >54% urban; ASEAN > 50% in 2013 Asia by 2050 will be >54% urban; ASEAN > 50% in 2013
  14. 14. Index 1 DUPONT-Economist Intelligence Unit, Global Food Security Index Quality & Safety •Diet diversification •Nutritional standards •Micronutrient availability •Protein quality •Food safety Availability •Sufficiency of supply •Public expenditure on agricultural R&D •Agricultural infrastructure •Volatility of agricultural production •Political stability risk •Corruption •Urban absorption capacity •Food loss Affordability •Food consumption as % of household expenditure •% population under poverty line •GDP per capita @PPP •Agriculture import tariffs •Food safety net programmes •Access to financing for farmers “Objective is to measure which countries are most and least vulnerable to food insecurity.”
  15. 15. Economist Intelligence Unit, Global Food Security Index Country Rank GFSI Score Country Rank GFSI Score USA 1 89.3 Indonesia 74 46.7 New Zealand 13 82.8 India 68 50.9 Australia 9 83.8 Myanmar 78 44.0 Singapore 2 88.2 Pakistan 77 45.7 Japan 21 77.4 Bangladesh 89 37.4 S. Korea 24 74.8 Nepal 85 40.5 Malaysia 34 69.0 Cambodia 96 34.6 China 42 64.2 Thailand 52 62.0 Sri Lanka 63 53.7 Canada 7 84.1 Vietnam 65 53.4 Brazil 36 67.4 Philippines 72 49.4 Argentina 37 67.1 Congo (DR) 105 30.1 “Objective is to measure which countries are most and least vulnerable to food insecurity.” 2014 May 2015
  16. 16. Index 2: The “Rice Bowl Index” (RBI) SYNGENTA & FRONTIER STRATEGY GROUP
  17. 17. RICE BOWL INDEX: Full Year Update 2012-2013 Countries with relatively high Robustness (Score >50): Australia, Japan, New Zealand, Taiwan
  18. 18. Hungry people as an indicator of food insecurity FAO 2014: State of Food Insecurity in the World 2013 1 in 10 people in ASEAN is hungry! How food secure are we?
  19. 19. Regional Programmes ASEAN – ASEAN Integrated Food Security (AIFS) Framework – Strategic Plan of Action on Food Security in the ASEAN Region (SPA-FS) – ASEAN Plus Three Emergency Rice Reserve (APTERR) – ASEAN Food Security Information System (AFSIS) – ASEAN Multi-sectoral Framework on Climate Change: Agriculture and Forestry towards Food Security (AFCC) – ASEAN+3 Comprehensive Strategy on Food Security and Bioenergy Development (APTCS-FSBD) Framework – Strategic Plan of Action on Food and Energy Security (SPA- FES)
  20. 20. Structure of ASEAN Cooperation in Food, Agriculture and ForestryStructure of ASEAN Cooperation in Food, Agriculture and Forestry ASEAN Ministers of Agriculture and Forestry (AMAF)ASEAN Ministers of Agriculture and Forestry (AMAF) SOM-AMAFSOM-AMAF AWG on Halal Food * AWG on Halal Food * ASEAN Food Security Reserve Board * ASEAN Food Security Reserve Board * ASWG on Agric. Training & Extension ASWG on Agric. Training & Extension ASWG on Agric. Coopera- tives ASWG on Agric. Coopera- tives ASWG on Crops ASWG on Crops ASWG on Livestock ASWG on Livestock ASWG on Fisheries ASWG on Fisheries ASEAN Senior Officials on Forestry (ASOF) ASEAN Senior Officials on Forestry (ASOF) Joint Committee on ASEAN Coop. & Joint Approaches in Agric. & Forest Products Promotion Scheme Joint Committee on ASEAN Coop. & Joint Approaches in Agric. & Forest Products Promotion Scheme ACEDAC Board * ACEDAC Board * EWG on Harmonization of Phyto- sanitary Measures EWG on Harmonization of Phyto- sanitary Measures EWG on Harmonization of MRLs of Pesticides EWG on Harmonization of MRLs of Pesticides FCG on ASEAN- SEAFDEC Collaboration FCG on ASEAN- SEAFDEC Collaboration AEG on Herbal and Medicinal Plants AEG on Herbal and Medicinal Plants AEG on Forest Product Development AEG on Forest Product Development AEG on CITES AEG on CITES NFPWG/ Industrial Clubs Carrageenan Cocoa Coconut Vegetable Oil Forest Products Coffee Tea Pepper Peas & Beans Tapioca ASEAN Focal Point on Veterinary Product ASEAN Focal Point on Veterinary Product ATF on Codex ATF on Codex Note: SPS: Sanitary and Phytosanitary ARASFF: ASEAN Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed ATF: ASEAN Task Force AWG: ASEAN Working Group ASWG: ASEAN Sectoral Working Group EWG: Experts Working Group AEG: ASEAN Experts Group NFPWG: National Focal Point Working Group TEG : Technical Experts Group AFP : ASEAN Focal Points ATWG : ASEAN Technical Working Group ATF : ASEAN Task Force SOM : Senior Officer Meeting (*) : Supported by a dedicated secretariat As of 19 February 2014 AWG on Pan ASEAN Timber Certification AWG on Pan ASEAN Timber Certification AEWG on International Forest Policy Process AEWG on International Forest Policy Process ATF on HPAI ATF on HPAI ATWG on Agric. Research & Develop- ment ATWG on Agric. Research & Develop- ment TF on ASEAN Standards for Horticultural Produce TF on ASEAN Standards for Horticultural Produce ASEAN AVRDC Regional Network (AARNET) Steering Committee * ASEAN AVRDC Regional Network (AARNET) Steering Committee * ASEAN Social Forestry Network * ASEAN Social Forestry Network * ATF on Genetically Modified Food Testing Network * ATF on Genetically Modified Food Testing Network * ASEAN Wildlife Enforcement Network (ASEAN WEN)* ASEAN Wildlife Enforcement Network (ASEAN WEN)* Tuna ASEAN Fisheries Consultative Forum * ASEAN Fisheries Consultative Forum * EWG on ASEAN GAP EWG on ASEAN GAP ASEAN Shrimp Alliance * ASEAN Shrimp Alliance * ASEAN SPS Contact Points ASEAN SPS Contact Points ACCAHZ Preparatory Committee ACCAHZ Preparatory Committee ad hoc groups: •ASEAN ad hoc Veterinary Epidemiology Group •ASEAN ad hoc Communication Group for Livestock •ASEAN Laboratory Directors Forum ad hoc groups: •ASEAN ad hoc Veterinary Epidemiology Group •ASEAN ad hoc Communication Group for Livestock •ASEAN Laboratory Directors Forum ARASFF *ARASFF * ATF on Organic Agriculture ATF on Organic Agriculture

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