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POLICY MAKING AND EXTERNAL AFFAIRS
COMMITTEE'S REPORT
Submitted by
Dr. Lian H. Sakhong
(General Secretary)
Introduction
Th...
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NLD under the leadership of Daw Aung Sa...
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6) To establish internal peace and tranquillity through
dialogue.
The UNLD Inaugural conference ...
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The creation of Chamber of Nationalitie...
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Advisors:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe,
Pu Lian Uk, M.P.,
Teddy Buri, M. P.,
Da...
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Secretariats:
1. Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (S...
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The Implementation of Decisions of Inaugural
Conference
A. Preparation for Tripartite Dialogue
A...
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Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe (UNLD),
Khun Ma...
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led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the Ethnic Nationalities
dialogue partners;
•

Consult widely, ...
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In order to establish a genuine Federal...
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and how two levels of government can co-exist and shared
power or separate power in a federal sy...
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time. The specific theme of this study ...
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NATIONAL CONSULTATION – ANNUAL MEETING
March 2002 +
Implementation of Decisions of Annual Meetin...
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ETHNIC NATIONALTIES INITIATIVE FOR
TRI...
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the NLD led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the Ethnic
Nationalities dialogue partners;
(ii) Consul...
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believes that this arrangement will ens...
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2.4.Panglong Initiative: More Concrete Plan (on
Humanitarian Aid, Cease Fire, and Political Dial...
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the model, and the SSA/S tactical posit...
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part of Burma Proper, did not have a separate state.
Whereas the Shan and Karenni are state-orie...
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Special Envoy H.E. Razali Ismail, and w...
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ENSCC POLICY PAPER
The New Panglong Initiative:
RE-BUILDING THE UNION OF BURMA
Preamble
Over fiv...
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Areas and Ministerial Burma with the fr...
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Union after 10 years, guaranteed in the 1947 Union
Constitution, was denied them. Our leaders tr...
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We, the non-Burmans believe that all th...
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The ‘Transition Government’ should, however, make it a
priority to convene a new ‘Panglong Confe...
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dialogue to resolve the crisis in Burma...
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Universal Declaration of Human Rights. They, however, do
not have the same democratic rights as ...
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between the various states of the Union...
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)
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ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)

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ၿငိမ္းခ်မ္းစြာအတူယွဥ္တြဲေနထိုင္ေရး၀ါဒမွသည္စစ္မွန္ေသာဖက္ဒရယ္ျပည္ေထာင္စုစနစ္သို႔ (၄)

  1. 1. _idrf;csrf;pGmtwl,SOfwJGaexdkifa&;0g'rSonf ppfrSefaom zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkpepfqDodkŒ pwkwwGJ ˆ jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf k kd f kd (vGwfajrmufe,fajr) 'kw,t}urnvmcHrwwrf; d df D S f a'guwm qvdi;vsere; qmacgi; f kf f_f f (Lian H. Sakhong) ESihf pdi;arm (ef) aqhvD kf pkaqmif;wifjyonf?
  2. 2. xkwa0ol f jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) f xdkif;EdkifiH 2003 ckEpf S yxrt}udrf tkya& 1000 tkyf f UNLD Press Chiang Mai, THAILAND 2003 With generous support from: Natioanl Reconciliation Program (NRP)
  3. 3. rmwdum tydi; (1) nDvmcHzivpjf cif; kf G hf S - obmywdtzGire@f ce;f .......................................................................... 1 hf d G - em,utzJ@G 0if p0fqippfrwqufpum; ............................................. 6 kd f d f - wufa&mufvm=uaom tzJ@G csKyf.tzJ@G 0iftoD;oD;rS acgi;f aqmifrsm;/ ud,pm;vS,rsm;/ tcsi;f csi;f k f f rdwqufjcif;ESihf rde@f ce;f ¹ru=f um;jcif;/ ....................................................... 7 f G G tydi; (2) nDvmcHo@kd wifoi;aompmwrf;rsm;/ kf Gf 2:1 UNLD (LA) Policy Making & External Affairs Committee's Report ..................................................................... 25 2:2 Ethnic Nationalities Initiative for Tripartite Dialogue: Part (1): Report on Activities of ENSCC ................................... 38 Part (2): ENSCC Policy Paper .................................................... 45 Part (3): Statement & Declarations ..............................................53 2:3 Report on State Constitutions Drafting Process ..................... 61 2:4 UNLD (LA) Organizing & Alliance Affairs Committee's Report ....................................................................... 74 tydi; (3) nDvmcHo@kd wifoi;aompmwrf;rsm;tay: jyefvnfaqG;aEG; kf Gf a0zefoHk;oyfjcif;ESifhtwnfjyKjcif;/ 3;1 UNLD(LA) Policy Making and External Affairs Committee's kf f_f Report tay: jyefvnfaqG;aEG;jcif; (qvdi;vsere;) .................. 82 3;2 jynfe,frsm;zJ@G pnf;yHtajccHOya'a&;qJa&;vkyief;pOf tay: k G f aqG;aEG;jcif; (qvdi;f vsere;f )....................................................... 91 k f_ 3;3 pnf;&H;k a&;ESir[mrdwa&;&mvkyief;tpD&ifcpmtay: hf f f H aqG;aEG;jcif; (cGe;f ref;udbef;)....................................................... 103 k 3;4 ,ae@vuf&Eiia&;tajctaersm;udk oH;k oyfcsupmwrf; dS kd f H f wifoi;f jcif; (ref;!Ge@f armif) ..................................................... 107 G 3;5 vuf&Eiia&;tajctaersm;ukd aqG;aEG;jcif;/ (p0fqippf) ........ 112 dS kd f H kd f 3;6 obmywde*;kH csKyre@f ce;f (cGe;f ref;udbef;) ....................................... 117 d fd G k
  4. 4. tydi;f (4) UNLD (LA) .zJ@G pnf;yHtajccHOya'udtwnfjyKjcif; / A[dtvkyf k k k k tr_aqmifaumfrwDrsm;udka&G;cs,fwifajr‡mufjcif;ESifh nDvmcH xkwjf yefa=unmcsursm;? f 4;1 zJ@G pnf;yHtajccHOya'udk jyifqifjznfputwnfjyKjcif; ............... 133 k hG f 4;2 aumfrwD0ifrsm;uda&G;cs,wifajrmufjcif;/ ................................. 140 k f ‡ 4;3 'kw,t}urnvmcHxwjf yefa=unmcsursm; ......................... 146 d df D k f
  5. 5. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf k kd f kd (vGwajrmufe,fajr) f 'kw,t}urnvmcH d df D 2003 ckEpf azaz:0g&v (9) &ufrS (12) &uf? S D tcef;tem;tpDtpOfrsm; yxrae@ (February 9, 2003) 12:00-13:00 ae@v,fpmoH;aqmifjcif;? k 13:30-14:30 yxrae@ 'kw,t}udrnvmcHusi;yjcif;? d f D f 1) 2) 3) 4) nDvmcHzivpa=umif;a=unmjcif;? G hf S f obmywdtzGire@f ce;f hf d G cGe;f ref;udbef; k em,u=o0g'rde@f ce;f G p0fqippf kd f em,u=o0g'rde@f ce;f G cGe;f wuf'b;l &D D nDvmcHziyGJ 'kw,ydi; G hf d kf 14:30-15:30 UNLD(LA) tzJ@G csKyf.tzJ@G 0ifygwtoD;oD;rSacgi;aqmif D f rsm;tcsi;f csi;f rdwqufjcif;ESihf rde@f ce;f ¹rGu=f um;jcif;? f G 15:30-16:00 acwW&yfem;jcif;/ 16:00-17:30 1) rl0g'a&;&mESihf EdiijH cm;a&;&maumfrwDrS wifoi;aom kf Gf oH;k yGiqiaqG;aEG;yJjG zpfay:vma&;tay: }udK;yrf;vkyaqmif hf kd f f G csursm;ESihf ENSCC zJ@G pnf;jcif;pmwrf;wifoi;f jcif;/ f (qvdi;f vsere;f ) k f_ 2) ,ae@vuf&Eiia&;tajctaeudo;oyfcsupmwrf;udk dS kd f H k kH f wifoi;f jcif;/ (ref;!Ge@f armif) G 3) vuf & S d E d k i f i H a &; tajctaersm;ud k aqG ; aEG ; jcif ; / (em,up0fqippf) kd f 4) vuf&Eiia&; tajctaersm;udk qufvufaqG;aEG;jcif;/ dS kd f H 5) nDvmcHwckv;twGuf tcef;tem;obmywdEihf tcef; kH S tem;rSL;rsm;uda&G;cs,jf cif;/ k
  6. 6. 'kw,ae@ (Monday, February 10, 2003) d 09:00-10:30 pnf;&H;a&;ESihf r[mrdwa&;&maumfrwD. vkyief;tpD&ifcpm k f f H 10:30-11:00 11:00-12:30 12:30-14:00 14:00-15:30 15:30-16:00 16:00-17:30 wifoi;f jcif;ESihf ‚if;pmwrf;tay:aqG;aEG;jcif;/ rSwwrf;wif G f jcif; (cGe;f ref;udbef;) k acwW&yfem;jcif;/ rl0g'a&;&maumfrwD. jynfe,frsm;zJ@G pnf;yHtajccHOya'a&; k qJGa&;vkyfief;tpD&ifcHpmwifoGif;jcif;/ ‚if;pmwrf;tay: aqG;aEG;jcif;/ rSwwrf;wifjcif;/ (qvdi;f vsere;f ) f k f_ ae@v,fpmoH;k aqmifjcif;? &Hk;vkyfief;ESifh jyef=um;a&;aumfrwD. vkyfief;tpD&ifcHpm wifoi;f jcif;/ aqG;aEG;jcif;/ rSwwrf;wifjcif;/ (cdirsKd ;cdiEihf G f kf kf S pdi;f arm(ef)) k acwW&yfem;jcif;/ vkyfief;wm0eftoD;oD;rS wifoGif;aompmwrf;rsm;tay: tajccHI aqG;aEG;a0zefo;kH oyfjcif;ESihf vmrnfh 2 ESpwm f umvtwGuf pDrcsursm;csrwvyaqmifjcif;? H f S f k f wwd,ae@ ( February 11, 2003) 09:00-10:30 UNLD(LA) . zJG@pnf;yHktajccHOya'udk jyefvnfoHk;oyf 10:30-11:00 11:00-12:30 12:30-14:00 14:00-15:30 15:30-16:00 16:00-17:30 jyifqifjcif;? (zJG@pnf;yHkjyifqifjznfhpGuf&ef obmywdtzJG@rS wifoGif;aomtqdkjyKcsufpmwrf;udk cGef;ref;udkbef;rS OD; aqmifaqG;aEG;&ef) acwW&yfem;jcif;/ UNLD(LA) . zJ@G pnf;yHtajccHOya'udk qufvufaqG;aEG; k jcif;/ twnfjyK jyXmef;jcif;? ae@v,fpmoH;k aqmifjcif;? em,u}uD;rsm;/ obmywdtzJ@G 0ifrsm;/ t+rJwrf;obmywd tzJ@G 0ifrsm;/ twGi;f a&;rSL;tzJ@G Eivyief;aumfrwDtoD;oD; S hf k f twGuf a&G;cs,wm0efay;tyfjcif;? f acwW&yfem;jcif;/ tvkytr_aqmiftzJ@G CEC . a&S@vyief;pOfrsm;aqG;aEG jcif;/ f kf
  7. 7. pwkwae@ ( February 12, 2003) W rSwwrf;wifjcif;ESiq;kH jzwfcsursm;udtwnfjyKjcif;/ f hf f k nDvmcHxwjf yefa=unmcsuukd xkwjf yefjcif;/ k f acwW&yfem;jcif;/ A[dtvkytr_aqmif CEC . yxrt}udrtpnf;ta0; k f f usi;f yjcif;/ 12:30-14:00 ae@v,fpmoH;aqmifjcif;/ k 14:00-15:30 A[dtvkytr_aqmif CEC tpnf;ta0;qufvufusi;y k f f jcif;/ 15:30-17:00 tcrf;tem; +yD;qH;jcif;/ k 09:00-10:00 10:00-11:00 11:00-11:30 11:30-12:30 *************
  8. 8. tydi; (1) kf nDvmcHzivpjf cif; G hf S
  9. 9. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf k kd f kd (vGwajrmufe,fajr) f 'kw,t}urnvmcHrwwrf; d df D S f obmywd tcef;tem;rSL; cGe;f ref;udbef; k a'guwmqvdi;f vsere;f f k f_ t+rJwrf;obmywdtzJ@G 0if tzGire@f cGe; hf d f obmywd cGe;ref;udbef; f k usaemfwdk@ wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;&JhEdkifiHa&;ordkif;udk jyef=unfhr,fqdk&if usaemfw@kd [m ud,b&if ud,apmfbm; ud,'0g ud,apmzsm ud,awmifyif k hf k k hf G k hf l k hf k hf kd &rftyf ud,apmfutoD;oD; vGwvyfpmaexdivmcJ=h uygw,f? ud,yif k k hf J f G kf k f kd jyXmef;cGifh tjynfht0eJ@ usaemfwdk@aexdkifvmcJh=uygw,f? 'gayr,fhvdk@ vGwvyfa&;}udK;yrf;wJh tcseumvrSm ArmjynfruvGwvyfa&;twGuf f d f f }uKd ;pm;ovdk usaemfw@kd wdi;f &if;om;e,fajrtoD;oDacgi;f aqmifawGuvnf; k vGwfvyfa&;twGuf }udK;pm;vmwmudkawG@&Sd&ygw,f? qdkawmhtJ'DrSm 'DvGwfvyfa&; }udK;yrf;wJhumvudk jyefvnfoHk;oyf=unfhr,fqdk&ifawmh usaemfw@kd wdi;f &if;om;[m yxrOD;pGm wdi;f &if;om;pnf;vH;k nD!wa&;udk k k G f wnfaqmufEiwm awG@&&ygw,f? kd f dS usaemfw@kd wdi;f &if;om;awG[m [dwe;f utJ'vwvyfa&; w+yKd iwnf; k k k JD G f f &&Sb@kd twGuf jyef=unfr,fq&ifawmh 'Dusaemfw@kd wdi;f &if;om;awG[m yxr d h kd k qH;k 47 ck azaz:0g&v (6) &uf (7) &ufrmpkpnf;=uygw,f? usaemfw@kd D S oabmwlnr_ &&Sygw,f? tJ'&&Swtay:rSmusrS Armjynfrtpd;k &ud,pm; D d D d hJ k f AdvcsKyfatmifqef;ESihf xyfrnEi;f +y;D awmh aemufq;kH yifvpmcsKyfukd csKyfqEif k f H ‡d _d kH kd kd w,f? qdvwoabmu bmudqvvqwm jynfaxmifpwckv;kH nD!wz@kd k kd hJ k kd kd J kd k G f twGu[m usaemfw@kd wi;f &if;om;awGuyJ pwif+yD;awmh nD!wa&;wnf f kd G f aqmufEi+f yD; aemufrArmjynfrESihf ndEi;f +yD;awmh usaemfw@kd jynfaxmifpk kd S ‡ _d wckv;kH &Jn!wa&;udk wnfaqmufEiw,fqwhJ aemufcordi;f udusaemfw@kd h D G f kd f kd H k k av;av;eufeuf jyefo;kH oyf=u&rSmjzpfw,f? 'DyifvpmcsKyfukd usaemfw@kd jyef=unf&if tEdit&H;_ pmcsKyfvnf; r[kwf kH h kf bl;? vlrsdK;t& usaemfwdk@csKyfqdkxm;wJh pmcsKyfvnf;r[kwfbl;? usaemf
  10. 10. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f wd@k jynfaxmiftvduf e,fajrtvduf usaemfw@kd csKyfqxm;wJh pmcsKyfjzpf k k kd ygw,f? yifvpmcsKyf&hJ tESpom&udk jyef=unfr,fq&if kH f h kd yxrtcsuuawmh usaemfw@kd o;D jcm;e,fajrwnf&ae=uwJh wdi;f &if; f dS k om;e,fajrtoD;oD;[m w+ydKifwnf;vGwvyfa&;&,l=uzd@k / 'gt"du eHygwf f wpftcsuf tESpom&jzpfygw,f? f 'kwd,tcsufubmvJqdkawmh wef;wl&nfwljynfaxmifpkwnf aqmufz@kd q+kd y;D awmh t"dutESpom& 'DEpcsuyJ jzpfygw,f? aemuf+y;D awmh f Sf f tJ'rm yifvpmcsKyf/ yifvpw"gwf tajccHraoGz,f tm;enf;&mrS 1947 h D S kH kH d f l ckEpf zJ@G pnf;yH&tm;enf;csua=umife@J jynfwi;f ppfr;D pwifavmifu|r;f wm S k hJ f h G jzpfc&w,f? hJ tJ'D 1947 ck zJ@G pnf;yHtm;enf;csuawGukd jyifqifz@kd twGuf ppfrewhJ k f S f zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpwnfaqmufz@kd twGuf qdwmu usaemfw@kd wi;f &if; k k kd om;awGuyJ }udK;pm;vmwmawG@&ygw,f? aemufq;kH usawmh 1961 ckrm S usaemfw@kd jynfe,f&+dS yD;om; csi;f / ucsi/f u&if/ o#r;f / u&ifetjyif jynfe,f D r&&Sao;wJh &cdif eJ@ rGef yg0ifvm+yD;awmh awmif}uD;rSmnD!wrukd wnf d k G f _ aqmufEdkifcJhw,f? usaemfwdk@wnfaqmufwJh tJ'DnD!Gwfr_[m bmudkrl csEiovJq&ifawmh 'Drua&pDEiijH zpf&r,f? ppfrewzuf'&,f jynfaxmifpk kd f kd kd kd f S f hJ jzpf&r,f? Armvnf; wjynfe,fjzpf&r,fqwmudk wnDw!Gwwnf; qH;k jzwf kd f Edicw,f? k f hJ 'g'w,t}urf jynfaxmifpwckv;kH nD!wz@kdtwGuqwmu usaemfw@kd k d d k G f f kd wdi;f &if;om;uae+y;D awmh OD;aqmifn!wa&;udk 'kw,t}urf wnfaqmuf k D G f d d EdiwmawG@&ygw,f? 'gayr,fv@kd 62 ckrm tJ'D 47 ck zJ@G pnf;yHtm;enf;csuawG kf h S k f ppfrSefwJhzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkwnfaqmuf&ef jyifqif}udK;yrf;aewkef; tcsdefrSm nDtudkjzpfwJh ArmygwDrsm;jzpf=uwJh jynfaxmifpkygwDwdk@/ zqyvygww@kd / aemuf+y;D awmh yrnwygww@kd EinEi;f wJtcsermyJ tJ'rm D D S hf d‡ _d h d f S DS tm%mirf;irf;wuf+yD;awmh usaemfwdk@wdkif;&if;om;rsm; wef;wla&;udk vH;k 0rvdvm;onfh tjyif vlrsKd ;}u;D 0g'usio;kH aewJh tJ'D Advae0if;ppftypu k hf k f kfk tm%modr;f cJw,f? h trSeftJ'Dwkef;u usaemfwdk@'Drdkua&pDenf;usus qufvufaqG;aEG; r,fqdk&ifawmh ppfrSefwJhzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk wnfaqmufEdkifr,fjzpfyg w,f? bmjzpfvq&if tJ'we;f u 0ef}u;D csKyO;D Ek ud,wiuae+y;D awmh olu J kd D k f k f kd f 2
  11. 11. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; 60 ck a&G;aumufyrm oltEdi&&ifawmh olu'Dz@GJ pnf;yHujkd yefjyifr,f/ wdi;f &if; GJ S kf k k om;nDtudawG&hJ pnf;vH;k nD!wr[m wpwp+ydKae+yD; tJ'gukd jyefwnf k G f _ aqmufEiz@kd vw,fqwmudk oluoabmxm;&Swtwdi;f yJ tJ'a&G;aumufyGJ kd f kd kd d hJ k D rSmvnf; olu 4 yHk 3 yHk ausmtjywftowftEdi&w,f? a&G;aumufyGJ f kf +yD;wmeJ@ olu (yxp) jynfaxmifptpd;k & vd@k ac:ygw,f? tJ'D rSm 4 yHk 3 yHk k ausme@J usaemfw@kd jynfe,ftiftm;ESiaygi;f vdu&if b,fvjkd zpfjzpf 'Drua&pD f hf k f kd usus qufvuf+y;D awmhaqG;aEG;=u&ifawmh rv$raoGusaemfw@kd jynfaxmifpk J wnfaqmufEdkifrSm jzpfygw,f? 'gudkr[mvlrsdK;}uD;0g'udk usifhoHk;vdkwJh Advae0if;wd@k ppftypuae+yD; tm%modr;f ,lwmjzpfygw,f? k f kfk usaemfw@kd 'kw,tcsuubmudqvwmvJq&ifawmh jynfaxmifpk d f k kd kd kd wckv;kH udk wnfaqmufz@kd vtyfwhJ tcsetcgwi;f rSm yxrOD;pGm usaemfw@kd kd df kd wdi;f &if;om;rsm;u nD!wa&;pwifwnfaqmufae=uw,fqwm 'g 'kw, k G f kd d t}udrf az: jyvdjk cif;jzpfygw,f? aemufwqufwnf;taeeJ@ 1962 ckaemufyi;f 26 ESpwmumv ywfv;kH kd f usaemfw@kd wi;f &if;om;awG bmrSppnf;cGir&cJb;l ? tJ'we;f uqd&if usaemfw@kd kd k hf h D k k awmifwef;om;rsm; pnf;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;tzJG@qkd+yD;awmh zJG@pnf;cJhw,f? aemufusawmh 1988 ygwprm usaemfw@kd wdi;f &if;om;ygwtoD;oD;rS (23) D kH S k D ygwuae+yD; jynfaxmifpwi;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyfrm wpk D k kd kd S wpnf;xJrm pkpnf;Edicygw,f? tJ'g wwd,t}urf usaemfw@kd wdi;f &if;om; S k f hJ d k tm;vHk;&Jh nD!Gwfr_udk pkpnf;EdkifcJhw,f? tJ'Dusaemfwdk@ UNLD &Jh tm;uae+yD;awmh nD!wa&;udk pkpnf;+yD; rl0g'oabmxm;awGcsrwEi+f yD; G f S f kd awmh usaemfwdk@rl0g'oabmxm;vnf; yxryifvHkwkef;unD!Gwfr_eJ@ twlwy? 61 ck awmif}uD;nDvmcH 'kw,t}udrrmvJ twlwy? wwd, l J d f S l J hl lJ f l t}udrjf zpfwhJ UNLD &Jr0g'vnf; twlwy? oH;k }udrpvH;k &Jh rl0g'vJww,f? usaemfwdk@wdkif;&if;om;tm;vHk;awGvnf; usaemfwdk@nD!Gwfr_&w,f? usaemfw@kd 'Drua&pDa&;/ jynfaxmifpwnf aqmufa&;qdwhJ awmufav#muf kd k k usaemfw@kd wi;f &if;om;awGuivmwJh rl0g'yJ jzpfygw,f? kd kd f tJ'ga=umifh usaemfw@kd wi;f &if;om;awG[m yxrqH;k nD!wa&; kd G f wnfaqmufEi+f yD; t"du 'Drua&pDtiftm;pkjzpfaewJh NLD eJ@ usaemfw@kd kd kd UNLD n‡dEd_if;+yD;awmh aemufqHk;rSm 1990 ck =o*kwfv (29) &ufrSm Advatmifausmvrf;a=unmcsuf udk yl;wJxwjf yefEicw,f? usaemfw@kd k f f G k kd f hJ 3
  12. 12. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f Adkvfatmifausmfvrf;a=unmcsufudkjyef=unfhr,fqdk&if t"dutcsufu bmvJqdkawmh “wdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK;rsm;onf vlrsdK;a&;wef;wlnDr#r_/ Ediia&;wef;wlnr#r/_ ud,yijf yXmef;cGitjynft0&S&rnftjyif 'Drua&pDEihf kfH D k f kd hf h d h kd S vl@tcGita&;udk umuG,jf yXmef;Edirnfh jynfaxmifpukd wdi;f &if;om;vlrsKd ; hf kf k k rsm;tm;vH;k aoG;pnf;nD!wpmjzifh yl;aygi;f wnfaqmufom;&efvtyfonf G fG G kd [k oabmwlyga=umif;” qd+k yD;awmh NLD acgi;f aqmif (17) OD;eJ@ UNLD acgi;f aqmif (14) OD;u vufrwa&;xd;k xm;wm jzpfygw,f? 'g[musaemfw@kd S f wdi;f &if;om;&Jh wwd,t}urf tJ'rmnD!wwmjzpfygw,f? tJ'D Advatmif k d DS G f k f hf ausmvrf;&Ja=unmcsuf tkwjf rpfcsEiwhJ twGua=umifh NLD ESiusaemfw@kd f h kd f f wdi;f &if;om;tiftm;pkrm CRPP ESihf usaemfw@kd ,ae@txd qufvuf+y;D ckirm k S dfS pGm vufwEivmwm jzpfygw,f? GJ kd f 'gayrJv@kd 'usaemfw@kd UNLD udk e0wuae+yD;awmh rw&m;zsuor;f h D f d vdkufwJhaemufydkif;rSm acgif;aqmifrsm;udkzrf;qD;axmifcsw,f? 'ga=umifh usaemfw@kd e,fpyfrm rlvtzJ@G 0if (11) ygwa&mufvm+yD; UNLD(LA) qd+k yD; S D zJG@cJhw,f? nD!Gwfa&;tjyif wdkif;&if;om;awG&JhtoHawG/ usaemfwdk@rl0g' oabmxm;awG udk Ediiwumuodatmif/ aemufr[mrdwtzJ@G tpnf;rsm; kfH f odatmif usaemfw@kd vyaqmif=uw,f? usaemfw@kd UNLD(LA) trnf k f jzifac:&jcif;[m txJu UNLD &Sygw,fqwhJ ,H=k unfcsue@J usaemfw@kd h d kd f LA udjk yKvkyjf cif;omjzpfw,f? usaemfw@kd r0g'vJ txJurl0g'twdi;ygy/J l kf yxrusaemfw@kd n!wvmwJh yifvpw"gw[m usaemfw@kd r0g'oabmxm; D G f kH d f f l twdi;f ygy? 1961 ck usaemfw@kd wdi;f &if;om;nD!wr_ rl0g'oabmxm; k J k G f twdi;f yJ? ,ckvusaemfw@kd UNLD txJu oabmtwdi;f yJ UNLD(LA) k J k udk qufvufvyaqmifom;wmjzpfygw,f? kf G usaemfw@kd wdi;f &if;om;rsm;udk e0w/ etzawGu wdi;f &if;om;awG rnD k k !Gwygb;l qd+k y;D EdiiwumrSm trsKd ;rsKd ;0g'jzef@csygw,f? 'ga=umifh usaemfw@kd u f kfH D awmhbmyJjzpfjzpf UNLD &Jn!wrukd usaemfw@kd wnfaqmuf oGm;wJtjyif h D G f_ h kd f k G f _ ,ckvuf&dS NDF vufeufuiwhJ wdi;f &if;om;tiftm;pke@J nD!wrukd usaemfw@kd wnfaqmufEiygw,f? kd f xd@k tjyif usaemfw@kd NDF tzJ@G 0ifr[kwwhJ wdi;f &if;om;rsm; tiftm;pk f k ESivnf; usaemfw@kd e@J vufwEirmjzpfygw,f? qdawmhusaemfw@kd t"du vkyf hf GJ kd f S k aqmif&r,fhtcsufawGu bmawGvnf;/ usaemfwdk@ppfrSefwJh 'Drdkua&pD 4
  13. 13. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; zuf'&,f jynfaxmifpwnfaqmufa&;qdwhJ t"du &nfre;f csuyJ jzpfygw,f? k k S f 'Dva&muf&Eiz@kd twGuf awG@qaqG;aEG;jzpfay:bd@k tifrwefrS ta&;}uD;yg kd dS kd f kH hf kd f w,f? Tripartite oH;k yGiqiu tifrwefta&;}uD;ygw,f? 'gawGjzpfatmif vkyz@kd usaemfw@kd vyaqmif&r,fh wm0eftrsm;}uD;&Sygw,f? f k f d 'ga=umifusaemfw@kd UNLD(LA) taeeJ@ tck'w,t}urf ESpywfvnf h k d d f nDvmcHrm usaemfw@kd &hJ aemufcordi;f a=umif; nD!wrawG/ yifvpw"gwf S H k G f_ kH d f awG/ 1961 ck awmif}uD;nDvmcHpw"gwawG/ aemuf 1990 ck Advatmif d f f k f ausmvrf;&Jpw"gwawGukd qufvufpui+f y;D awmh usaemfw@kd &hJ UNLD(LA) f hd f f GJ kd nD!wa&;udqufvufwnfaqmuf&if;eJ@ usewhJ NDF vufeufui/f usaemf G f k f kd wd@k ntudwyfaygi;f pkrsm; aemufusewwi;f &if;om;rsm;eJ@ 'Drua&pDtiftm; D k f hJ kd kd pkrsm;tygt0if tm;vHk;nD!Gwfa&;twGuf tJ'DoHk;yGifhqdkifeJ@ usaemfwdk@ wdi;f &if;om;tiftm;pktwGuf b,fvenf;b,fvye@J vkyaqmif&r,fqwhJ k kd kd kH f kd [mudk tav;teuf 'DnvmcHumv tawmtwGi;f rSm aqG;aEG;oH;k oyf D csrwom;&rSm jzpfygw,f? S f G aemufq;kH taeeJ@wifjyvdwmuawmh usaemfw@kd UNLD(LA) [m k &nfre;f csuf rl0g'csrwxm;wJtwdi;f yJ 'Drua&pDa&;ESihf ppfrewzuf'&,f S S f h k kd S f hJ jynfaxmifpkwnfaqmufa&; tJ'Dudk a&muf&SdEdkifa&;twGuf oHk;yGifhqdkif awG@qaqG;aEG;a&;enf;vrf;udk usaemfw@kd u 'Drua&pDtiftm;pkEihf wef;wl kH kd S &nfwl vufw+GJ yD; aqmif&uom;Ediz@kd twGuf usaemfw@kd &hJ nDvmcH tawm G f G kf twGi;f rSm rl0g'oabmxm;awG vkyief;pOfawGukd b,fvcsrwom;rnf f kd S f G qdwmudk }uKd ;pm;+y;D csrwf aqmif&uom;=uygp@kd ajym=um;&if; ed*;kH csKyygw,f? k S G f G f aus;Zl;wifygw,f? ************* 5
  14. 14. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f em,utzJ@G 0if p0fqippf rdwqufpum;? kd f f usaemfw@kd [m wdi;f &if;om;acgi;f aqmifrsm;jzpfaew,f? ud,u,ukd k k hf kd f todtrSwjf yKjyK rjyKjyK/ b,fouyJ usaemfw@kd utodtrSwjf yKjyKrjyKjyK/ l kd wu,fppfrewjhJ ynfaxmifpjk zpfa&;udk acgi;f aqmifaewJh acgi;f aqmifrsm;jzpf h Sf w,f? tJ'twGua=umifr@kd v@kd usaemfw@kd acgi;f aqmifrsm;u 'Dwm0ef[m D f h ajymaevd@k r+yD;bl;? tvkyuvy=f u&r,f? ud,yiwae&m ud,Eiwae&m f kd k k f kd f hJ k f kd f hJ ud,vyEiwae&mu ae+yD;awmh pdwa&mud,yg Sincerely (&d;k om;pGm) k f k f kd f hJ f k f vkyaqmifom;=ur,fv@kd usaemfar#mvifh xm;ygw,f? f G f 'Da&S@uvy&r,fupawGrm acgi;f aqmifyowJh pdw"gw&rS tvkyukd kd k f h d P S D f f dS f vkycsiwhJ pdw"gw&rS tvkyuwu,f vkycsiwqENvnf;jyif;jyrS usaemf f f f f dS f kd f f hJ wdk@ &Jhvkyfief;}uD;[m atmifwJhtxdvkyfaqmif+yD;qHk;Edkifr,fvdk@ usaemf ,Hk=unfygw,f? tJ'Dvdkomr&SdbJeJ@ wcgxJwxGmavmuf&Sdwmav;udk wvHavmuf ajym+yD;awmh tcsdefukefaewJh[mrsdK;awGawmh rjzpfapbJeJ@ wxGmavmuf ajym+yD; wvHavmuf tvkyvyEiwuprsKd ;awGukd &Sm+yD; f k f kd f hJ d P awmhvyr,f qd&ifawmh usaemfw@kd tvky[myd+k yD;awmh xdxa&mufa&muf kf k f d wd;k wufr_ atmifjrifr&vmEdiwtxd a&muf&om;Edir,fv@kd usaemf,=kH unf _ dS k f hJ dS G k f ygw,f? tJ'vusaemf,=kH unfovdyJ 'Drmvma&mufwacgi;f aqmifrsm; tJ'vkd D kd k S hJ D qENawG&Sdr,fvdk@ tJ'DvdkqHk;jzwfcsufawG&Sdr,f }udK;pm;=ur,fvdk@ usaemf ar#mvifygw,f? tJ'vkd ,Hvnf;,H=k unfygw,f? tJ'vkd ,H=k unfwhJ twdi;f vJ f h D k D k tm;vH;k uvufoajymifEi=f uygapvd@k qkawmif&if;eJ@ usaemf ed*;kH csKyfyg&ap? H kd *************** 6
  15. 15. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; rd r d u d k , f u d k r d w f q uf j cif ; ES i f h rd r d y gwD t a=umif ; ud k tusOf ; csKyf wifjyjcif;? tcef;tem;rSL; a'guwmqvdi;f vsere;f rS nDvmcHo@kd wufa&mufvm f k f_ =uaom ud,pm;vS,rsm;udk rdru,ukd rdwqufpum;ajym&ef arwWm &yfcH k f f d kd f f ygonf? cGe;ref;udbef; (u,ef;trsKd ;om;pnf;vH;nD!wa&; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G ) f k k G f kd Democratic Organization for Kayan National Unity usaemfw@kd ygw0ifa&m jynfovxa&m txJrm&Saew,f? tcsKd @uawmh D l l k S d vGwajrmufe,fajrrSma&m EdiiwumrSmyg ud,tzJ@G tpnf;awG ygw0ifawG f kfH k hf D xkeJ@xnfeJ@ zJG@pnf;wnfaqmufEdkifayr,fhvdk@ wcsdK@tzJG@tpnf;awGu usaemfwdk@ pnf;&Hk;aumfrwDtqifhrSmbJ wnfaqmufxm;wJhtqifhrSmbJ &Sw,f? qdk awmhbmbJjzpfjzpf usaemfw@kd UNLD(LA) eJ@ wyfaygi;f pktzJ@G 0if d toD;oD;awG[m usaemfw@kd wygwEiwygwD tzJ@G 0ifygw&hJ taetxm;udk D S hf D tjyeftvSef od=uzd@k vtyfr,fqwtcsutay:rSm 'DtpDtpOfukd xnfoi;f kd kd hJ f h G &jcif;jzpfygw,f? usaemfw@kd ygw[m jynfwi;f rSmqd&if ygw0iftiftm; 14430 OD;&Syg D G k D d w,f? usaemfw@kd +rKd @e,fpnf;&H;k a&;aumfrwD (6) ckz@GJ pnf;Edicygw,f? usaemfw@kd k f hJ jynfo@l vwawmfu,pm;vS,f (3) ae&mta&G;cHw,f? (2) OD;&&Sygw,f? $ f kd f d usaemfw@kd 'Drma&mufvmwJtcgusawmh usaemfw@kd u,ef;trsKd ;om;pnf;vH;k S h nD!wa&; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G &hJ ygwtzJ@G tpnf;udk usaemfw@kd xaxmifjcif; r&SchJ G f kd D l d ygb;l ? usaemfw@kd u,ef;trsKd ;om;pnf;vH;k nD!wr'rua&pDtzJ@G &hJ pnf;&H;k a&; G f _ D kd aumfrwD (5) OD;ESiyJ usaemfw@kd z@GJ xm;ygw,f? tJ'D (5) OD;rSm usaemfw@kd hf txJuvmwJhyk*d~KvfawGeJ@ zJG@pnf;xm;+yD;awmh 'DrSm&SdwJhu,ef;vlxkawG e,fpyfrSm&SdwJh u,ef;vlxkawG awmfawmfrsm;rsm;&Sdygw,f? u&ifeDjynf rSmqd&if u,ef; (4) &GmoD;oef@ &Sygw,f? useworsm;eJ@a&maewmvJ k d f hJ l trsm;}u;D &Sygw,f? usaemfw@kd 'Dygw0ifxk vlxtiftm;pm&if;udk aumuf,l d D k owfrwjf cif;r&Sygb;l ? t"duygw0ifxqwmu jynfwi;f rSmckeu usaemf S d D k kd G 7
  16. 16. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f wifjywJh 14430OD;eJ@ t"duxm;ygw,f? aemuf+y;D awmh txJrm&SwhJ OuUX}u;D S d wd@k 'kOuUXwd@k / taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL; wJzuftaxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;wd@k G A[dk tvkytr_aqmifw@kd +rKd @e,fpnf;&H;k a&;aumfrwDw@kd ukd usaemfw@kd tiftm; f vd@k owfrwygw,f? S f 'ga=umifhusaemfhygwDtaetxm;eJ@ajym&r,fqdk&ifawmh usaemfwdk@ ygwDtiftm;u jynfwGif;rSmyJ &Sdygw,f? usaemfwdk@ jynfolawGuvnf; t"du jynfwi;f rSmbJ &Sygw,f? jynfwi;f eJ@qufpyfruvJ t+rwrf; }uKd ;pm; G d G _ kd J +y;D awmh &,lygw,f? usaemfw@kd 'zufrm u,ef;trsKd ;om; pnf;vH;k nD!wr_ D S G f 'Drdkua&pD tzJG@vnf; jynfwGif;utvkyftr_aqmifawG jynfolvlxkawG tm;ay;tm; ajr‡muf&v@kd om usaemfw@kd 'DvrsKd ; &yfwnfEijf cif; jzpfygw,f? dS kd kd ed*Hk;csKyftaeeJ@ usaemfwifjyvdkwmu usaemfhygwDtaetxm;[m txJut"du jzpfygw,f? usaemfw@kd A[dpnf;&H;k a&;aumfrwDwckEiom k S hf zJ@G pnf;xm;+yD;awmhvyaqmifom;w,f qdwta=umif;udk wifjyvdygw,f? kf G k hJ k aus;Zl;wifygw,f? ************* OD;',fe&,fatmif (vm;[ltrsKd ;om;zG@H +zdK;wd;wufa&;ygw) D k D Lahu National Development Party usaemfwdk@tiftm;[m jynfwGif;rSmyJ&Sdygw,f? jynfyrSmurajymy avmufwJh tiftm;a&mufvm=u+yD;/ a&mufwJhae&mrSm usaemfwdk@EdkifiH twGuf vkyaqmifae=uw,fqwtaetxm;rSm usaemfw@kd }udK;pm;vkyf f kd hJ aqmifae=uwmyg? usaemfwdk@ “vm;[ltrsdK;om;zGH@+zdK;a&;ygwD” (Lahu National Development Party) [m,ae@txd e0w/ etz wd@k zsuor;vduwygwD f d f k f hJ awGxrm rygao;ygb;l ? vuf&wnf&aeao;wJh (10) ygwxrm ygaeygao; JS dS dS D JS w,f? bmjzpfv@kd tzsuor;f rcH&yJ useaeao;ovJv@kd usaemfjyefqef;ppf f d f vduawmh wcgu “0” vufeufuif AuywjzpfvJ “0” jynfaoG;pnf; k f kd nD!wa&;ygwD OuUXausmufnvif ajymjycJwpum;udk usaemf owd& G f D kd h hJ rdygw,f? cif!e@f o@l uajymw,f/ q,fygwuseaewm[mrsm; ao;w,f/ G kd D f ig;ygwD xyfzsu&OD;r,f/ tJ'D ig; ygwxrm “0” ygwe@J “vm;[l” ygww@kd f D J S D D 8
  17. 17. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; ygr,fqy? 'ge@J ou “vm;[lygw/D 0ygwawG[m 0jynfujzpfw,f? 'ga=umifh kd J l D rd@k v@kd cifAsm;wd@k zsuzsu/f rzsuzsuf ol@[mol&aerSmyg” vd@k ajymvduf ygowJ? f f dS k h usaemfajymvdwmu “0”ygwe@J vm;[lygww@kd ,ae@txd&aeao; wm[m k D D dS e0w/ etz wd@k &bufawmfom;awGr@kd v@kd r[kwbJ ausmufnvif rsuEm hJ f D kd f S a=umifygv@kd qdvwmyg? h k kd usaemfwdk@vm;[lygwDtaeeJ@ jynfwGif;rSmpnf;&Hk;v_yf&Sm;cGifh&SdpOfu ygw0iftiftm; 50000 (ig;aomif;) ausmausm&ygw,f? usaemfw@kd emrnf D f f dS pm&if;aumuf,+l yD; rSwywifay;aewJtpDtpOfrmyJ&ygao;w,f? wjznf; f kH h S dS jznf;eJ@trsKd ;rsKd ;zdEycsKyfcs,f cHc&muae aemufq;kH rSmawmh vH;k 0v_y&m;vd@k r& Sd f hJ fS awmhwm[m ,ae@txdygy? yxrawmh ud,ygwwckwnf; tzdEyc& J k hf D dS f H w,fv@kd xifcrw,f? aemufawmh ygwtm;vH;k cH&w,fqwm od&ygw,f? hJ d D kd vuf&tajc taerSmawmh etzuEdiia&;ygwawG vGwvyfci&w,f/ bm/ dS kfH D f G hf dS nm/ b,fvyJ ajymaeajymae tuef@towfe@J vy&m;Ediwm[m trsKd ;om; kd _fS kf 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (NLD) wygwy&ygw,f? useygwtm;vH;k b,fvrS kd D J dS f D kd v_y&m;vd@k r&ygb;l ? fS usaemfjynfwi;f rSm&SpOfwe;f u usaemfw@kd ygw+D rdK@e,faumfrwD wcsKd @ G d k tzsufodrf;cH&ygw,f? usaemfowif;=um;=um;jcif; &efukef+rdK@rSm&SdwJh taxGaxGa&G;aumufyGJ aumfr&Si&;kH udom;+yD; twGi;f a&;rSL;OD;at;armife@J f k G &efawG@cygw,f? bmjzpfv@kd OuUXjzpfwhJ usaemfutodray;yJ usaemfygwD hJ h kd h +rdK@e,faumfrwDawGukd cifAsm;wd@k zsuor;f &wmvJv@kd usaemfar;awmhou f d l “omrefvra&;t oif;tzJ@G awGawmif tenf;qH;k ig;OD;awmh&wmyJ/ Ediiwck l_ dS kfH vHk;udktkyfcsKyfr,fh ygwDu tzJG@0ifig;OD;rSr&Sd&if b,fvdkvkyf+yD;wdkif;jynfudk tkycsKyrvJ” vd@k apmwu wufygw,f? usaemfu “usaemfw@kd +rKd @e,fwi;f rSm f f kd vpfvyfom;wJtzJ@G 0ifae&mrSm tpm;xd@k z@kd vltrsm;}uD;&Sw,f? bmjzpfv@kd G h d cifAsm;wd@k u ud,ygwr[kwye@J zsuor;f &wmvJ/ zsur,fzsuf ud,[mud,f k hf D fJ f d f h k hf k zsurmayg” vd@k ajymawmhou “OD;',fe&,fatmif&,f cifAsm;vnf;0efxrf; fS h l D b0uaevmwmyJ/ cifAsm;odygw,f/ 0efxrf;awGqwm yJpm;awGyg? txuf kd G ucdi;f wmvky&wmyg/ ud,zgom udbmrSrvkyEiygb;l / usaemfw@kd ukd em;vnf k f k hf k f kd f ay;yg” wJh? rSefygw,f? qdkvdkwmu usaemfwdk@+rdK@e,fygwD&Hk;wcsdK@&Sdaeyg ao;w,f/ &Hk;zGifhxm;w,f/ ygwDXmecsKyf&Hk; vnf;zGifhxm;w,f? 'gayr,fh zGixm;wmyJ&+dS yD;awmh bmv_y&m;r_rS vkyv@kd r&ygb;l / ygw&;kH tjyifxu+f yD; hf f S f D G 9
  18. 18. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f pnf;&H;k a&;w&m;a[mvd@k r&ygb;l / wm;jrpfxm;w,f? usaemfw@kd ygwD tr_ aqmifawGtaeeJ@ b,fuyom;oGm; bmoGm;vkyovJqukd axmufvr;f kd J G f kd S k h D kfH D a&;vl (informer) awGuvdu=f unfaew,f? tJ'awmh Ediia&; ygwwcsKd @ ,ae@txd &Sdaeao;ayrJhvnf; bmrSvkyfvdk@r&wJhtwGuf r&Sdawmhwm eJ@twlwyv@kd usaemfqcsiygw,f? l J kd f tckvdktajctaersdK;rSm jynfya&mufusaemfwkd@ UNLD tzJG@0if acgi;f aqmif}u;D rsm;taeeJ@ 'Dru&ufwpfzuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk wnfaqmuf kd a&; vkyief;rsm;rSm wm0eftoD;oD;&Sae=uw,fv@kd usaemf,=kH unfc,xm; f d H l ygw,f? acgi;f aqmif}uD;rsm;tm;vH;k uvnf; cH,xm;=ur,fqwmusaemf l kd vH;k 0 ,H=k unfygw,f? a&S@quf+y;D jynfwi;f rSm&SaecJh &SaeqJjzpfwhJ usaemfw@kd &hJ G d d rdcifygwrsm; jyefvnfvy&m;cGi&vmatmif usaemfw@kd }udK;pm;vkyaqmif D _ f S hf f =u&rSm jzpfygw,f? vl}uD;rif;rsm;taeeJ@ oEdXgecsxm;+yD;om;vd@k usaemf M f ,H=k unfygw,f? tckvwfwavmtcsdefrSm usaemfhtaeeJ@ v$wfawmfudk,fpm;vS,f rsm;tzJ@G (MPU) rSm'k-OuUXwm0efuyg yl;wJwm0efxrf;aqmifaeygw,f? kd G MPU OuUXuawmh cGe;wuf'b&jD zpfygw,f? jynfyuda&mufvm=uwJh MPs f D l k ESpq,fig;OD;&Sygw,f? ouU&mZf 2000 twGi;f MPU udk tdi,mvefEii+H rKd @ f h d kf kd f h f awmf'yfyvifrm w&m;0ifz@GJ pnf;Edicygw,f? MPU &Jt"duvkyief;uawmh S k f hJ jynfwi;f rSmtusO;f cscae&wJh Ediia&;v_y&m;olrsm; txl;ojzifh v$wawmf G H kfH fS f ud,pm;vS,rsm;&Jtajctaeudk urBmuod&+dS yD; *&k%moufvmatmif/ k f f h usaemfw@kd &'rua&pDvy&m;r_}u;D udk axmufcvmatmif jyKvyaejcif;yJjzpfyg hJ D kd _fS H kf w,f? aemuf+yD;usaemfw@kd &hJ MPU taeeJ@ 1990 a&G;aumufy&vm'fukd GJ taumiftxnfaz:Edia&;twGuf vdtyfaewJh etztay: urBmztm;udk kf k hd &&Sd atmifvkyfaqmifaeygw,f? EdkifiHwum Lobby udkvkyfaeygw,f? txl;ojzifh Inter-Perliamentary Union (IPU) vd@k ac:wJh urBmvwawmfrsm; h $ f tzJG@csKyftpnf;ta0;awGudk usaemfwdk@wufa&muf+yD; EdkifiHtoD;oD;rS v$wawmfu,pm;vS,rsm;udk wOD;csi;f aomf‚if;/ wzJ@G csi;f aomf‚if;/ awG@q+kH y;D f kd f f usaemfw@kd jynfwi;f a&;ta=umif;pHukd ajymjycGi&ovdk axmufctm;ay;r_ G k hf H udvnf; xduoifoavmuf&aeygw,f? k k f h urBmhukvor*~taxGaxGnDvmcH (United Nations General f kd k f f Assembly) ESppOf atmufwbmESihf Ed0ifbmvrsm;twGi; usi;yygw,f? 10
  19. 19. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; jrefrmEdkifiHtay:csrSwfwJh ukvor*~qHk;jzwfcsufrsm; (UN Resolution) wESpxuf wESpyrtm;aumif;atmif "Strong" jzpfatmif od@k r[kwf csxm; f f kd kd h kf h wJh Resolutions atmuftqifrusatmif usaemfw@kd vyaeygw,f? +yD;cJwhJ 2002 ck atmufwbm/ Ed0ifbmnDvmcH}uD;rSm usaemfEpygw=f umyg0ifchJ kd k S f ygw,f? EdkifiHtawmfrsm;rsm;rS udk,fpm;vS,fawGudkawG@qHkcGifh&cJhygw,f? jrefrmEdiie@J ygwf oufwhJ qH;k jzwfcsuukd EU vd@k ac:wJh Oa&myEdiirsm;or*~rS kfH f kfH uruxjyKa&;qJG +yD; usaemfw@kd tzJ@G ukd zwf&j_ yifqifjznfpucijhf yKygw,f? h G fG f k tJ'ga=umifh vlenf;pk (Minority) tpm; Armr[kwaomwdi;f &if;om;rsm; (Non-Burman Nationalities) qdwhJ tac:ta0:udxnfoi;az: jycGihf &cJyg k k h Gf h w,f? xd@k tjyif Socialist International (SI) tpnf;ta0;awGuvnf; kd f kfH d rSerewufa&muf+yD; Lobby vkyaeygw,f? EdiiwumrSm&SaewJh jrefrm f S f rdom;pktzJ@G tpnf;rsm; (Burmese Communities) / jrefrmEdiivwajrmuf kfH G f a&; taxmuftuljyKtzJ@G tpnf;rsm; (Free Burma support groups), NGOs ac: tpd;&r[kwaom toif;tzJ@G rsm;/ bmoma&;toif;tzJ@G rsm; k f (Church groups), v$wawmfu,pm;vS,rsm;/ tpd;&0ef}u;rsm; ponfw@kd f kd f f k D udvnf; tcgtm;avsmpmawG@qI tjrifcsi;f zvS,v#uf taxmuftul k fG kH f rsm;udk vufc&,laeygonf? H usaemfaemufq;kH wifjyvdwmuawmh tck'rma&mufae=uwJh acgi;f k D S aqmif}u;D rsm;tm;vH;k usaemfw@kd Eiirm apmapmu obmywd}u;D trde@f &chJ kd f H S dS wJh twdi;f ESpyiqipum;0di;f (Bipartite Dialogue) rSonf oH;k yGiqif k f G hf kd f k hf kd pum;0di;f (Tripartite Dialogue) jzpfvmEdia&;twGuf rdrw@kd wwfEiwhJ k kf d kd f bufuvkyaqmif=u&if; ppfrewzuf'&,f jynfaxmifp}k uD;qDo@kd OD;wnf f S f hJ cswuf=uygp@kd v@kd wduwe;f &if; ed*;kH csKyfygw,f? aus;Zl;wifygw,f? D k f G ************* 11
  20. 20. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f OD;omEd; (&cdi'rua&pDtzJ@G csKyf) k k f D kd Arakan League for Democracy usaemfw@kd ALD qd&if &efue+f rdK@/ w+rdK@e,ftygt0if &cdijf ynfe,f rSm k k k (17) +rdK@e,f aygi;f vdu&if (18) +rdK@e,fnvmcHukd ppfawG+rdK@rm (3) &uf k f D S wdiwiusi;f y+y;D awmh CC Central Committee (42) OD; tJ'txJu v#Kd @0urJ k f kd f D S f qENe@J (15) OD;udk CEC Central Executive Committee a&G;+y;D awmh usaemfw@dk aqmif&u=f uw,f? a&G;aumufyrm (15) +rdK@e,ftm;vH;k usaemfw@kd ALD G GJ S rS ,SO+f ydKifwae&mrSm usaemfw@kd (11) ae&mtEdi&&Sygw,f? rJqEN ae&mu hJ kf d tm;vH;k (26) ae&m&Sygw,f? usaemfw@kd ALD u (11) ae&m&+yD;awmh d bl;oD;awmif armif;awmrSm rlqviftrsdK;om; ygwDawGu (4) ae&m &ygw,f? aemuf +rdKac: crD;qdwygwu ausmufawmf+rdK@e,frqEN e,fajr k hJ D J k f wae&m&ygw,f? aemuf NLD u (9) ae&m&ygw,f? tm;vH;k aygi;f vdu&if (26) ae&mjzpfygw,f? tJ'Dawmh usaemfwdk@ ALD ygwD &cdkifjynfrSmjynfolvlxktrsm;qHk; axmufcHwJh ygwDwckjzpfaewJhtcsdefrSm usaemfwdk@a&G;aumufyJGa=unm pmwrf;yg tajccHEiia&;OD;wnfcsuukd usaemfw@kd aqmif&uvmwJtcserm kd f H f G f h dfS e0wu a=unmcsutrSwf 1§90 xkwjf yefcygw,f? a&G;aumufyt+yD;rSm f hJ GJ e0wudk axmufcovm;/ uef@uuovm;qd+k y;D ar;vmygw,f? usaemfw@kd u H G f a&G;aumufya=unmpmwrf;rSm ygwtwdi;f yJ tm%m&Sipepfukd usaemfw@kd GJ hJ k f vH;k 0raxmufcb;l ? tm%m&Sipepfay:vmr,fq&ifvJ usaemfw@kd umuG,f H f kd r,f/ &Sae&ifvwuzsur,f qdwtcsuawG rlxrmyg ygw,f? d J kd f f k hJ f J S tJ'Dawmh 1§90 uawmh ppftm%m&Sifpepfoufqdk;&Snfzdk@twGuf a=unmwJha=unmcsufjzpfygw,f? tJ'Dvdkusaemfwdk@jywfjywfom;om; a&G;aumufyJGa=unmcsufpmwrf;xJrSmygwJh tajccHay:rSm&yfwnf+yD; uef@uuawmh ALD zsuor;f cH&ygw,f? 'gayrJh “b,fozsuzsuf 'd@k rysu” G f f d l f f 'd@k ukd jynfoawGaxmufcxm;wJygwjD zpfwtwGuf jynfoqrmusaemfw@kd l H h hJ l D S wifjyxm;wJh Ediia&;OD;wnfcsuf &yfwnfcsuf vkyief;pOfawGukd taumif kfH f txnfaz:oGm;r,f opPm&Sd&Sd wm0efododeJ@ usaemfwdk@taumiftxnf az:oGm;r,f qdwq;kH jzwfcsut& jynfwi;f rSmvkyEiwvuvkyf ygwzsuf k hJ f G f kd f hJ l D ayrJvJ 'd@k tjyifxuv@kd vyEiwvuvkyf qd+k yD;awmh usaemfw@kd wm0efc+GJ yD; h G f k f kd f hJ l 12
  21. 21. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; tJ'wm0eft& twGi;f a&;rSL;OD;at;omatmif jynfwi;f rSmvkyz@kd usecw,f? D G f f hJ aemuf+yD; OuUX}uD; a'guwmapmr&atmifu jynfwi;f rSmvkyw,f? f G f usaemfhudkawmh twGif;a&;rSL;wOD;taeeJ@ jynfyrSmoGm;+yD;oHwref a&;&mavmurSm vGwvwvyfvyfvyz@kd twGuf wm0efay;wJtwdi;f 94 f G f kf h k ckEpf azaz:0g&v (14) &ufae@rm ygwacgi;f aqmifwcsKd @ukd OD;aqmif+yD;awmh S D S D usaemfw@kd jynfyudxuvmw,f? usaemfw@kd tckq&if b*Fvm;a'h/ tdE,/ k G f kd Nd =opa=w;vs/ rav;&Sm;/ xdkif;/ tar&duef/ e,fomvef pwJhEdkifiHawGrSm pnf;&Hk;a&;aumfrwDawG wm0efcHawGwcsdK@ a'oaumfrwDawGzGifh+yD;awmh aqmif&uaeygw,f? G f jynfwi;f rSmvJyJ OD;at;omatmifu wdi;f &if;om;awGe@J vufw+GJ y;D CRPP G k rSmtvGe}f uD;rm;wJh twGi;f a&;rSL;wm0efukd aqmif&uaewmudk tm;vH;k G f od=uwJtwdi;f ygy? a'guwmapmr&atmifq&ifvJ 'Davmuf touf}u;D +y;D rS h k J f kd jynfaxmifpkwckvHk;rSm wm0eft}uD;rm;qHk;jzpfwJh v$wfawmf wm0ef OuUXwm0efukd aqmif&uaewmvJ tm;vH;k od=uwJtwdi;f ygy? a&SŒudvJ G f h k J k G usaemfw@kd UNLD acgi;f aqmifawGe@J jynfwi;f rSmvufw+GJ y;D awmh usaemfw@kd zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpwnfaqmufa&; 'Drua&pDjynfaxmifpk ay:xGe;f a&; k kd twGuf r[mrdwacgi;f aqmifawGe@J vufw+GJ yD;awmhjynfwi;f rSm twuf f G ºuGq;kH aqmif&uaeovdk jynfyrSmvJ u|eawmfw@kd pnf;&H;k +yD;awmh ALD G f f (Exile) qdk+yD;awmh r[mrdwf acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;ESifh vufwJG+yD;awmh aqmif&uf aeygw,f? a&SŒudvnf; usaemfw@kd atmify&onftxd opPm&S&dS G k GJ d wm0efooe@J atmify&onftxdaqmif&uom;r,fv@kd uwdjyK&if; ed*;kH csKyf d d GJ G f G ygw,f? tm;vH;k udk aus;Zl;wifygw,f? ************* ylxefvseaygif (Zdr;trsKd ;om;uGe*&uf) f k D f Zomi National Congress usaemfw@kd ZNC pwifz@GJ pnf;wJtcseup+yD; ygwzsuor;f wJtxd aygh h df D f d h usaemf UNLD obmywdtzJ@G xu jzpfygw,f? udvsere;f wd@k u twGi;f J k f _ a&;rSL; tzJ@G xrm tJ'we;f uvky=f uygw,f? wcsKd @uusaemfuar; =uygw,f? JS D k h kd ZdkrD;vlOD;a& b,favmuf&SdovJvdk@ar;awmh ygwDwnfaxmifwJh tcgrSm 13
  22. 22. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f usaemfrm cH,csutrsKd ;rsKd ;&S=d uw,f? usaemfc,csutaeeJ@ wcsKd @awGu h S l f hH l f csi;f qdk oufouf/ Zdr;D qd&ifoufouf/ udu;D qd&ifoufouf jrif=uw,f? k k k k usaemftjrif ygwr0g't&qd&if usaemfw@kd ukd Arm/ t*FvyawGu h D l k d f usaemfw@kd ukd csi;f vd@k ac:w,f? ukvm;awGu udu;D ac:w,f? usaemfw@kd u k Zdk uaeqif;oufvmwJtwGua=umifh Zdr;D vd@k usaemfw@kd ajymaejcif; jzpfw,f? h f k 'ga=umifh ZNC (Zomi National Congress) axmifwmjzpfw,f? csi;f ESihf oufoufr[kwygz;l ? csi;f uvJZr;D Zdr;D uvJcsi;f yJv@kd yxrqH;k usaemf ajym f kd k =um;vdygw,f? k usaemfwdk@jynfwGif;rSm a&G;aumufyJG0ifygw,f? (4) ae&m0if+yD; (2) ae&m&=uw,f? usaemfw@kd tjyifxu+f y;D rS 'D UNLD zJ@G pnf;zd@k vywtcg =unfh G k f hJ &if usaemfw@kd ygwtaeeJ@ tjyifxuvmwJh twGi;f xJygwrzsuor;f cife@J D G f D f d zsuor;f wJtxdygw0ifrsm;uomv#if tjyifrmvJ usaemfw@kd ZNC-LA f d h D S taeeJ@ usaemfwdk@&yfwnfw,f? pnf;&Hk;a&;qdk+yD;rS tJ'DtrsdK;om;xJrSm pnf;&Hk;a&;rvkyfawmhyJeJ@ jynfwGif;udktaxmuftuljyK,if;eJ@ 'DjynfyrSm usaemfw@kd wdi;f &if; om;awG vlrsKd ;pkacgi;f aqmifawG 'Drua&pDa&;twGuf k kd b,fae&mrSm taxmuftuljyKwmvJqwOpPmu t"dujzpfw,fqwmudk kd hJ kd usaemfajym=um;vdygw,f? k usaemfwdk@jynfyrSm ygwD0ifoufoufr&SdawmhyJeJ@ jynfwGif;rSm ygwD 0ifawGuyJ v_y&m;w,f? yl;aygi;f v_y&m;zd@k q&if ygwutaxmuftuljyKzd@k fS fS kd D kd tjyifrm tm;vH;k udzwac:+yD;rS usaemfw@kd twlvyaqmifjcif;jzpfygw,f? S k d f k f aemufqHk;taeeJ@ usaemfajymvdkwmuawmh 'DjynfyrSmtvkyfvkyf&if;eJ@ tzJ@G tpnf;tcsi;f csi;f txJrma&m usaemftzJ@G tpnf;ud=k unfvuawmh S h h kd f pdwxrmbm&SovJqawmh usaemfw@kd jynfya&mufwmyJjzpfjzpf b,fae&m f JS d kd jzpfjzpf tzJ@G tpnf;twGi;f rSmyJjzpfjzpf ud,rm'Drua&pDr&Sye@J 'Drua&pD k hf S kd d J kd vdcsiw,fv@kd ajymawmh &,fp&maumif;w,f? tm%m&Sipepfuusio;kH &if; k f f kd hf eJ@ tm%m&Siukd wduygw,fqwhJ &,fp&maumif;vdrr,fv@kd usaemf,q f k f kd hf l w,f? usaemfw@kd 91 ckEpf Result udtajccH+yD;rS wdi;f jynfopfxaxmif a&;/ S k k l trsdK;om;&if=um;apha&; trsdK;om;EdkifiHa&;udk vkyfaqmif=uygw,fvdk@ usaemf em;vnfw,f? usaemfem;vnfwtwdi;f yJ usaemfw@kd ygwuvufcH hJ k D aqmif&uygw,f? txl;yJaus;Zl;wifygw,fcifAsm;? G f 14 *************
  23. 23. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; Edixe;a0 (rGetrsKd ;om;'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf) kf G f f kd Mon National Democratic Front usaemfwdk@taeeJ@ jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;awG[m tm;vHk;nDnD !Gw!wr&Sz;l qd&ifawmh usaemfw@kd wae@us&if cH=u&rSmyJ? tcktajctae f G f d k t& =unfhr,fqdkvdk@&Sd&if usaemfwdk@jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;awG[m ab;=uyfeH=uyf tajctaea&mufatmif wjznf;jznf;eJ@ qifudkusHK;xJ oGi;f ovdoi;f aew,f? od@k aomfusaemfw@kd 'gawGurr_ygz;l ? k G kd rGeftrsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyf[m rGefjynfe,frSmwzJG@yJ &Sdygw,f? rGeEiia&;vJ wzJ@G y&ygw,f? tJ'gqkd vltiftm;ajym&r,fq&if rSe;f qwGuf f kd f H J dS kd =unfh=uyg? tJ'Dawmh usaemfwdk@EdkifiHjcm;udka&mufaewJh rGeftrsdK;om; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G trsm;}uD;&Sygw,f? =opa=w;vs/ puFmyl/ rav;&Sm;/ xki;f / kd d d tar&duef/ uae'g/ aemfa0/ zifvef/ e,l;ZDvef/ *syef/ awmifu;kd &D;,m; a[mfvefrm&S=d uygw,f? 'Dawmh usaemfw@kd tcsi;f csi;f tm;vH;k vufwae=u S GJ +yD;om;yg? usaemfwdk@ jynfaxmifpkjrefrmEdkifiH[m zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkEdkifiH rjzpfrcsif; u|efawmfwdk@urrSdwfrokef tifwdkuftm;wdkufvkyfaqmifrSmyJ qdwm tm;vH;k aomwdi;f &if;om;awG odxm;zd@k vtyfygw,f? rGeawG[m k k kd f jynfe,faygif;pk jynfaxmifpkyJac:ac: zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpkyJac:ac: tJ'tajctae ra&mufrcsi;f tpGr;f ukeu,pr;f &SoI &atmifwucuf D f kd f G d kd f kd ,lrmyJ? tJ'gu usaemfw@kd &&nf&,csuy? t"duusaemfw@kd wdi;f &if;om; S hJ G f f J k tm;vH;k [m wpnf;wvH;k xJ&aezd@k vdtyfygw,f? tJ'gukd usaemftav; dS k teuf wduwe;f vdygw,f? k f G k 'kwd,tcsufuawmh usaemfwdk@tvkyfrsm;rsm;vkyfzdk@vdktyfygw,f? usaemftoufu (72) ESp&yg+y? tajctaet& usaemfw@kd [mvkytm;yJvkd h f dS D f w,f? pum;}uD;yJrajymeJ@? oif;csKd if;xJa&mufygap wu,fv@kd xvkyEir,f f kd f qd&ifxvkyt;kH rSmyJ? usaemfw@kd tvkyvyEiv@kd 'Dpifjrifay:a&mufvmwm k f f k f kd f h r[kwz;l vm;? 'Dawmhtvkyukd rSereuefuefvyyg/ apmufcsvyyg/ &d;k &d;k om; f f fSf kf kf om;vkyyg/ 'grS usaemfw@kd Eii[m zuf'&,fjynfaxmifpk jzpfvmEdir,fqwm f kd f H kf kd pJ+G rJpm ,H=k unfxm;w,f? tm;vH;k udaus;Zl;wifygw,f? G k ************* 15
  24. 24. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f ref;!Ge@f armif (jynfaxmifpu&iftzJ@G csKyf) k Union Karen League usaemfwdk@u&iftrsdK;om;EdkifiHa&;e,fy,frSm autifef,leJ@ ,ck jynfaxmifpu&iftzJ@G / autife,u vufeufuiawmfvea&; vkywhJ k f l kd f S f f tcgrm usaemfw@kd uOya'twGi;f rSm xdr;f odr;f +y;D vky&wJtvkyawG &Sygw,f? S f h f d usaemfw@kd &efuewi;f / yJc;l wdi;f / {&m0wDwi;f / tJ'D wdi;f awGutajccHvywhJ k f kd k kd k kd kf tcgrm u&iftrsKd ;om;xk[m u&ifjynfe,frm&SwhJ u&iftrsKd ;om;xke@J S S d q,fqru &SaewJtcgrm u&iftrsKd ;om;awG&hJ tcGitvrf;ESihf tusKd ;pD;yGm; d h S hf awGukd jynfaxmifpu&iftzJ@G u ordi;f a=umif;t&aygav usaemfrwdicifu k k h kf awmh autife,e@J autdiat tawG;tac: t,ltqawGrwdicifu f l kf kf udpawGjzpfygw,f? P usaemf 'DtzJ@G csKyfukd 1956 ckEpavmufu a&mufvmcJwtcgrm awmh Sf h hJ S usaemfwdk@u tJ'Dvdkoabmrxm;awmhyJeJ@ usaemfwdk@trsdK;om;aygif; pnf;a&;udk txJrmtm&Hpuygw,f? 'ga=umifr@kd v@kd usaemfw@kd jynfaxmifpk S k kd f h u&iftrsKd ;om;awG v$ixm;wJtvHonfyifv#if 1958 ckEprm zsuor;f cH hf h SfS f d &wJh taetxm;rsdK;&SdonfhtwGuf usaemfwdk@ UKL jynfaxmifpku&if trsKd ;om;tzJ@G csKytvHukd usaemfw@kd tjcm;a&G;cs,rrvkyye@J u&iftrsKd ;om; f f_ fJ tvHuyJ usaemfw@kd ygwtvHtjzpfe@J olw@kd zsuv@kd r&atmifq+kd y;D usaemfw@kd kd D f vkycwm &Sygw,f? aemuf+yD;awmh ygwpnf;&H;k a&;taeeJ@awmh usaemfw@kd f hJ d D f u&iftrsdK;om;awG jynfywdkif;jynfrSm trsm;}uD;&SdwJhtwGuf usaemfwdk@ trsm;}u;D tzJ@G 0iftjzpf &,lEiygw,f? od@k aomfvusaemfw@kd u tJ'umvrSm kd f J D awG;xm;wJhtawG;tac: wckuawmh usaemfwdk@[m 'DudpPr+yD;ao;bl;? 'Da&G;aumufyEihf r+yD;ao;wJtwGuf 'DEiia&;eJ@r+yD;ao;wJtwGuf usaemf GJ S h kd f H h wd@k tzJ@G 0ifawGuvufc&if usaemfw@kd tzG@J 0ifawG&efjyKcH&r,ftaetxm;udk kd H h usaemfw@kd wurwtwGuf t"duusw+hJ rdK@e,fawGrm pnf;&H;k a&;aumfrwD G f d hJ S avmufyJ zJ@G ygw,f? tJ'Dawmh csKyf+yD;awmhvl}uD;rif;wdk@udk usaemfwifjycsifwmuawmh jynfaxmifpu&iftzJ@G taeeJ@ 'DrmvJ KNU &SwtwGuf Oya'wGi;f udpukd k S d hJ P usaemfw@kd tm&Hpu+f yD;awmh ud,trsKd ;om;udk xdr;f odr;f apmifa&SmufcwhJ f k kd k hf h hJ tvkyf udvycygw,f? 1991 Advuav;wduyGJ aemufyi;f rSm usaemfe@J k k f hJ k f k f kd usaemftwGi;f a&;rSL; wwd,t}urajrmuf axmifxa&mufcygw,f? axmif h df J hJ 16
  25. 25. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; xJa&muf+yD;awmh a&G;aumufyJGaumfr&Sifu zdtm;ay;r_a=umifh usaemf taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;uae xkwypfcc&ygw,f? ppftpd;k &aumfr&Siu f H hJ f h D xkwwmjzpfygw,f? tJ'D aemuf KNU acgi;f aqmifrsm;u usaemfqukd f ppfom;apvGwqufo,um usaemfawmcdvmygw,f? f G f k *************** pdi;0if;az (o#r;wdi;&if;om;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf) kf f kf kd Shan Nationalities League for Democracy usaemfw@kd SNLD ygwuawmhtajctaet&yf&yfa=umifh aomf ‚if;/ D 'Dacgif;aqmifrsm;&Jh vdrRmyg;eyfr_a=umifhaomf‚if;/ tzJG@0iftiftm;a=umifh aomf‚if; jzpfvrr,fv@kd ,qygw,f? usaemfw@kd ygw&hJ pwifxaxmiforsm;eJ@ d hf l D l l ygw&hJ tajccHvrsm;uawmh +y;D cJwEpaygi;f ESpq,fausmf oH;k q,favmufu D l h hJ S f f o#r;f trsKd ;om;rsm;udk bmompum;eJ@pmayjriwifa&;v_y&m;r_}u;D wckvyf ‡ hf fS k ygw,f? tJ'vvycwvawmfawmfrsm;rsm;vJ aemufyi;f rSmEdiia&;avmu D kd k f hJ hJ l kd kfH rSm jyefygvmygw,f? tJ'xrmusaemfu wwd,rsKd ;qufavmuf jzpfvrr,f? D JS d hf ygwxaxmifwae&mrSmawmh vlwef;pm;tppaygi;f pHk yg0ifyg w,f? D l hJ odk@aomftajccHuawmh o#rf;pmayjyef@yGm;a&;vli,frsm;eJ@ zJG@cJhygw,f? 'DtzJ@G tpnf;&Jtiftm;a=umifr@kd v@kd tzJ@G tpnf;&JtusKd ;cHpm;&w,fv@kd ajym& h h h rSmyJ/ o#r;f jynfe,frm (23) ae&mtEdi&ygw,f? ygwqi;f bkwaxmifwhJ S kf D kd f ae&m tawmfrsm;ygw,f? o#r;f jynfwcGiv;kH wGiruyJ yJc;l wdi;f / awmu|tif; f f k J +rdK@e,f txdyg qdi;f bkwaxmifygw,f? usaemfw@kd SNLD [mjynfwi;f rSm k f G UNLD eJ@ yl;aygi;vkyaqmifvmovdk vGwajrmufe,fajrrSmvnf; UNLD f f f (LA) eJ@ SNLD -MP wOD;taejzifh yl;aygi;vkyaqmifvmwm jzpfygw,f? f f usaemfw@kd &hJ jynfaxmifpta&;/ 'Drua&pDta&;eJ@ wdi;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm;&Jh k kd k ta&;eJ@ ywfouf+y;D awmh usaemfw@kd ygwonf ,cktcsetxd rm;rm;rwfrwf D df &yfwnf+y;D awmh wm0efrsm;udk xrf;aqmifv#u&a=umif; ajym=um;vdygw,f? f dS k aus;Zl;wifygw,f? ************* 17
  26. 26. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f yl&rf[; (csi;trsKd ;om;'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf) l f kd Chin National League for Democracy usaemfemrnfuawmh Pu Hrang Hu jzpfygw,f? usaemfu csif; trsKd ;om;'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf CNLD (Exile) &J'-OuUX wm0efuxrf;aqmif kd hk kd ygw,f? usaemfw@kd &OuUXuawmh tm;vH;k odwtwdi;f a'guwm Za Hlei hJ hJ k f kd f kd D kd kd f hJ Thang jzpfygw,f? olu,wif 'DnvmcHurwufa&mufEiwtwGuf ol@ ud,pm; 'DnvmcHuwufa&mufjcif;jzpfygw,f? usaemfw@kd ygwta=umif;eJ@ k f D kd D ygwouf+y;D usaemfrmtxl;taxG ajymp&mr&Sygb;l ? tm;vH;k odwtwdi;f yJ f hS d hJ k UNLD(LA) &JtaxGaxGtwGi;a&;rSL; a'guwmqvdi;vsere;[mqd&if h f f kf f _ f k h usaemfw@kd CNLD &JtaxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;vnf; jzpfygw,f? ol@ta=umif; udk tm;vHk;od=uwJhtwdkif; usaemfwdk@ygwDta=umif;udk odr,fvdk@vnf; ar#mvifygw,f? usaemfajymp&muawmh 'Davmufygy? aus;Zl;wifygw,f? f h J ************* OD;apmp (em*trsKd ;om;'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf) kd Naga National League for Democracy 1990 a&G;aumufyJGrSm em*qdkvJ em*awmifwef;wdk;wufa&;tzJG@ qdwemrnfe@J 0ifta&G;cHcygw,f? usaemfw@kd utjyifa&mufae+yD jzpfygw,f? k hJ hJ a&G;aumufyrm (2) a,mufatmifygw,f? ckawmh 'DtzJ@G tpnf;vJzsuor;f GJ S f d wJh txJrmygom;yg+yD? tck'tzJ@G tpnf;[m usaemfw@kd jynfya&muf+yD;awmh S G D em*awmfvea&;e,fajrrSm v_y&m;aewJtzJ@G tpnf;uae usaemfw@kd z@GJ +yD; S f f S h kd awmh 'D UNLD(LA)tzJ@G csKyfutzJ@G 0iftaeeJ@ usaemfw@kd av#muf+yD;ygvm ygw,f? usaemfw@kd awmfvea&;vkyief;wckxr[kwygb;l ? b,fvyief;jzpf jzpf Sf f J f kf usaemftaeeJ@oabmayguwmu ‘&d;k om;ajzmifrwfr’qdwhJ Sincerety and h f h _ k Honesty 'DESpfckudkawmh usaemfwdk@tajcjyKvkyf&ygvdrfhr,f? aemufwck usaemfw@kd awmfvea&;wckv;kH udk +cKH =unf&if Divide and Rules qdwhJ e0w&Jh Sf h k rl0g'udk usaemfw@kd wi;f &if;om;awG 'g Unity is Strength acgi;f pOfe@J usaemfw@kd kd qef@usiae&r,f? qdawmh usaemfw@kd wi;f &if;om;awGu 'Dtiftm;udk usaemf f k kd 18
  27. 27. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; wd@k u pnf;&H;k a&;utiftm;jzpfw,fqwhJ rl0g'eJ@jyefwur,fqwae&mrSm kd kd f kd hJ wa,mufe@J wa,muf ,H,=kH unf=unf av;av;pm;pm; qdwtajctaerSm k k hJ &S&r,f? usaemfw@kd tcsi;f csi;f tay:rSm opPm&S&dS uwdwnfwnfvyom;rS d d k f G tusKd ;&Sr,f? ud,vrsKd ;pkuav; aumif;pm;a&;/ ud,e,fajrxGe;f um;a&; d k hf l k hf qdwhJ yHprsKd ;eJ@ vkyr,fq&ifawmh usaemfw@kd vyief;uawmh bmrStusKd ;&Sr,f k kH f kd kf d r[kwf ygb;l ? usaemfwdk@&Jh'Drdkua&pDtESpfom&uawmh Unity and Diversity yJ jzpfoifw,f? 'g[m 'Drua&pD&tESpom&vd@k usaemfw@kd awmhjrifw,f? 'gwi;f h kd hJ f kd &if;om;tcsi;f csi;f vJ pnf;&H;k a&;vdO;D rSm tJ'gvom;awG&obm0ygb? 'D k l hJ J nDvmcHuvyJ atmifatmifjrifjrifjzpfygapvd@k usaemfqawmif;ygw,f ajym kd J k &if;eJ@ usaemfe*;Hk csKyfygw,f? d ************* rac:cGeqm (ucsijf ynfe,ftrsKd ;om;'Drua&pDue*&uf) f kd G f Kachin State National Congress for Democracy (KNCD) 'gawGu r[m0g'udwu,if;eJ@ r[m ucsiqw[mrsKd ; rjzpfom; k kd f f kd hJ G atmif usaemfw@kd xr;f odr;f zd@k vr,fqwtay:rSmrlwnf+yD;awmh usaemfw@kd d kd kd hJ ucsijf ynfe,ftrsKd ;om;'Drua&pDue*&uf qd+k y;D awmh usaemfw@kd wnfaxmif kd Gf cJygw,f? 1990 a&G;aumufyrm usaemfw@kd (3) ae&m&ygw,f? 1991 ckEpf h GJ S S pufwifbmvrSm usaemfuppftpd;k &u zrf;ygw,f? yk'r (5) neJ@ axmif h kd f (10) ESpcsygw,f? usaemfrE av;axmifrm (7) ESpausmaevm+y;D wJh aemuf f W S f f ydi;f rSm vGwvmygw,f? k f usaemf+yD;cJhwJhESpfu 'Dxdkif;udka&mufvmygw,f? usaemftm;vHk;eJ@ n‡Ei;f wdiyifaqG;aEG;ygw,f? tm;vH;k uoabmwlw,f? +y;D awmhrS zJ@G pnf;zd@k t d _d k f wGuf em;vnfoabmaygufvufcHvmwJhtwGufa=umifhrdk@vdk@ usaemfwdk@ KNCD-LA ud+k yD;cJwv Zefe0g&v (28) &ufae@rm zJ@G pnf;cJygw,f? h hJ D S h uae@usaemfhEdkifiHa&;tjrift& ajym&r,fqdk&ifawmh usaemfwdk@ wdkif;&if;om;awG[m jynfaxmifpktay:rSmusaemfwdk@uopPm&Sdw,f? jynfaxmifpjk zpfatmifvJ usaemfw@kd uvkycw,f? 'gayr,fv@kd usaemfw@kd vyf f hJ h k 19
  28. 28. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f cJwhJ usaemfw@kd xm;cJwapwemawG[m apmapmuajymcJwhJ r[mvlrsKd ;}u;D h h hJ h 0g'udipwhJ vlwpk &Jh tm%mwpk&vufcsua=umifh uae@txd+yKd uaew,f? k f GJ hJ f GJ usaemfwdk@ ydkrdkjynfhpHkwJhjynfaxmifpkvuQ%meJ@ jynfaxmifpk}uD; wnfaqmufEiz@kd twGuf 'Duae@ UNLD udwi;f &if;om;awGtm;vH;k pkpnf; kd f k kd nD!wpmeJ@ wae@awmfvea&;rSm wduy0if=uzd@k vvrr,f? awmfvea&;+y;D G fG Sf k f GJ kd d hf Sf oGm;wmeJ@ usaemfw@kd 'tzJ@G tpnf;awmh qufvaeOD;r,f? wdi;f &if;om;awG D kd k tm;vH;k pnf;vH;k nD!wr&z@kd uawmh urBmukewnfoa&G@ wdi;f &if;om;awG&hJ G f _ dS f k pnf;vH;k nD!wa&;[m &Sz@kd vvrr,fqwta=umif;udk usaemftjrifukd G f d kd d hf kd hJ h d wifjyvdygw,f? usaemfw@kd awmh Vision &Sae+yD; 'D Vision atmifjrifz@kd k twGuawmh usaemfw@kd Team-work vdygw,f? aus;Zl;wif&a=umif; ed*;kH csKyf f k dS tyfygw,fcifAsm;? ************* rSwcsu? nDvmcHo@kd aemufusra&muf&vm=uaom em,u Teddy Buri f f S dS ESihf r&mjynfo@l ygwrS Pu Thahe wd@k . rdwqufpum;udk 'Dae&m D f wGixnfoihf Edijf cif;r&Sa=umif; av;pm;pGm yef=um;tyfygonf? f h G k d ************* uG,veom;aom UNLD acgi;f aqmifrsm;tay: jyefvnfatmufarhjcif;ESihf f Gf G tcef;tem;rSL; qvdi;vsere;. ajymqdcsursm; aumufEwcsuf kf f _ f k f _ f tcef;tem;r&yfem;cif acgif;aqmif}uD;rsm;udk usaemfwckwifjy f vdygw,f? 'guawmh UNLD pwifz@GJ pnf;uwnf;u xdyq;kH rSacgi;f aqmifr_ k ae&mudk ,lay;cJwhJ acgi;f aqmifwcsKd @[m uG,vetedpa&mufom;=uuke+f y? h f Gf P G D 'ga=umifh uG,veom;=u+yDjzpfwhJ acgi;f aqmifrsm;udjk yefvnfatmufarh f G f G owd&wJtaeeJ@ tm;vH;k rwfwyf&yfx+y;D wrdepf+iroufpm&yfay;zd@k arwWm h df G &yfcygw,f? H uG,fvGefoGm;=u+yDjzpfwJhacgif;aqmifrsm;uawmh UNLD t+rJwrf; obmywdtzJG@0ifESifh &cdkif'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyf taxGaxGtwGif;a&;rSL; S kd OD;at;az/ UNLD t+rJwrf; obmywdtzJ@G 0ifEihf csi;f trsKd ;om;'Drua&pD 20
  29. 29. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; tzJ@G csKyf em,u}u;D OD;pDauwduuv/f UNLD t+rwrf;obmywdtzJ@G 0ifEihf k f GJ J S rGeftrsdK;om;'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyf A[dkaumfrwD0if OD;Edkifcifarmif/ UNLD t+rwrf;obmywdtzJ@G 0ifEihf KNCD acgi;f aqmifO;D vAspw;l wd@k jzpfygw,f? J S f usaemftxl;wifjyvdwmu UNLD pwifz@GJ pnf;uwnf;u OD;at;az/ k OD;pDauwdkufuJGvfESifh Edkifcifarmifwdk@[m jynfaxmifpkwdkif;&if;om;vlrsdK; rsm;'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyukd Ediia&;t&OD;aqmifray;&HwifruyJ UNLD &yfwnf kd f kfH _ k v_yf&Sm;Edkifatmif aiGa&;a=u;a&;t& ulnDyHhydk;ay;cJhwJhyk*d~Kvf}uD;rsm; jzpf ygw,f? tck olw@kd (3) OD;pvH;k r&Sawmhygb;l ? OD;pDauwduuv[m qk&if d k f GJ f d e0wppftpd;k &u oH;k av;}udrqufwuzrf;qD;/ ar;jref;ppfaq;r_ukd t}udrf f kd f }urc&+y;D aemufq;kH t}urf zrf;qD;ar;jref;vd@k vwvm+y;D oH;k av;&uftwGi;f dfH d G f rSmyJ ESv;kH a&m*ge@J uG,veom;&Smwmjzpfygw,f? 'ga=umifh olu,veom; f Gf G G f Gf G h G f G f G wm ppftpd;k &&Jh n‡i;f yef; ESypuf'%f (Torture) a=umifu,veom;w,f d f qd&ifrrSm;ygb;l ? k wqufwnf; usaemfwifjycsifwmu OD;at;az/ OD;pDauwdkufuJGvf/ OD;Edicifarmifw@kd Eihf twl UNLD udwpdurwfrwf OD;aqmifray;cJwhJ tjcm; kf S k k f _ h yk*K~d vfrsm; ta=umif;jzpfygw,f? usaemfw@kd e@J twluse&aeao;wJh yk*K~d vf}uD; f dS rsm;xJrSm touft}uD;qHk;uawmh &cdkif'Drdkua&pDtzJG@csKyfu a'gufwm apmjratmifyJ jzpfygw,f? olwcgajymzl;ygw,f? “igEiia&;orm;r[kwb;l / kd f H f Ediia&;pum;vnf; rajymwwfb;l / 'gayrJh igtrsKd ;udigcspw,f? 'Drua&pD kfH h k f kd udvvm;w,f? igy*K~d vfa&;twGuqkd q,foufpmxdipm;vd@k rukeatmif k kd k f kf f OpPm"eºu,0ae+y? 'ga=umifh ig'rmvmvkywm OpPm"evdcsiv@kd r[kwb;l ? G f D DS f k f f *k%yumoe vdcsiv@kd vnf; r[kwb;l ? igtrsKd ;om;a&;twGuf igvywm f k f f h kf jzpfw,f” qd+k yD;ol wcguajymzl;w,f? usaemfwdk@jynfwGif;rSmwkef;u EdkifiHa&;t&0gt&ifhqHk;ESifh 0g'a&;&m/ ay:vpDa&;&mOD;aqmifrukd tyDjyifq;kH ay;cJwy*K~d vfuawmh EdiaiGor;f yJjzpf _ h hJ k kf d ygvrr,f? oltvGerwefrtouf}u;D +y;D +y;D awmhuse;f rma&;uvnf; odwr d hf f S f aumif;&Smbl;? wcgq&if cJpyuor_c,+l yD; aq;&Hrqif;cgp yJ&ao;w,f? kd G d f k H k S dS 'gayr,fh cJpyuo+yD;cgpjzpfwtwGuf qD;ykvif;udui+f yD; nDvmcHuvm G d f k hJ k kd kd wufcygw,f? tifrwefrS cs;D usL;av;pm;zd@k aumif;wJy*K~d vfjzpfygw,f? hJ hk +yD;awmh ZNC OuUXylusi&if ol[mtzrf;cHxw,f/ axmifusw,f/ f S d rsufvHk;tcJGcH&w,f? 'Dvdkumvwav#mufvHk;rSm olwdk@tvHrvJSbJeJ@ 21
  30. 30. vGwajrmufvmvmjcif; CRPP ta&;eJ@ UNLD jyefvnfxaxmifz@kd twGuf f l OD;aqmifrawGow@kd ay;aeygw,f? OD;at;omatmif/ OD;ombef;/ armifvif; _ l ,kef (o#r;f jynf) vd@k vorsm;wJh uAsmq&m/ OD;jrifO;D qdawmh 'Dacgi;f aqmif l d h k awGusaemfw@kd jynfwi;f u pvkyuwnf;u vkyaqmifaewJacgi;f aqmifawG&hJ G f f h f tcef;u¾tvGef tifrwefrS }uD;rm;ygw,f? tck UNLD(LA) vkyae wm[m txJuacgif;aqmifawGrvkyfEdkifwJh tcef;u¾udkusaemfwdk@ jznfhpGufay;zdk@ 'Duae@vkyfaewmjzpfygw,f? usaemfwdk@rl0g'tm;jzifh olw@kd csrwcwr0g'eJ@v;kH 0 raoGrzD yJe@J vkyaewmjzpfw,f? olw@kd tm;vH;k udk S f hJ hJ l f vnf; *k%,av;pm;a=umif; rSwwrf;wifajym=um;vdygw,f? f l f k ************* rSwwrf;wifjcif;? f tcef;tem;rSL; a'guwmqvdi;f vsere;f u jynfaxmifpjk refrmEdii&hJ f k f _ kfH yxrOD;qH;k Ediiawmforwwm0efukd xrf;aqmifcol anmifa&$apmfbm;}u;D kfH hJ G p0fa&$odkuf.ZeD;onf/ UNLD(LA) . em,u}uD; Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe . rdcif/ r[ma'0Donf ouU&mZf 2003 ckEpf Zefe0g&v (20) S D kfH D &ufae@wif uG,veom;onftwGuf UNLD(LA) tzJ@G 0if Ediia&;ygwrsm; G f Gf G h ESihf 'Drua&pDta&;ESihf wdi;f &if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; Ediia&;wef;wla&;twGuf kd k kfH wduy0ifae=uaom wdi;f &if;om;'Drua&pDtiftm;pkrsm;ud,pm; txl; k f GJ k kd k f 0rf;enf;a=uuJa=umif;/ r[ma'0Du,veonftwGuf Dr. Chao Tzang G G f G f h Yawnghwe rS UNLD(LA) 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHodk@ rwufa&mufEdkif a=umif;udk nDvmcHrS rSwwrf;wif&ef yef=um;tyfygonf? f *************
  31. 31. tydi; (2) kf nDvmcHo@kd wifoi;aompmwrf;rsm; Gf
  32. 32. POLICY MAKING AND EXTERNAL AFFAIRS COMMITTEE'S REPORT Submitted by Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (General Secretary) Introduction The UNLD was established in 1989 as an umbrella political organization for the non-Burman nationalities in Burma. From the very beginning, the UNLD political platform called for the establishment of a genuine federal union based on democratic rights for all citizens, political equality for all nationalities and the right of self-determination for all member states of the Union. The member parties of the UNLD contested the 1990 general election under the slogan of “democracy and equality” and won 35% of the popular vote and 16% of parliamentary seats (67 seats) in the national parliament of the Union of Burma. The election results established the UNLD as the second largest political party in Burma. Organized democratic opposition in Burma has been difficult to sustain in the face of the military regime’s tactics of terror, torture, intimidation, and censorship. Like many other opposition political parties, the UNLD has been suffering from all kinds of the regime’s tactics of harassment. Especially after the 1990 general election, the military government targeted the UNLD as a most dangerous opponent, second only to NLD, which therefore must be crushed. The UNLD was banned and declared illegal in 1992. Although the UNLD and seventeen of its member parties had been declared dissolved and illegal, they are still very much alive and in operation both inside Burma and in liberated areas, and are doing everything possible to continue the struggle for democracy and federalism. Inside Burma, the UNLD and its member parties are operating in close coordination with the
  33. 33. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f NLD under the leadership of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. The cooperation between the UNLD and NLD is especially effective in “the Committee Representing the People Parliament” (CRPP) in which Dr. Saw Mra Aung, one of the most prominent leaders of the UNLD, is serving as a chairperson. Unfortunately, the military junta arrested him because of his strong leadership role in the Committee Representing the People Parliament. The UNLD-LA and Its First Conference The UNLD in exile was officially re-established as the UNLD (LA) in 1998 by its original members, most of whom had been forced to flee the country. The Inaugural Conference of the UNLD (LA) was held, from January 15-19, 2001, with the aims and objectives of: 1. Official Re-Establishment of UNLD 2. Adoption of UNLD Political Agenda - Concept & Principles on the Federal Constitution - Concept & Principles on State Constitutions - Concept & Principles on Political Dialogue - Concept & Principles on a National Convention 3. Strengthening & Expansion of UNLD 4. Building Understanding with Allied Forces - Preparation for Tripartite Dialogue - Preparation for State Constitutions At the conference, the UNLD (LA) reconfirmed its original aims and objectives, which read as follows: 1) To establish a genuine federal union. 2) To guarantee democratic rights, political equality and self-determination for all nationalities of the Union. 3) To build a firm unity of all nationalities in the Union based the principles of equality and justice. 4) To promote the development of all member states of the Union. 5) To abolish all types totalitarianism in Burma. 26
  34. 34. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; 6) To establish internal peace and tranquillity through dialogue. The UNLD Inaugural conference re-confirmed the seven principles of federalism for the future constitution of the Union of Burma, which had been adopted by the UNLD conference held in 1990 at the YMCA Hall in Rangoon. These seven principles are: (1) The constitution of the Federal Union of Burma shall be formed in accordance with the principles of federalism and democratic decentralization; (2) The Union Constitution shall guarantee the democratic rights of all citizens of Burma including the principles contain in the United Nation’s declaration of universal human rights; (3) The Union Constitution shall guarantee political equality among all ethnic national states of the Federal Union of Burma; (4) The Federal Union of Burma shall be composed of National States; and all National States of the Union shall be constituted in terms of ethnicity, rather than geographical areas. There must be at least eight National States, namely, Chin State, Kachin State, Karen State, Kaya (Karenni) State, Mon State, Myanmar or Burman State, Rakhine (Arakan) State, and Shan State; (5) The Union Assembly shall consist of two legislative chambers: the Chamber of Nationalities (Upper House) and the Chamber of Deputies (Lower House). (i) The Chamber of Nationalities (Upper House) shall be composed of equal numbers of elected representatives from the respective National States; and (ii) The Chamber of Deputies (Lower House) shall be composed of elected representatives from the respective constituencies of the peoples. 27
  35. 35. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f The creation of Chamber of Nationalities based on equal representation of the member states of the Union is intended to safeguard the rights of National States and minorities in the Union government. It is also intended as a symbol of equality among all the nationalities of the Union. All National States of the Union of Burma shall be represented equally in the Chamber of Nationalities at the Union Assembly. (6) In addition to the Union Assembly, all member states of the Union shall form Legislative Assemblies for their own respective National States. There must be a clear separation of Union Assembly, or Federal Parliament, from the Legislative Assemblies of the member states of the Union. The residual powers, that is, all powers, except those given by member states to the federal center, or the Union, must be vested in the Legislative Assembly of each National State. In this way, the Union Constitution automatically allocates political authority of legislative, judiciary, and administrative powers to the Legislative Assembly of each National State. Thus, all member states of the Union can freely exercise the right of selfdetermination through the right of self-government within their respective National States. (7) The sovereignty of the Union shall be vested in the people of the Union of Burma, and which shall be exercised by the Union Assembly. Moreover, the federal government shall have authority to decide on action for: (i) (ii) (iii) (iv) monetary policy, defense, foreign relation, and Such other authorities as may be temporarily vested in the federal government of the Union by member states of the Union. The UNLD Inaugural conference elected a panel of patrons and the members of the UNLD presidium and the UNLD secretariats as following: 28
  36. 36. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; Advisors: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe, Pu Lian Uk, M.P., Teddy Buri, M. P., Daniel Aung, M. P., Dr. Maran La Raw, U Khin Maung Kyi Sao Seng Surk (Shan) (Chin) (Kayang) (Lahu) (Kachin) (Rakhine) (Shan) Members of Presidium: 1. Khun Manko Ban, M. P., (Democratic Organization for Kayan National Unity) 2. Dr. Za Hlei Thang, M. P., (Chin National League for Democracy) 3. U Tha Noe, M. P., (Arakan League for Democracy) 4. Sai Win Pay, M. P., (Shan Nationalities League for Democracy) 5. Pu Thang Lian Pau, M.P., (Zomi National Congress) 6. Nai Tun Wai, M. P., (Mon National Democratic Front) 7. Sao Ood Kesi (Shan State National Races League for Democracy) 8. Mahn Nyunt Maung (Union Karen League) 9. Khu Shar Reh (Kayah State All Nationalities League for Democracy) 10. Kya Aye Maung (Lahu National Development Party- LA) 11. Khun Tet Lu (Union Pa-O National League) Standing Body of Presidiums: 1. Khun Manko Ban (Chairman) 2. Dr. Za Hlei Thang 3. U Tha Noe 4. Sai Win Pay 5. Khu Shar Reh 29
  37. 37. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f Secretariats: 1. Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (Secretary General) 2. Sai Doue Working Committees I . Policy Making & External Affairs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe Teddy Buri Pu Lian Uk Dr. Maran La Raw Daniel Aung Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (Leader) (Asst. Leader) (member) (member) (member) (Secretary) II. Organizing & Alliance Affairs 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Khun Manko Ban Sai Win Pay Khu Shar Reh Khine Myo Khine Pu Thang Lian Pau Kya Aye Maung Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (Leader) (Asst. Leader) (member) (member) (member) (member) (Secretary) III. Information & Office 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Manh Nyunt Maung Sai Kyaw Thet Khun Tet Lu Sai Win Kyaw Saw John Lulay Zo Suan Aaron Ngun Ceu Sai Doue (Leader) (Asst. Leader) (member) (member) (member) (member) (member) (Secretary) IV. Finance Committee 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 30 Khun Manko Ban Dr Lian H Sakhong Sao Seng Suk Khu Shia Re Dr Chao Tzang Yawnghwe (Chairma) (Secretary) (Treasurer) (Auditor) (Senior Advisor)
  38. 38. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; The Implementation of Decisions of Inaugural Conference A. Preparation for Tripartite Dialogue At its first conference, the UNLD (LA) officially and firmly endorsed the United Nations General Assembly’s resolution for a Tripartite Dialogue between the military government, the NLD led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the democratic movement of the ethnic nationalities. The UNLD welcomes the efforts of the United Nations to mediate such a dialogue. Pre-dialogue discussions have been started most as a result of initiative taken by Mr. Razali Ismail who is, Mr. Koffi Annan’s special envoy to Burma. As an important part of preparation for a tripartite dialogue, and also to create an ethnic nationalities platform for a tripartite dialogue, the UNLD has taken the initiative and conducted consultative meetings with other ethnic nationalities organizations, especially the National Democratic Front (NDF) and its member organizations of armed resistance groups, such as Karen National Union (KNU), and Chin National Front (CNF), and others. The NDF is composed of armed resistance organizations of ethnic nationalities. The UNLD also sent a team to meet with non-NDF member armed groups such as Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP) and Shan State Army (SSA- South), and also met with ceased-fire group, namely, the Mon New State Party (MNSP). A.1. UNLD-NDF´s Joint Action Committee As a result of these consultative meetings, the UNLD and NDF—two of a largest ethnic nationalities organizations— formed a “Joint Action Committee (JAC) of UNLD-NDF” on March 20, 2001. The committee members of “JAC of UNLD-NDF” are: Saw Ba Thein (Chiarman of KNU- NDF), Khiang Soe Niang Aung (Secretary- NDF), Dr. Sui Khar (Foreign Secretary of CNF - NDF). 31
  39. 39. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe (UNLD), Khun Marko Ban (Elected MP- UNLD) Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (Secretary- UNLD); A.2. UNLD-NDF’s Mission to the United Nations Headquarter in New York The UNLD and NDF also sent a mission consisting of Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe (UNLD), David Taw (NDF), and Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (Secretary- UNLD) to the United Nations HQ in New York City, who met with Mr. Razali Ismail, Mr. Koffi Annan’s special envoy to Burma, and other high ranking UN’s officers, including Mr. Danilo Turk, Under-Secretary General for Political Affairs, and Mr. Hitoki Den, senior officer for Political Affair at the UN. The mission explained the ethnic nationalities standpoint on tripartite dialogue and the UNLDNDF´s policy on the future Federal Union of Burma. A.3. Ethnic Nationalities Seminar and the Formation of ENSCC As far as the UNLD´s preparation for a tripartite dialogue is concerned, the most outstanding achievement undoubtedly is the formation of the “Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation Committee” (ENSCC) at the seminar held in Kawthulee on August 26-30, 2001. The seminar was attended by all major organizations of ethnic nationalities from three blocs; namely political parties under the leadership of UNLD, armed groups which are members of National Democratic Front (NDF), and armed groups but not members of NDF. The ENSCC has been entrusted with task of fostering unity and cooperation between all Ethnic nationalities forces and promote peaceful political settlement in Burma through Tripartite dialogue. It was also resolved that the ENSC would: • 32 Undertake pro-active and constructive actions to bring about peaceful resolution to the political conflict in Burma through a dialogue process involving the SPDC, the NLD
  40. 40. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the Ethnic Nationalities dialogue partners; • Consult widely, cooperate, and work closely with all stake holders in Burma and with the international community, international bodies and agencies, the UN, and humanitarians organizations to resolve the grave humanitaian crises in Burma, which most seriously effect the Ethnic nationalities popultions; • Strive to facilitate an orderly and peaceful democratic transition in Burma, and to rebuild the country in accordance with the spirit of Panglong, the principle of Equality, Selfdetermination, Democracy, and Justice. The ENSCC committee members are: 1. Saw Ba Thin, (Chairman of KNU, NDF) 2. Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe (Director of NRP Program Team) 3. Hteh Bupeh (Chairman of KNPP) 4. Sao Seng Suk (Chairman of Shan Democratic Union) 5. Teddy Buri (President of MPU) 6. Khun Okka (PNLO, Joint Secretary General of NDF) 7. Dr. Lian H. Sakhong (Secretary of UNLD) The ENSCC has sent international lobby team to Europe in December 2001, and to North America and Asia-Pacific regions in January and February of the year 2002. B. Preparation for the State Constitutions The UNLD strongly believes that political crisis in present Burma is not merely ideological confrontation between a democracy and totalitarianism, but a constitutional problem rooted in the question of self-determination for non-Burman nationalities. The best means of solving political crisis in Burma, therefore, is the establishment of a genuine federal union based on the principles of equality for all nationalities and the right of self-determination for all member states of the union, and the democratic rights for all citizens of the Union of Burma. 33
  41. 41. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f In order to establish a genuine Federal Union, all member states of the Union should have their own separate state constitutions, their own organs of state, that is, State Assembly, Administrative Body, and Judiciary. Indeed, the state constitutions are inherent and necessary components of a federal system where power is shared between two levels of governments. The UNLD therefore view drafting of state constitutions as not only an important process of the establishment of a federal union, but also as a preparation for a tripartite dialogue because this is the issue on which all ethnic nationalities in Burma can easily find their common ground. The UNLD, therefore, organized the state constitutions seminar, together with the NDF, from August 20-25, 2001. The seminar was attended by the state constitutions drafting committee members from Chin State, Karen State, Karenni State, Mon State, and Shan State. Observers from Arakan State and Kachin State also were invited for they are still under preparation for forming their state constitutions drafting committees. Members of democratic forces from the Burman ethnic group and federal constitution drafting committee members also were invited to the seminar. The seminar focused on the basic principles of state constitutions based on the “model of state constitution” in America. The skeletons of state constitution, such as—Bill of Rights, Suffrage and Elections, Legislature, Initiative and Referendum, The Executive, Judiciary, Finance (including Revenue and taxation), Local Government, etc., were thoroughly discussed. As a follow up of that seminar, 17 members of state constitutions drafting committees from seven states, namely, Chin, Kachin, Karen, Karenni, Mon, Rakhine, Shan and two representatives of Burma Lawyer Council, went a study trip to Germany for ten days, from 5-15 December 2001. This study trip emphasized the function and structure of German Federalism in the light of how federal government and state governments are functioning, how federal and state government are related with each other and at the same time separated, 34
  42. 42. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; and how two levels of government can co-exist and shared power or separate power in a federal system. In October and November 2002, the UNLD organized two seminars in New Delhi, India, and Chiang Mai, Thailand, under the title of The Role of State Constitutions in the Protection of Nationality and Minority Rights Under Federalism: Dialogues in support of a democratic transition in Burma. The seminars were conducted under the NRP program, and funded by International Institute for Democracy and Electoral Assistance (IDEA) in Stockholm. The specific themes of the seminars include: The rationale for federalism (Is it affordable? Will it exacerbate religious and ethnic conflict, be an impetus for secession?); Boundary delimitation (How is the federal unit to be structured? On the basis of historical boundaries or ethnic/linguistic or religious lines? The advantage/disadvantage of using historical boundaries/ethnic/religious criteria, and or the creative drafting of new boundaries? How federalism and decentralization can ensure ethnic rights?); Conceptualizing state constitutions (Should they be uniform, contain core features, represent the unique features, history and aspirations of the state?); Powers and functions of the Central government and State governments (Scope of the legislative/ executive powers, Subject matters under the control of Central government and State governments, How power is shared between State and Federal governments, e.g. health, education, Role of National/State Institutions (Planning commissions, Ombudsman, Auditors, Central Bank); Challenging issues (Fiscal powers - taxation, police, judiciary, land rights). Scholars from Australia (Professor Cheryl Saunders, Australia National University, Melbourne), India (Professor Yogendra Yadav, Centre for the Study of Developing Societies, New Delhi), and Nigeria (Dr. Otive Igbuzor, Secretary, Citizens’ Forum for Constitutional Reform, Lagos) were invited to present their papers and to share their countries experiences. In November and December 2002, a study trip to Germany and Belgium was conducted by the UNLD for the second 35
  43. 43. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f time. The specific theme of this study trip was to see how local government are functioning and how local and state governments shared power in federal system. Seventeen members from seven state constitution committees and federal constitution drafting committee members participated in the study trip. (See also a separate report on state constitutions drafting process) *********** Working Plan and Schedule January 2001+ Consultations and Preparation for Three-year Programme NATIONAL CONSULTATIONS – INAUGURAL CONGRES February 2001 + Implementation of Decisions of Inaugural Congress: - Strengthening UNLD and Building understanding with Allied Forces (A series of meetings and consultations with Ethnic Forces, especially with NDF; to create underground channels to contact with inside UNLD members and Cease-fire groups) - Seminar on ‘State Constitutions’ (with NDF) - Conducting ethnic nationalities seminar as part of preparation for Tripartite Dialogue (with NDF, nonNDF armed groups) - Workshop on Negotiation Techniques and Strategies (with NRP) - Publication: Peaceful Co-existence: Towards Federal Union of Burma, Vol. 2. February 2002 36
  44. 44. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; NATIONAL CONSULTATION – ANNUAL MEETING March 2002 + Implementation of Decisions of Annual Meeting: - Strengthening and Expansion of UNLD, especially in India side, by opening a branch office in New Delhi. - Strengthening inside activities through UG-channels - Seminars/ workshops on a ‘State Constitutions’ (with NDF) - Conducting Ethnic Nationalities Seminar (with NDF) - Preparation for Tripartite Dialogue (and strengthening the ENSCC) - Workshop on Negotiation Techniques and Strategies for ENSCC and other top leaders (with NRP-DHF) - Publication: Peaceful Co-existence: Towards Federal Union of Burma, Vol. 3. January 2003 NATIONAL CONSULTATION – 2nd CONGRESS February 2003 + Implementation of Decisions of 2nd Congress: - Strengthening inside activities - Finalizing the Preparation/Drafting State Constitutions - Workshop on power sharing and relation between Federal and States - Preparation for Tripartite Dialogue (ENSCC) - Preparation for Transitional Government (ENSCC, NDF) - Seminar on a ‘National Convention’ (with NDF) - Publication: Peaceful Co-existence: Towards Federal Union of Burma, Vol. 4. ______ Submitted by Lian H. Sakhong General Secretary ************* 37
  45. 45. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f ETHNIC NATIONALTIES INITIATIVE FOR TRIPARTITE DIALOGUE __________ Submitted by Dr. Lian H. Sakhong General Secretary Part (1) Report on Activities of Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity And Cooperation Committee (ENSCC) 1. Background History, Mandate and Mission The “Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation Committee” (ENSCC) was formed at the Ethnic Nationalities Seminar held in Kawthulee on August 26-30, 2001, to coordinate the following non-Burman political groupings: 1. Political parties under the leadership of United Nationalities League for Democracy (UNLD) 2. Armed groups which are members of National Democratic Front (NDF), 3. Armed groups but not members of NDF, such as Karenni National Progressive Party (KNPP) and Shan State Army (SSA-South). 4. Ceasefire groups. The ENSCC, therefore, has been entrusted with task of fostering unity and cooperation between all Ethnic nationalities forces and promotes peaceful political settlement in Burma through Tripartite dialogue. It was also resolved that the ENSCC would: (i) Undertake pro-active and constructive actions to bring about peaceful resolution to the political conflict in Burma through a dialogue process involving the SPDC, 38
  46. 46. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; the NLD led by Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, and the Ethnic Nationalities dialogue partners; (ii) Consult widely, cooperate, and work closely with all stakeholders in Burma and with the international community, international bodies and agencies, the UN, and humanitarian organizations to resolve the grave humanitarian crises in Burma, which most seriously effect the Ethnic nationalities populations; (iii)Strive to facilitate an orderly and peaceful democratic transition in Burma, and to rebuild the country in accordance with the spirit of Panglong, the principle of Equality, Self-determination, Democracy, and Justice. Mission • • • • Promote the Profile of the Ethnic Nationalities on the international stage. ENSCC, coordinate and work for Tripartite Dialogue. Reviving the Panglong Spirit, and nation-building. Build or facilitate Unity and Cohesion among all Ethnic Nationalities forces, inside and outside, including promoting and supporting political actions inside. 2. Dialogue Strategy 2.1. Tripartite Dialogue One of the main objectives of forming the ENSCC, as mentioned above, is to take pro-active and constructive actions to bring about peaceful resolution to the political conflict in Burma through a dialogue process. In lines with this objective, the ENSCC has launching international and national campaigns, and produced its position papers under the title of “The New Panglong Initiative: Re-Building the Union of Burma”. The ENSCC position is that any transitional authority arrangement before prior to tripartite dialogue will not be useful and could create serious problems for a smooth and orderly transition. The ENSCC, therefore, wants a tripartite dialogue before the formation of the interim government. The ENSCC 39
  47. 47. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f believes that this arrangement will ensure the smooth transition by forming widely accepted interim authority. In other words the tripartite element of the dialogue constitutes a strategic component of the ENSCC’s strategy objective. To ensure that there is tripartite dialogue and meaningful participation of the Ethnic Nationalities in the transition process, the ENSCC will work toward – push for – the convening of an Ethnic Nationalities Conference as broached very earlier on by Razali and the UN team. The ENSCC believes that the time is now ripe and conditions are now favorable for such a conference. In other words, a country-wide Ethnic Nationalities Conference (preferably outside Burma, in Malaysia, for example) will be a major lobbying and action platform of the Ethnic Nationalities and the ENSCC. 2.2. Ethnic Nationalities Conference 1. The ENSCC shall conduct Ethnic Nationalities Conference as soon as possible. 2. The ENSCC should do the coordination for ethnic nationalities/organizations both inside and outside. (Detail work plan is not mentioned here). 3. The criteria for selection of representatives to the Ethnic Nationalities shall be both state-based and ethnic-based representation. 4. The preparation for the Ethnic Nationalities Conference would be composed of three parts: ONE: Letters to Taksin, Razali, Mahathir, Italy, Germany, and France broaching this idea. TWO: International lobby trips – e.g., a lobby tour of Europe and/or lobbying EU THREE: Coordination works (preparation) between Inside and Outside Ethnic Nationalities forces. 2.3. International Lobby Trips (i) The UN and USA trips. (ii) The EU Lobby trip: ASEM conference in Copenhagen, Denmark, 22 September 2002. 40
  48. 48. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; 2.4.Panglong Initiative: More Concrete Plan (on Humanitarian Aid, Cease Fire, and Political Dialogue) (i) The most important decision is an agreement on going ahead with the H-Aid initiative (as a strategic link of the PangLong Initiative]. HY is charged with the task of preparing a concrete H-Aid Initiative DRAFT Plan. (ii) To be included in the plan are the 10 points on H-Aid agreed upon at the SCC Meeting in February 2002 (See appendix). Other components agreed upon are Cross-Border aid (to reach the most vulnerable population and most in need), Official Consultation (as opposed to mere “consultation” or informal consultation), and multilateral (joint) implementation and mechanism. An issue which could be worked into the DRAFT plan is “nation-wide” cease-fire, if needed or suitable. (iii) The H-Aid Initiative DRAFT Plan is to be submitted to the ENSCC for further consultation and decision. If the ENSCC agrees to adopt the H-Aid plan (after making necessary changes as needed), the ENSCC will consult with the mother organizations and push for support. (iv) The ENSCC agreed that there should be an "independent" Ethnic Nationalities stand on H-Aid and initiative because their population is the worst affected and most vulnerable. Also, the ENSCC is of the opinion that unless clear condition are established, or are tabled and debated, the "free" or unconditional flow of HAid will mostly, if not only, the regime directly and indirectly. 3.1. Tactics & Strategy :Federalism vs. independence 3.1.1. Regarding policy goals and tactical positions, the ENSCC recognized that the Karenni (KNPP) position regarding independence vs. federalism is or should be 41
  49. 49. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f the model, and the SSA/S tactical position is the most suitable. The SSA/S tactical position is that it accepts Tripartite Dialogue, and that it recognizes that the people will decide what is best for the people of Shan State. The RCSS representative stated that if the SSA/ S do not recognize and accept reality, it will be marginalized and will wither away. 3.1. 2. It was clarified and agreed that federalism is an issue that is separate from “Joining with Burma Proper”, and that there is another option – i.e., establishing a federal union without Burma Proper (……if Burman leaders do not want to be part of a federal union). NOTE: The above option, a Federal Union among territorial states that are committed to federalism (i.e., the Panglong spirit and principle), is a strategically relevant, strategically useful, option – vis-à-vis both the Burman and international actors — which has not been much thought about and/or developed by the Ethnic Nationalities. The unfortunate fact is that federalism has been confused with “joining with Burma Proper”. As a result, the thinking of the Ethnic Nationalities on federalism have been dominated by an issue that has nothing much to do with federalism – i.e., the “joining with Burma Proper” issue. 3.2. The Mode of Representation: States- or Ethnicbased? 3.2.1 On the matter of representation mode, the ENSCC prefers a flexible mode where both the state-based and ethnic-based representation mode is recognized. [NOTE: it was earlier suggested the ENSCC should adopt a “States representation” mode at the EU-ASEM lobbying and other tours.] 3.2.2. 42 It was clarified that the Karen were very earlier on oriented to the notion of ethnic equality and ethnic rights – from the colonial period – because they were
  50. 50. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; part of Burma Proper, did not have a separate state. Whereas the Shan and Karenni are state-oriented because they “possessed” their own states since precolonial times, and as well in the colonial period. 3.2.3. Because of the above historical-political context, there has been much confusion over who represents what. For example, the NDF’s goal is federalism, a federation of equal and self-determining states, but it political language is about ethnic equality, ethnic selfdetermination, not about states. NOTE: The ethnic equality, ethnic representation, ethnic selfdetermination orientation can be very confusing for international and academic actors as well because it implies that politics in Burma is about ethnicity, ethnic equality, ethnic self-determination – and not about federalism (or Panglong). The SPDC has used the ethnic oriented language (of the Ethnic Nationalities) to say that there are over 130 ethnic groups, thus making it necessary to have a military-dominated centralized state, to prevent ethnic conflict and the disintegration of the country. 4. Statement on the Release of Daw Aung Suu Kyi: (Date: 9 May 2002) The Ethnic Nationalities Solidarity and Cooperation Committee (ENSCC) commends the unconditional release by the SPDC of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi from a 19-months unlawful house arrest, and with respect to the meeting of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi with Khun Htun Oo and other ethnic nationalities leaders, the ENSCC welcomes Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s statesmanlike and correct stand on the right of the ethnic nationalities: their right to self-determination and the right to resolve their own problems within the national reconciliation framework. The ENSCC, formed to achieve national reconciliation in Burma through tripartite dialogue, is encouraged by the recent development in Burma owed to the efforts and good office of 43
  51. 51. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f Special Envoy H.E. Razali Ismail, and will continue to work closely with all parties in Burma, with the U.N., and with international supporters of peace and national reconciliation. The ENSCC calls upon the SPDC to respond constructively to the high expectations raised by its release of Daw Aung Suu Kyi and urge the SPDC to recognize the rights of the ethnic nationalities to fully and meaningfully participate in the national reconciliation process. In this respect, there is a need for ethnic national leaders and organizations to meet to resolve Burma’s problem. Specifically, the ENSCC looks forward to the SPDC’s cooperation in the on-going efforts of the ethnic nationalities to build a peaceful and harmonious federal Union of Burma in accordance with the Panglong spirit. 5. The ENSCC Committee Members: 1. Saw Ba Thin, Chairman, Karen National Union 2. Dr. Chao Tzang Yawnghwe National Reconciliation Program 3. Hteh Bupeh Chairman, KNPP 4. Sao Seng Suk Shan Democratic Union 5. Teddy Buri President, MPU 6. Khun Okka Joint Secretary General of NDF 7. Dr. Lian H. Sakhong Secretary of UNLD-LA - Mr. Harn Yawnghwe - Saw David Taw Official Advisor Personal Assistant to Saw Ba Thin ************* Part (2) 44
  52. 52. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; ENSCC POLICY PAPER The New Panglong Initiative: RE-BUILDING THE UNION OF BURMA Preamble Over five decades ago, while our leaders were meeting in Panglong to deliberate the possibility of a future together after the proposed withdrawal of British protection, General Aung San, the Burman leader of the independence struggle in Ministerial Burma arrived. He instead proposed that our separate homelands in the Frontier Areas be joined to Ministerial Burma as equal partners in a new ‘Union of Burma’ to hasten the process of achieving independence from Britain. On 11 February 1947, he said: The dream of a unified and free Burma has always haunted me … We who are gathered here tonight are engaged in the pursuit of the same dream.… We have in Burma many indigenous peoples: the Karen, the Kachin, the Shan, the Chin, the Burmans and others… In other countries too there are many indigenous peoples, many “races.”… Thus “races” do not have rigid boundaries. Religion is no barrier either, for it is a matter of individual conscience… If we want the nation to prosper, we must pool our resources, manpower, wealth, skills and work together. If we are divided, the Karen, the Shan, the Kachin, the Chin, the Burman, the Mon and the Arakanese, each pulling in a different direction, the Union will be torn, and we will come to grief. Let us unite and work together. Our forefathers agreed and the Panglong Agreement came into being, providing a legal framework within which the different ethnic peoples would cooperate as equals. The Aung San-Attlee Agreement, which paved the way for Burma’s independence, had called for the “unification of the Frontier 45
  53. 53. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f Areas and Ministerial Burma with the free consent of those areas.” The Panglong Agreement, therefore, became the basis for the 1947 Union Constitution and the Republic of the Union of Burma gained independence in 1948. We, the representatives of the Arakan, Chin, Kachin, Karen, Karenni, Mon and Shan peoples, therefore, in the spirit of Panglong, are putting forward our vision of how our peoples can once again work together voluntarily as equals with the Burmans to rebuild the Republic of the Union of Burma, which has been devastated by five decades of war. Background Our new nation, the Republic of the Union of Burma, started well with the Panglong Agreement on 12 February 1947. But five months later on 19 July, General Aung San was assassinated. However, it was not only the Burmans who lost their leader, two of our leaders, Sao Sam Htun, the Shan Sawbwa of Mong Pawn, and Mahn Ba Khaing, a Karen, also died for their dream of a united country together with Aung San. In spite of the fact that in the aftermath of the assassination, the 1947 Union Constitution was rushed through to completion without reflecting the spirit of Panglong – a voluntary union of equal partners - our leaders continued to support the government of U Nu who had succeeded Aung San. When the Communist Party of Burma started their armed revolution; when the war veterans of the People’s Volunteer Organization went underground; when Burman units of the Burma Army mutinied; our leaders remained loyal to the spirit of Panglong and their promise to work together to build a new nation. The loyalty of our leaders was, however, not rewarded. Instead of moving to conform more to the spirit of Panglong as the Union Government stabilized, the opposite was true. Our ethnic identities and equality, which were specifically recognized at Panglong, were slowly eroded away. Even the constitutional right of the Shan people to disassociate from the 46
  54. 54. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; Union after 10 years, guaranteed in the 1947 Union Constitution, was denied them. Our leaders tried to return to the spirit of Panglong by proposing to amend the 1947 Constitution. But General Ne Win launched a coup d’etat in 1962 supposedly ‘to save the nation from disintegration’ and further denied us our rights even those guaranteed in the Union constitution. This increasing repression of our rights unfortunately led to more and more abuses until it finally led to the unhappy massacre of unarmed civilians in 1988. The State Law and Order Restoration Council (SLORC) and now the State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) arranged separate cease-fire arrangements with different nonBurman ethnic armies. It has represented the cease-fire as correcting the wrongs of the past, as building peace and rebuilding the country. However, while the fighting has stopped in some areas, it has intensified in others causing more suffering for the people. This is because the root of the problem has not been dealt with by the ceasefires. No political negotiations have taken place since the ceasefires started in 1989 and no political settlements have been reached between the ethnic armies and the Burmese military. A comprehensive political solution for the whole nation is needed, not just temporary military ceasefires which can be revoked at any time. The Union of Burma today is facing an unprecedented crisis – economic, social and political. The survival of the Union as we know it may even be at stake. Therefore, while remembering the past, we must look to the future. The question is - Can we overcome our differences and prevent the Union of Burma from disintegrating? Can we work together to perpetuate the sovereignty of the Union of Burma? Can we unite to raise the quality of life of all the peoples of Burma? 47
  55. 55. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f We, the non-Burmans believe that all these can be achieved, if the spirit of Panglong is respected. Vision for the Future We firmly believe that the crisis in the Union of Burma today is rooted in a political problem, specifically a constitutional one – the non-adherence to the spirit of Panglong. As such, we believe that our differences can be resolved through political means, i.e. through political dialogue, negotiations and compromise. We, therefore, warmly welcome the current ‘Secret Talks’ between Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) led by Senior General Than Shwe. We are confident that these talks will lead to a wide-ranging and in-depth political dialogue, the Tripartite Dialogue, involving all stakeholders that will eventually lead to a new constitutional arrangement between the various states of the Union of Burma as was envisioned in 1947. We recognize that in a mature democracy, there is no room for a political role for the military but we also recognize that the military played a key role in the struggle for independence from Britain. Non-Burman military forces have also played key roles in the defence of our homelands and to uphold the political aspirations of our people. In times of crisis, the military has to ensure that the rights of the people are protected. We further recognize that in 1990, the people of the Union voted for the National League for Democracy (NLD) under the leadership of Daw Aung San Suu Kyi. We believe that, she should have been able to form a government. Therefore, given the crisis Burma is facing, we believe that it is within Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s mandate − if she wishes − to invite the State Peace and Development Council and non-Burmans nationalities, including those with ceasefires arrangement as well as those without, to form a transition government to oversee a smooth transition to democracy. 48
  56. 56. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; The ‘Transition Government’ should, however, make it a priority to convene a new ‘Panglong Conference’ of representatives of the constituent states to determine how we can work together to rebuild the nation. Interim Measures to facilitate the transition The ‘Transition Government’, however, will face tremendous challenges. How can it convene a new ‘Panglong Conference’ or ‘National Convention’, without also dealing with the huge problems facing the nation – both economic and social? The ‘Transition Government’ will need to alleviate the suffering of those most deprived if it wants to convince the people of Burma that they will benefit if they participate in efforts to rebuild the nation. Our ethnic homelands have been devastated by five decades of war. Fertile lands lie fallow, hundreds of thousands have been displaced from their homes. They have been deprived of security, their livelihood, education and medical care, and many are refugees or living sub-standard lives as migrant labourers in foreign lands. We, therefore, call upon the international community to, within the framework of the current ‘Secret Talks’ between the SPDC and Daw Aung San Suu Kyi, explore ways and means to begin delivering humanitarian aid directly and without political interference to those in most urgent need, especially in the non-Burman ethnic states. The delivery of humanitarian aid to areas of most urgent need, however, cannot be done effectively and efficiently in a war zone. We are, therefore, ready to cease all hostilities if SPDC will also agree to cease hostilities. We are even willing to unilaterally declare a ceasefire in our respective areas if the United Nations can ensure that the SPDC will accept the ceasefire and the international community is willing to monitor the ceasefire. Such a nationwide ceasefire will demonstrate irrevocably that the current ‘Secret Talks’ are being taken seriously by all parties and that it will develop into an all encompassing political 49
  57. 57. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f dialogue to resolve the crisis in Burma. The nationwide ceasefire will help reduce the incidence of forced labour (including military porterage), anti-religious activities, forced relocations and human rights abuses. It will also reduce the flow of refugees into neighbouring countries. Furthermore, as the ‘Transition Government’ moves to convene a new ‘Panglong Conference’, or ‘National Convention’, it will need to ensure that all segments of society including non-Burmans, Burmans, exiles and the military, can actively participate in the political deliberations and contribute to the rebuilding of the Union of Burma. Therefore, we urge all parties to seriously consider the possibility that the ‘Transition Government’ grant - immunity from arrest for those considered to be outside the law by the SPDC and immunity from prosecution for military leaders considered to have committed abuses by the world community. A truth and reconciliation process as was carried out in South Africa could be considered at a later date. Principles to Ensure Political Stability In addition to the above interim measures, we propose that the following principles be agreed upon by all participants, to enable the ‘Transition Government’ and the new ‘Panglong Conference’ or ‘National Convention’ to resolve the many problems we face in a systematic and step-by-step process: MORATORIUM - In the initial stage of the transition, before we have decided on a constitutional arrangement between the historic states of the Union, we should agree to refrain from attempting to subdivide or change the boundaries or names of the current states and divisions. All issues of concern should be addressed in subsequent constitutional talks. HUMAN AND CITIZENSHIP RIGHTS – Agree that all citizens of the Union regardless of their ethnic or social background, religion or state of residence, have the same basic human and democratic rights. It should be further agreed that illegal immigrants have the basic human rights as set up in the 50
  58. 58. 'kwd,t}udrfnDvmcHrSwfwrf; Universal Declaration of Human Rights. They, however, do not have the same democratic rights as citizens. It should be further agreed that cultural and religious rights must be respected. DECENTRALIZATION – Agree that all states within the Union should consider decentralizing their administrative structures to enable the multi-ethnic societies in their midst to function in harmony with their respective neighbours and prevent the unjust domination of one group over the other. Decentralization, however, should not be taken to mean that the national government cannot have national policies that will benefit the whole nation. PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION – Agree that proportional representation should be considered for all electoral processes within the Union including state and local elections, in order to enable smaller grouping to participate fully in the political process. Such a system will enable multiethnic societies to function in harmony with their respective neighbours and prevent the unjust domination of one group over the other. Conclusion The Union of Burma came into being as an independent sovereign nation in 1948 because all the different ethnic nationalities agreed to work together as equals. Today, the Union of Burma is facing a very serious crisis due to the nonadherence to the spirit of and the agreement reached at Panglong. The current ‘Secret Talks’ between Daw Aung San Suu Kyi and the ruling State Peace and Development Council (SPDC) led by Senior General Than Shwe is a very crucial and important first step in the right direction. We, the non-Burman ethnic nationalities, warmly welcome this development and are confident that these talks will lead to a wide-ranging and in-depth political dialogue that will in turn lead to a new just and voluntary constitutional arrangement 51
  59. 59. jynfaxmifpwi;&if;om;vlrsKd ;rsm; 'Drua&pDtzJ@G csKyf (vGwajrmufe,fajr) k kd f kd f between the various states of the Union of Burma as was envisioned in 1947. We believe that if we adhere to the spirit of Panglong, we can overcome our many and long-fought-over differences and rebuild a nation that will benefit all our peoples. ************* 52

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