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12
tcef; (1)
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31
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ
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ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ

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ျမန္ႏုိင္ငံစီးပြားေရးဖြံ႔ၿဖဳိးတုိးတက္ေရး ေတြးျမင္ခ်က္ႏွင့္ မဟာဗ်ဴဟာ

  1. 1. jrefrmEdkifiHpD;yGm;a&;zGHΘzd;wdk;wufa&; awG;jrifcsufESifh r[mAsL[m
  2. 2. jrefrmEdkifiHpD;yGm;a&;zGHŒòzd;wdk;wufa&; awG;jrifcsufESifh r[mAsL[m a'gufwmcifarmif=unf a'gufwma&mfe,f zif'av a'gufwm tm&f-trf- qGef'&rf a'gufwmjrarmif a'gufwmrsKd;!Gef@ OD;aZmfOD;ESifh jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;ynm&Sifrsm;? OD;atmifol+idrf;ESifh jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;bmom&yf avhvmqnf;yl;ol jrefrmausmif;olausmif;om;rsm;u 0kdif;0ef;bmomjyefqkd=u+yD;/ ygarmuQ a'gufwmOD;cifarmif=unf/ OD;aZmfOD;ESifh a':ar+idrf;wd@k u wnf;jzwfygonf? ygarmuQa'gufwmOD;cifarmif=unf. xyfrH&Sif;vif;jznfhpGufcsufrsm; yg0ifygonf? Tpmwrf;a&;om;avhvmcsufudk puFmylEdkifiH/ puFmyltrsKd;om;wuUodvf/ pD;yGm;a&;pDrHcef@cGJa&;qdkif&m k r[mXme (Faculty of Business Administration)/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;qdkif&m okawoeESifh zGH@òz;r_A[dkXme (Center for Business Research and Development) . }uD;=uyfr_atmufY aqmif&GufcJjh cif;jzpfygonf? tdkavmhyrf; EdkifiHwumyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;A[dkXmerS xkwfa0onf?
  3. 3. pmtkyfrSwfwrf; yxrt}udrfxkwfa0jcif;? rlydkifcGifh? yHkESdyfjzef@csd? t*Fvdyfbmomjzifh (2000) ckESpf? Olof Palme International Center PO Box (3221) S-10364 Stockholm, Sweden. ISBN 918-883616-9 Singapore University Press (Pte) Ltd Yusof Ishak House, 31 Lower Kent Ridge Road, Singapore 119078 Fax: (65) 774 0652; E-mail: supbooks@nus.edu.sg http://www.nus.edu.sg/SUP 'kwd,t}udrfxkwfa0jcif;? jrefrmbmomjzifh (2007) ckESpf/ rwfv? tkyfa&? 000000 yHkESdyfjzef@csD? Vahu Institute P.O Box (32) Chinag Mai University P.O Chiang Mai 50202 Thailand. ISBN 000-000000-0 Tpmtkyfygtcsuftvufrsm;udk wckvHk;aomfvnf;aumif;/ wpdwfwydkif;aomfvnf;aumif;/ rlydkif&Sif. cGifhðycsufr&&SdbJ jyefvnfyHkESdyfjcif;/ odkrSD;xm;jcif;/ jzef@a0jcif;udk tDvufx&Gefepfenf;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ tDvufx&pfenf;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ "gwkenf;/ vufjzifh/ pmul;pufjzifh/ zdkwdaumfyDenf;tm;jzifhaomf k vnf;aumif;/ tjcm;enf;trsKd;rsKd;jzifhaomfvnf;aumif;/ rnfonfenf;ESifhr# aqmif&GufcGifhrðyyg? rlydkifcGifh h tm;vH;udk rSwfyHkwifxm;+yD; jzpfygonf? k
  4. 4. ody`H orH "eH ewWd twwfynmESifhwlaom ypPnf;OpPmonf r&Sd? avmueDwd
  5. 5. rmwdum Oa,smZOftzGifhpum; aus;Zl;pum; Tpmtkyfudk b,fvkd pkaygif; a&;om;=uygoenf;? bmomjyefqdkxm;aom jrefrmjyefpmtkyf. ed'gef; tcef; (1) ed'gef; tcef; (2) taxGaxGokH;oyfcsufESifh tajccHrl0g'rsm;wnfaqmufxm;yHk tcef; (3) pdkufysKd;a&;u¾ tcef; (4) pufr_vkyfief;rsm;u¾ tcef; (5) obm0o,HZmw pGrf;tm;rsm;ESifh obm0ywf0ef;usif tcef; (6) EdkifiHwumukefoG,fr_ESifh &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_ tcef; (7) trsKd;om;ruU&dkpD;yGm;a&;wnf+idrfapa&;twGuf b¾ma&;ESifh aiGa=u;qdkif&mrl0g'rsm; tcef; (8) qif;&Jr_ESifh 0ifaiGcGJa0jzef@jzL;r_ tcef; (9) ynma&;u¾ tcef; (10) tajccHtaqmuftOD tcef; (11) tzGJ@tpnf;qdkif&mpepfrsm; tcef; (12) OD;pm;ay;tpDtpOfrsm;/ jyemrsm;ESifh taumiftxnfazmf&mwGif ñuHawG@&rnfjh yemrsm; tcef; (13) ed*Hk; usrf;ud;pm&if; k yg0ifa&;om; ðypk=uolrsm; aemufqufwJG (1) 0dkif;0ef;a0zeft=uHðy=uaom rdwfaqGynm&Sifrsm;
  6. 6. Oa,smZOftzGifpum; h (20) &mpkESpf. 'kwd,w0ufydkif;umvonf/ urBm}uD;wckvH;. pD;yGm;a&;zGH@òz;wd;wufr_ t&Sdef k k t[kefjzifh wd;wufvmcJhaom umvjzpfonf? xl;jcm;wd;wufr_rSm odoomomyifjzpfonf? ,cifumvrsm; k k d ESifhrwl/ TuJhodk@pD;yGm;a&;wd;wufr_ t&Sdeft[kefudk urBmtESH@tjym;&Sd/ 0ifaiGtqifhtwef; toD;oD;&Sd=u k aomEdkifiHtrsm;tjym;wGifyg &&Sd cHpm;cJh=u&jcif; jzpfonf? trSefwu,fyif/ qif;&JaomEdkifiHrsm;onf csrf;om aomEdkifiHrsm;xuf ydkI wd;wufr_t&Sdeft[kef/ ydkrdkv#ifjrefjrifhrm;pGm wd;wufvmcJh=uonf? wdk;wuf+yD;aom k k EdkifiH}uD;rsm;udk trDvdkufvmcJh=uonf? xdk twGua=umifhyif EdkifiHtm;vH;&Sdjynfolrsm;taejzifh vlaer_tqifh f k twef;jrifhrm;pGm/ wurBmvH;twdif;twmjzifhaygif;qHkrdvmjcif;[kyif ajymqdkvmcJh=uonf? k k od@k aomfvnf; tcsKd@aomEdkifiHrsm;wGifrl TumvwGif/ pD;yGm;a&;zGH@òz;wd;wufr_rSm pdwf"gwfusp&m k aumif;avmufatmif aES;auG;usefae&pfonf? Todk@rwd;wufbJ usefaeaomtaetxm;wGif &SdaecJhonfh k jrefrmEdkifiH. tajctaerSmvnf; txl;yifowdðyp&myif jzpfonf? Tta=umif;tcsufwGif ae&mtESH@ tjym;wGif&Sdae=uaom EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;ynm&Sif u|rf;usifolrsm;twGuf txl;pdk;&drfylyef zG,f&myif jzpfonf? Tta=umif;tcsufonfyif/ jynfwGif;Yaexdif=uaom jrefrmEdkifiHolEdkifiHom;rsm;/ k tjcm;urBmae&mrsm;odk@ c&D;oGm;ae =u&aomjrefrmjynfojl ynfom;rsm;twGufvnf; txl;pdk;&drfylyefzG,fyif jzpfonf? xdtwGufa=umifhyif vGefcJhaom &mpkESpfw0ufumvu wurBmvHk;twdif;twmjzifh pD;yGm;a&; k k w[kefxd; tHkºuGwdk;wufvmcJhaoma&pD;a=umif;ay:odk@ jrefrmEdkifiHyg0ifyl;aygif;Edkifa&;twGuf vrf;c&D;wGif k wpfqdk@[ef@wm;aeaom t"duusaom udpPrsm;udk pepfwusoH;oyf ppfaq;=u&efrSm/ txl;ta&;}uD;vmyg k onf? ydkIta&;}uD;onfrSm EdkifiHtaejzifh TtcuftcJtwm;tqD;rsm;udk ausmv$m;oGm;Edkifrnfhvrf; f a=umif;rsm; &SmazGazmfxkwfa&;ESifh/ ydkIwqifhjrifhaom pD;yGGg;a&;zGH@òz;wdk;wufr_&&Sdap&efyif jzpfygonf? T&nf&G,fcsujf zifhyif/ ,cktpD&ifcHpmu rsm;pGmóu;yrf;tm;xkwfxm;ygonf? txl;ojzifh TtpD &ifcHpmudk jrefrmynm&Sifrsm;udk,fwkif pepfwusavhvma&;om;xm;=ujcif; jzpfygonf? xdk@tjyif TtpD&if d cHpma&;om; a&;twGuf avhvmor_ðy=u&mwGif/ xdkjrefrmynm&Sifrsm;. ºu,f0aomtawG@tñuHrsm;/ EdkifiH . jyemrsm;tay: yk*~dKvfa&;avhvmr_rsm;ESifh a&S@a&Smufjzpfvmrnfh tajctaewGuqcsufrsm;udkvnf; f aygif;pyfcJh=uygonf? xdkr#ru TtpD&ifpmudk pkpnf;a&;om;cJh=uaom ynm&Sifrsm;rSm/ EdkifiHwumtESH@ tjym;vSnfhvnfc&D;oGm;ae=u+yD;/ urBmwv$m;&SdtqifhjrifhwuUokvfrsm;wGif zGH@òz;a&;txl;ðyynm&Sifrsm; d e,fy,fY ynm&yfydkif;qdkif&mt&vnf; *k%fowif;}uD;ausm=f um;olrsm;jzpf=uygonf? xdtwGufa=umifhyif k Tynm&Sifrsm;taejzifh olwd@k teD;uyfod&Sdaom wdif;jynf. tajctaejyemrsm;ESifh/ pD;yGm;a&;ody`Hynm. k aemufqHk;jzpfay:wdk;wufaer_rsm;udk aygif;pyfay;Edkif=u+yD;/ jrefrmEdkifiHtem*wfzGH@òz;wdk;wufr_twGuf rnfonfh enf;vrf;jzifh taumif;qHk;taumiftxnfazmfEdkif=urnfqdkonfukvnf; tao;pdwftwGif;usus azmfjyay; d EdkifcJh=uygonf? aemufydkif;wGif qufvufazmfjyaomt&mrsm;rSm trsm;u a,bk,sem;vnfxm;ovd/k pD;yGm;a&; zGH@òz;wdk;wufr_twGuf pDrHudef;wck r[kwfyg? Tae&mwGif pDrHudef;qdkonfudajym&rnfqdkv#if/ twdtus&&Sd k vdaom &nfrSef;csufypfrSwfrsm;/ tpDtpOfrsm; tao;pdwfudk taumiftxnfazmfrnfh tcsdefZ,m;rsm;/ xdk k &nfrSef;csufudk taumiftxnfazmfEdkifa&;twGuf pGrf;tm;rsm;udk rnfod@k &SmazGazmfxkw&,lrnf? ukefus f rnfh cef@rSef;aiGa=u; pm&if;Z,m;rsm;ESifh &&Sdvmaom&v'frsm;udk rnfuJodk@xdef;csKyfrnfenf;paom tcsuf h rsm;yg0ifvdrfhrnf jzpfygonf? Tazmfjyygtajctaetwdif;qdkv#if pDrHudef;a&;qGJjcif;udk ynm&Siftkyfpki,f k av;r#ESifh xda&muf pGma&;qGJEdkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg? xdkynm&Sifrsm;rSm vufiif;pDrHcsufrsm;udk a&;qGJtaumif azmfae=uonfhwm0ef&Sdolrsm;ESifh eD;eD;pyfpyf yl;aygif; aqmif&Gufae=uolrsm;vnf; r[kwfyg? txl;qdk&v#if Tynm&Sifrsm;pGmrSm EdkifiHrSa0;I&yfa0;ajrjcm;odk@ a&muf&SdaecJhonfrSm vGefcJhaomESpfumvrsm;uyif jzpfyg onf? 2
  7. 7. od@k ygaomfvnf; Tynm&Sif}uD;rsm; wwfpGrf;aqmif&GufEdkifor#/ ,ckavhvmcsufwGif pkpnf;aqmif &Gufxm;or#rSm EdkifiHwcktaejzifh a&&SnfumvwGif zGH@òz;wdk;wufvmapa&;twGuf rjzpfraepOf;pm;=u&rnfh jyemrsm;udk rD;armif;xd; azmfjyxm;jcif;jzpfygonf? jrefrmEdkifiH ordkif;xl;jcm;csufukd xnfhoGif;pOf;pm;I/ k wdif;jynf. jyifywGif jzpfay:ajymif;vJaeaom tajctaersm;udk csifhcsdefI/ tem*wfumvwGif jzpfvmEdkif k aomtvm;tvmrsm;ESifh rSef;qcsufrsm;udk cef@rSef;wGucsufI azmfjyxm;jcif;jzpfygonf? Tod@k wGucsuf f f cef@rSef;r_rsm;rSaeI rnfonfhudpPrsKd;ud&nf ±G,fcsufxm;&rnf[laom tjrifudjk zpfay:vmap+yD;/ jrefrmEdkifiH k tem*wfwGif a&&SnfzGH@òz; wdk;wufapa&;twGuf rnfonfvrf;a=umif;rsKd;jzifh csOf;uyfoifhonf/ rnfonfh h vm;&mudk a&G;cs,foifhonf[laom tjriftm&Hkudk &vmaprnfjzpfonf? Tavhvmcsufpmwrf;tm;jzifh jrefrmEdkifiHwGif;&Sd pepfopfyHkpHcsrSwfa&;qGJrnf/h rl0g'rsm;udk taumiftxnfazmfaqmif=urnfh EdkifiHa&; acgif;aqmifrsm;udk tjrif&&Sdap&ef&nf&G,f+yD;/ tvSL&SifEdkifiHrsm;rSEdkifiHacgif;aqmifrsm;udvnf; vdktyfrnfh k ulnyHhydk;r_ aiGa=u;yrm%ESifh enf;ynmqdkif&myHhydk;r_rsm;udk rSef;qwGucsufEdkifaprnf jzpfygonf? TuJhod@k D f r[mAsL[mqdkif&m avhvmcsufrsm;udk ðy&mY wbufwGiftar&duefEdkifiHyHkpHudk avhvmouJodk@/ tjcm; h wbufwGif csDvDEdkifiHOyrmpojzifh tvSrf;us,fajympGm avhvmaqmif&GufcJ=h ujcif; jzpfygonf? jrefrmEdkifiHESifh eD;pyfaomEdkifiHrsm;jzpfonfh puFmylESifh rav;&Sm;EdkifiHrsm;wGif qdkv#if TuJhodk@aomavhvmr_rsm;udk olwkd@EdkifiH . rl0g'rsm;udk tao;pdwfavhvma&;qGJ&eftwGuf aqmif&Gufavh&Sd=uygonf? TOyrmudk,lI ,ckwifjy xm;aom avhvmcsufpmwrf;udk tajccHtjzpfðyI jrefrmEdkifiHjynfovlxktrsm; zlvHºk uG,f0apa&;twGuf l qifhyGm; =uHqjcif;/ qufvufaqG;aEG;jiif;ckefjcif;rsm;jzifh a&S@qufwk;wufatmif aqmif&Guf=uap&ef &nf&G,f d csufyHk=urf; jzpfygonf? od@k aomfvnf; jrefrmjynfolrsm;. zlvHkºu,f0apa&;qdkonfrSm EdkifiHtwGif; EdkifiHa&; pepfrsm; tajymif;tvJjzpfay:vmjcif; r&SdbJ/ &&SdEdkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfygacs? Tpmwrf;jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf avhvma&;tpDtpOfrsm;udk qGD'ifEdkifiH/ EdkifiHwumyl;aygif;aqmif &Gufa&;at*sifpD. axmufyHhulnDr_rsm;jzifh +yD;ajrmufaqmif&GufEdkifcJhjcif; jzpfygonf? ,ef [dk'if tm&Sqdkif&m pDrHcsufrefae*sm tdkavmhyrf; EdkifiHwumyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&;A[dkXme (The Olof Palme International Center) 3
  8. 8. aus;Zl;pum; Tpmtkyfonf jrefrmEdkifiHjynfwGif;ESifh jynfy&Sd jrefrmpD;yGm;a&;ynm&Sifrsm;. yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufr_ &v'fa=umifhay:xGuvmcJhjcif;jzpfygonf? jrefrmEdkifiHzGH@òz;wd;wufr_twGuf a&&Snftjrifjzifh tpDtpOfrsm; f k yl;aygif;a&;qGJ=u&ef t=uHtpnfudk jrefrmpD;yGm;a&;ynm&Sifwpku (1980) ckESpfydkif;uyif =uHpnfcJ=h uygonf? yxrOD;qHk; tajccHoabm w&m;a&;qdkif&mtjrif rl=urf;udk (1991) ckESpfwGif pwifa&;qGJcJh=uygonf? TtpD tpOfudk pwifóu;yrf;=uolrsm;u aqG;aEG;nd‡Ed_if;yGJrsm;ðyvkyfusif;yEdkif&ef/ okawoevkyfief;rsm;ESifh&Hk;vkyfief; rsm;vnfywfEdkif&eftwGuf vHavmufaom &efykHaiG&&Sd&ef&SmazGcJh=uygonf? tcsdefumvwcktxd rnfod@k k aom apwem&Sif toif;ur# TtpDtpOfudk pdwf0ifpm;[ef/ ulnvd[efrjycJh=uyg? jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; vdyfcJ D k wif;vif;wnf&Sdaeaom EdkifiHa&;jyemrsm;. yuwdtajctaeud=k unhfI rjzpfEdkif[k pOf;pm;aecJh=uyHk&yg onf? rdrdwdk@taejzifh jrefrmEdkifiHonfom/ aps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;vrf;a=umif;twdif;om acwfrDEdkifiHawmfopf k tjzpf zGH@òz;wd;wufcGifhom&&Sdrnfqdkygu/ tem*wfwdkif;jynf. acgif;aqmifrsm;taejzifh a&S@ñuHawG@&rnfh }uD; k rm;aom tcuftcJumvrsm;udk jzwfausmfEdkif&efqdkonfrSm rnfokd@rnfyHkjzwfoef;rnf[laom vrf;jyajryHk w&yf rvGJraoG vdtyfrnfjzpfygonf? rdrdwdk@uvnf; xdkod@k acgif;aqmifrsm; pOf;pm;Edkifap&ef ulnDoifhygonf? k rdrdwd@k tiftm;pkxJrS tcsKd@aom yk*~dKvfrsm;rSm jrefrmEdkifiHtwGif; umv=um&Snfwm0efxrf;aqmifzl;cJh ouJodk@/ wdif;jynfjyifywGifvnf; cufcJjyif;xefaom pdefac:r_/ tawG@tñuHrsm;udk jzwfoef;zl;cJh=uolrsm;jzpf h k &m/ TuJodk@ EdkifiH.a&S@odk@qufoGm;&rnfh r[mAsL[mqdkif&mtjrifw&yfðypkI yHhydk;a&;twGuf txl;oifhavsmf h olrsm; jzpf=uygonf? wbufwGif jrefrmEdkifiH. ,Ofaus;r_/ vlr_a&;yuwdtajctaersm;udk xif[yfazmfjyEdkif rnfjzpf+yD;/ tjcm;wbufwGifvnf;/ tm&SwdufESifh tjcm;aomurBmhae&mrsm;rS zGH@òz;qJEdkifiHrsm;ESifh zGH@òz;+yD;EdkifiH k }uD;rsm; jzwfoef;cJh&aom tawG@tñuHrsm;udkvnf; xnfhoGif;azmfjyEdkifvdrfhrnf jzpfonf? aemufqHk;wGif TtpDtpOfonf a&&nfar#mfjrifI/ jrefrmEdkifiHtay:pdwfaumif;apwem tjynfhxm; aom tdkavmhzfyrf; EdkifiHwumyl;aygif;aqmif&Gufa&; A[dkXme (Olof Palme International Center) . ulnaxmufyHhr_jzifh pwifEdkifcJhygawmhonf? rdrdwdk@taejzifh rsm;pGm0rf;ajrmuf aus;Zl;pum;qdk&rnf jzpfyg D onf? TtultnDom r&&SdcJhygu/ Todk@ }uD;rm;cufcJaom vkyfief;&yf}uD;udk taumiftxnf azmfEdkifvdrfh rnf r[kwfay? xd@k tjyif rdrdwdk@taejzifh Tavhvmr_udpPrsm;/ Tpmwrf;jzpfajrmufa&;twGuf enf;aygif;pHkjzifh taxmuftyHhðycJh=uaom rsm;pGmaom jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;ynm&Sifrsm;/ tif*sifeD,mrsm;/ ynma&;qdkif&mynm &Sifrsm;/ wwfodynm&Sifrsm;. tzdk;rjzwfEdkifaom aus;Zl;udk todtrSwfðy&rnfjzpfygonf? ‚if;yk*~dKvfrsm; teuf tcsKd@rSm ta=umif;trsKd;rsKd;jzifh emrnfazmfjy&ef rjzpfEdkifyg? puFmylEdkifiH&Sd/ eD;tJef ydkvDwuUedcfausmif; wGif tDvufx&Gefepf bmom&yfoif=um;ydk@csaeol a'gufwmat;odef;ausmftaejzifhvnf; tzdk;rjzwfEdkif aom t=uHay;r_rsm;jzifh Tpmwrf;. ynma&;ESifh pufr_vkyfief;rsm;tydkif;wGif jznfhpGufay;cJhygonf? Tpmwrf;jzpfajrmufa&;tawG@tñuHrsm;xJrS ta&;}uD;aomtpdwftydkif;wckrSm (1997) ckESpf/ ar vwGif 0g&Sifwef'DpDòr@awmfwGif usif;ycJhaom vkyfazmfudifzufrsm;xHrS Tr[mAsL[mtjrif pmwrf;tay: k yGifhyGifhvif;vif; tjrifzvS,f t=uH&,lr_jzpfygonf? TESD;aESmzvS,fyGJudk yk*~vduvkyfief;rsm;qdkif&m EdkifiH wum A[dkXme (Center for International Private Enterprise) . }uD;=uyfapmifh=unfhr_atmufwGif aqmif&GufcJjh cif; jzpfygonf? tm&S/ Oa&myESifh tar&duEdkifiHrsm;rS xif&Sm;ausmf=um;aom ygarmuQESifh ynm &Sif (16) OD;udk zdwf=um;+yD;/ Tr[mAsL[m tjrif pmwrf;rl=urf;udk jyefvnfpDppfI t=uHðyapcJhygonf? xdk ynm&Sifrsm;. tzdk;rjzwfEdkifaomt=uHðycsufrsm;rSm Tpmwrf;udk aemufxyfxyfrH zGH@òz;ap&efqufvuf aqmif&Guf&efESifh pmom;rsm;udjk yefvnf jyifqifwnf;jzwfEdkif&ef taxmuftulrsm;pGm jzpfapcJhygonf? xdk ynm&Sifrsm;ESifh tcsdefukefcH/ tiftm;pdkufxkwf yHhydk;ay;cJhr_udk rdrdwdk@taejzifh rsm;pGm aus;Zl;wif&Sda=umif; 4
  9. 9. azmfjyvdkygonf? tu,fI rjynfpHkr_rsm;/ vdtyfcsufrsm;&Sdygu Tonftm;vH;wdk@rSm rdrdwd@k .wm0efomjzpf h k k ygonf? aemufwESpft=um (1998) ckESpf/ arvwGif aemufxyfaemufqufwJG nd‡Ed_if;ESD;aESmzvS,fyGJrsm;udk usif;yEdkifcJhygonf? xdif;EdkifiH/ csLvmavmifuGefwuUodkvf/ tm&Savhvma&;ody`HXme. txl;yHhydk;ulnr_/ ae&m k D xdifcif;/ tcif;tusif;rsm; yHhydk;r_r&Sdygu Tnd‡Ed_if;aqG;aEG;yGJ atmifjrif&efjzpfEdkifvdrfhrnf r[kwfyg? tm&S k avhvma&;ody`HXme. !$ef=um;a&;rSL; a'gufwm 0dx,m qlcsm&pfxefe&wfpD tygt0if xdXmerS vkyfazmf k udifzufrsm;jzpfaom a'gufwm qledwf csLwDem&mEGef ESifh rpPyGefyDrGef w&DcsKwf wdk@udk txl;aus;Zl;wif&Sd k a=umif;azmfjy&rnf jzpfygonf? TpDrHcsuf tqHk;owfed*Hk;csKyfEdkifa&;twGuf TuJhod@k aomnDvmcHrsm; usif;y Edkif&ef ukefusp&dwfrsm; yHhydk;ulnDay;cJhaom yk*~vduvkyfief;rsm;qdkif&m EdkifiHwumA[dkXme (Center for International Private Enterprise) udk aemufxyfw}udrf aus;Zl;pum;xyfqdk&ygvdrfhrnf? TpDrHcsufudk puFmyltrsKd;om;wuUodvf/ pD;yGm;a&;qdkif&m okawoeESifh zGH@òz;r_qdkif&mA[dkXme k (Center for Business Research and Development) . }uD;=uyfr_atmufY aqmif&GufcJjh cif;jzpfygonf? tapmydkif;umv jyifqifa&;nd‡Ed_if;aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;/ OD;aESmufrkefwdif;qifonfhaqG;aEG;yGJrsm;udk TXme. }uD;=uyf k r_atmufYyif aqmif&GufcJ=h uygonf? pD;yGm;a&;qdkif&mpDrHcef@cGJr_XmerS r[mXmerSL; ygarmuQ 0DcsKda,mif. wdufwGef;tm;ay;r_rsm;ESifh yHhydk;ay;r_rsm;/ tvm;wl,if;Xme.'g&dkufwmjzpfol rpP acsmifupf bdka0wdk@. ulnD k r_rsm;/ xdk@tjyif Xme0efxrf;wOD;jzpfol rpP zD,dkemwdif. yl;aygif;ulnDr_rsm;udvnf; txl;aus;Zl;wif&Sd k k a=umif; azmfjyvdkygonf? aemufqHk;taejzifh jrefrmEdkifiH ulnaxmufyHha&;twGif;a&;rSL;tzGJ@0if rpPwm [efanmifa&$udkvnf; D ol. uruxðy yHhydk;r_rsm;ESifh a&S@óujrifaom t=uHay;r_rsm;twGuf aus;Zl;pum;qdk&rnf jzpfygonf? ol. taumif;zufudk ar#mfjrifwwfaom pdwfxm;rsKd;/ tm;ay;wdufwGef;r_rsKd; r&cJhygv#if Tpmwrf;jzpfajrmufvm k oD;yGifhvma&;twGuf rsm;pGmtcuftcJñuH=u&rnf jzpfonf? rjzpfEdkif[kyif qdk&ygvdrfhrnf? TtpDtpOfudk pwifpOfuyif wdusaocsmaom pOf;pm;r_rsm;jzifh pwifcJh=uygonf? Tpmwrf;rsm; onf tquftpyfr&Sd jyef@usaeaompmwrf;rsm;/ pmpDpmuH; tufaq;rsm;udk pkpnf;azmfjyxm;aom pmwrf; J k rsKd;rjzpfap&[k pOf;pm;qHk;jzwfcJh=uygonf? Tpkpnf;wifjycsufonf jrefrmEdkifiHtaejzifh vGwvyfaom f aps;uGuf pD;yGm;a&;pepfatmufwGif rnfodk@rnfyHkzGH@òz;wdk;wufEdkifrnfukd usKd;a=umif;qDavsmfaom qifajcrsm; jzifh &_axmifhw&yfrSpkpnf; csOf;uyfwifjyyHkrsKd; jzpfap&ef &nf&G,fcJh=uygonf? rdrdwdk@taejzifh vGwfvyfaomaps; uGupD;yGm;a&;pepfESifh òyifqdkifr_udk tav;ay;vufcHr_=um;rSyif/ rdrdwdk@tiftm;pkt=um;Y EdkifiHawmftpdk;&ESifh f aps;uGuft=um; rnfokd@rnfyHkqufpyf=urnfukd aqG;aEG;pOf;pm;=u&mwGif/ rwluGJjym;aom taoG;ta&mif rsm;/ tjrifrsm;&SdcJh=uygonf? Tod@k jzpf&onfrSm obm0usygonf? ta=umif;rSm rdrdwd@k toD;oD;onf urBm }uD;. rwluJjG ym;aom a'otoD;oD;Y rwluGJjym;aomtawG@tñuHrsm;udk vufcH&&Sdvmaoma=umifhjzpfyg onf? xdk@tjyif rwluJjG ym;aom OD;pm;ay;bmom&yftrsKd;rsKd;udk avhvmqnf;yl;cJh=uolrsm;jzpf=uygonf? TuJokd@rwluJjG ym;aomtjrifrsm;udk pkpnf;&onfrSm ,cifucef@rSef;xm;onfxuf/ wu,fvufawG@ tvkyf h vky=f u&mwGif cufcJvSygonf? od@k aomfvnf; rdrdwd@k tm;vHk;. jrefrmEdkifiHtwGuf wlnDaomtjrifw&yf pkpnf;azmfjyay;vdaom jyif;xefonfhqENa=umifh aemufqHk;jrefrmEdkifiHzGH@òz;wd;wufr_. u¾pHk/ bufpHkaxmifhpHk k k twGuf trsm;óuufnaomqENoabmwlncsufrsm; &,lEdkifcJh=uygonf? aemufqHk; Tod@k rwluJjG ym;aom D D tjrifjyemrsm;udk tajzxkwf=u&mwGif jrefrmEdkifiH.a&&SnftusKd;pD;yGm;udar#mfjrifaomtjrifu tm;vHk; k . qENrsm;udk v$rf;ðcHtqHk;tjzwfay;apcJhaom pHwefzdk;w&yf jzpfcJh&ygonf? Twifjycsufpmwrf;onf jrefrmEdkifiHtwGuf tusKd;jzpfxGef;atmif vkyfaqmifEdkifapvdrfhrnf/ wpfck wnf;aomtjrifjzpfrnf[laom &nf&G,fpdwf rdrdwd@k wGif r&SdcJh=ua=umif; azmfjyvdkygonf? rdrdwdk@ Tae&mwGif wifjyvdaomtcsufrSm jrefrmEdkifiHtwGuf tao;pdwf twdtusvkufemusifhoH;&rnf[laom tpDtpOf k d k r[kwfyg? odk@aomf trsm;uxyfrHrGrf;rHcsJ@xGifðyjyifEdkifaom/ ydkrdkwd;wufatmifaqmif&GufEdkifaom csOf;uyfyHk k enf;emwpfckom jzpfygonf? tvkyfjzpfapEdkifaom a&&SnfpDrHudef;rsm;udk jrefrmEdkifiH.acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh 5
  10. 10. tpDtpOfa&;qGJolrsm;uom qufvufa&;qGJaqmif &Guf=u&rnfjzpfygonf? od@k aomf rdrdwdk@.óu;yrf;aqmif &Gufcsuonf Tbmom&yfESifhywfoufI vltrsm; qufvuf=uHqEdkifap&ef aphaqmfr_wGef;tm; jzpfapvdrfh f rnf[k ,H=k unfygonf? Twifjycsufwif rdrdwdk@tae jzifh jrefrmEdkifiH. twdwupGrf;aqmif xm;csufrsm;udk/ G f wwfpGrf;oavmuf tqdk;jrifuJaom tjrifzufrS r=unfhrdap&ef óu;yrf;xm;=uygonf? odk@aomfvnf; tjcm; wpfbufwGif rdrdwdk@taejzifh twdwumvrS qHk;&_H; cJh&r_rsm;udk tðyoabmqefaoma0zefa&;jzifh avhvm f axmufjy&ef wm0ef&Sdonf[k cH,lygonf? odk@rSom tem*wftwGuf rdrdwdk@udf,fwdifjyifqifEdkif=uvdrfhrnf k k jzpfygonf? twdwumvESifh vuf&SdtkyfcsKyfaeaom tpdk;&tay: tqdk;jrifazmfjyr_rsm; &SdaeEdkifygonf? f TonfrSmvnf; rdrdwd@k taejzifh wrifoufouf&nf&G,f azmfjyvdjk cif;r[kwfbJ/ EdkifiH.tem*wftwGuf ta&;ygvSaom rl0g'qdkif&mjyemrsm;udk udifwG,faqG;aEG; ae&aom tpD&ifcHpma&;om;ae&aom tcsdef k wGif/ rv$Jra&Smifom oifcef;pm,l&rnfh tawG@tñuHrsm; yg0ifazmfjyr_[om &_jrif=uapvdkygonf? k 6
  11. 11. Tpmtkyfudk b,fvdkpkaygif;a&;om;-uygoenf;? Tpmtkyfudk a&;om;&mwGif u|efawmfonf/ acgif;aqmifa&;om;ol jzpfygonf? odk@aomfxdyfwef; ynm&Sifrsm;pGmvnf; yg0if a&;om;=uojzifh/ rnfolu rnfonfudk OD;aqmifwifjyonf/ ponfh yk*~dKvf toD;oD;. óu;yrf;r_rsm;yg0ifr_rsm;udk odomxif &Sm;atmifvkyfzdk@ vdvmygonf? Tpmtkyfuda&;om;&mwGif k k ynm&Sif (6) OD;u yg0ifa&;om;=uonfqdkjcif;a=umifh/ rnfou rnfonftaxuftulðyonf/ acgif;aqmif l h onf/ a&;om;aomtcsufrsm;tb,fa=umifh nD!wfaeygoenf; ponfhwd@k udk aESmif;acwfyk*~dKvfrsm; odom h G Edkif&ef rSwfwrf;wifxm;zdk@ vdktyfygonf? xd@k a=umifh T&Sif;vif;csufudkwifjy&ygonf? u|efawmfwdk@onf pma&;&efjyifqifpOfuyif ta=umif; t&mwckpDudk wa,mufpD a&;om;+yD;/ pkaygif;pmtkyfxkwfjcif;udk rvdkvm;yg? wdif;jynfu wu,ftoH;csEdkif k k &ef u|efawmfwdk@. wajy;wnf;nD!wf aomt,ltqrsm;udk odomxif&Sm;pGm wifjyzdk@vdkygonf? xdk@a=umifh G yxrtpnf;ta0;rwdifrDuyif/ u|efawmfwd@k tzGJ@xJrS jzpfap/ jyifyrSjzpfap/ jrefrmEdkifiHwGif;rSjzpfap acgif;pOf k trsKd;rsKd;atmufwGif a&;om;=uonfh wifjycsufrsm;udk yxrydk@ay;=u&ef zdwfac:cJhygonf? acgif;aqmif a&;om;aomyk*~dKvfrsm;rSm q&m (Findlay)/ q&mqGef'&rfESifh OD;cifarmif=unfwdk@jzpfygonf? xdyk*~dKvf (3) OD;uvnf; olwdk@.tawG@tñuH/ avhvmcsufrsm;t& tm;om;csufrsm;&SdaecJh=uyg k onf? q&m (Findlay) rSm (Neoclassical economist) tkyfpk yxr rlvabm*aA'ynmudk jyefvnf qef;opfapaom urBmausmfynm&SifwOD;jzpfojzifh/ ,if;onf abm*aA'ynm rlv ynm&SiftkyfpkwGif yg0if aeygonf? q&mqGef'&rfrSm umv tawmf=umu qdk&S,fvpft,ltqv$rf;rdk;vufcHaeaom vef'ef wuUodvfygarmuQrsm;. wynfhjzpfojzifh/ rlvu qdk&S,fvpfqefqef jzpfaeaomfvnf;/ jrefrmjynfESifhwuG k tjcm;zGH@òz;qJEdkifiHrsm;.tawG@tñuHrsm;udk oH;oyf&onftcgwGif/ vGwf vyfaomaps;uGufpD;yGm;a&; (free k h competitive enterprice) . tm;omyHkudk rrSdwfroHkvufcHoGm;ygonf? u|efawmfonf ,cifu b0tawG@tñuHt&aomfvnf;aumif;/ vGwfvyfa&;r&rD trsKd;om;a&; wdufyGJrsm;paepOfuyif/ ausmif;om;acgif; aqmifwpfOD; jzpf+yD;/ wd@k Armtpnf;t&Hk;ESifh eD;pyfcJhojzifh/ jrefrm k jynf uGefjrLepfygwDu ppfóuacwfuyifpDpOfcJhaom/ uGefjrLepf oifwef;rsm;wGif yg0ifavhvmcsufrsm;t& vnf;aumif;/ uGefjrLepfvrf;a=umif;xJ a&mufaecJhygonf? od@k &mwGif (1947-48) ckESpfwGif ppf+yD;p qdk&S,fvpftkyfpk.vkyfaqmifcsufrsm;udk us,fus,jf yef@jyef@avhvm&onftcgwGif/ pwmvifESifh &k&Sm;uGefjrL h epfygwD.acwf/ txl;ojzifh rdrdpdwfwdif;ustajz r&&Sdaom/ vufrcHEdkifaomowWaA'ynm&SifawGudk k okwoifypfonfudk awG@vm&onftcgwGif/ oHo,pdwfawG0ifae+yD;/ ta=umif;trsKd;rsKd;a=umifh uGefjrLepf f h tkyfpkESifh vrf;uGoGm;cJhygonf? wuUodvfwGif ynmqHk;atmif oifaecJhygonf? xd@k aemuf ynmawmfoif J k ta&G;cH&onftcgwGif/ tpdk;&.pdwfwdif;us [m;AwfwuUodkvfok@d t&if;&Sifaumif;jzpf&ef oifay;onfh/ h k Harvard Business School / wenf;tm;jzifhvnf; t&if;&SifpepfAdkvf oifwef;ausmif; (Westpoint of Capitalism) [kwGifaom ausmif;odk@a&mufoGm;ygonf? od@k aomf [m;AwfwuUodvf. tjcm;aom k ausmif;awmf}uD;rsm;wGif oif=um;ay;aeaom/ urBmausmygarmuQrsm;ESifh Ed_if;,SOfoif=um;&onftcg t&if; h &Sifpepfonf pif;vHk;acsm aumif;rGefonfr[kwf/ csKd@,Gif;csufrsm;/ rjynfhpHkr_rsm;ESifh rsm;jym;pGm&Sdonfukd jrifvm cJhygonf? ud,fwkifuvnf; puFmylwd;wufp tajctaewGif/ ,if;EdkifiHod@k a&muf&Sdvm+yD;/ (Singapore k d k model) wnfaqmufyHkudkvnf; tao;pdwfyg0ifI vkyfaqmifolwpfOD;tjzpf avhvmcGifh&cJhygonf? ta&S@ tm&Swd;wufr_yHkpHrSmvnf;/ EdkifiHtm;vH;rSmyif wdk; wufa&;udk aps;uGufuwm0ef,lcJaomfvnf;/ tpdk;&u k k h acgif;aqmifay;onfhu¾rsm;udkvnf; awG@jrifcJh&ygonf? 7
  12. 12. tpxJu ,Ofoudk qdkovd/k TuJod@k tjrifuGawG&Sdaeaomyk*~dKvfrsm;u/ waygif;wpnf;aom t,l h J tqudk wifjyEdkif&efrSm cJ,Of;vSonfukd od&Sdvmygonf? r+yD;Edkifaom jiif;cHkyGJrsm;/ apm'emrsm;/ aom'em rsm;ESifh wpfcgw&HwGif atmf[pfjiif;cHk=u&if; tqHk;owf&rnfuhJod@k jzpfvmygonf? tm;vHk;pkaygif;+yD; jrefrm jynftwGuf taumif;qHk;tajz&Edkif&efrSm wpfcgw&HwGif rjzpfEdkifawmhbl;vm;[kyif xif&ygonf? od@k aomfvnf; jrefrmjynfaumif;pm;a&;/ OD;armhvma&;rSm u|efawmfwdk@. t"du&nfrSef;xm;csuf jzpfojzifh aps;uGufudrlwnf I jrefrmjynfpD;yGm;a&;udk xlaxmifrnf/ odk@aomf aps;uGufwpfckwnf;. rjynfhpHk k r_/ csKd@,Gif;r_rsm;&Sdaeojzifh tpdk;&aomfvnf; aumif;/ tjcm;enf;rsm;jzifhvnf;aumif; xdef;ay;onftjyif/ h wd;wufr_ydkrdkjrefqefatmif usm;uefay;r_rsm;udvnf; vdtyfvdrfhrnf[laom rludk vufcH=uygonf? odk@aomf k k k vnf; aps;uGuudkxdef;ay;&mwGif/ rnfr# twdif;twmtxd vufcHEdkifrnfenf; qdkonfrSm/ tjiif;yGm;p&m f k awmh usefaeygonf? odk@aomf ,if;udpPrSm vufawG@tajctaet& oH;oyfqHk;jzwf&rnf jzpfojzifh/ wu,fh k pD;yGm;a&;jyefvnfqef;opf vkyfaqmif&rnf/h vufawG@jyemrsm;[lI owfrSwfxm;cJhygonf? u|efawmfwd@k wifjyonfhrlrSm jrefrmjynfpD;yGm;wd;wufzGH@òz;a&;ud/k aps;uGufudk rlwnf+yD; tpGef; k ra&mufatmif xdef;odrf;jr‡ifh wifonfh rlyif jzpfygonf? ,if;udkvnf; vufawG@wu,f usifhoHk;olrsm;tae ESifh xyfrHjznfhpGuf&rnfukdvnf; vufcHxm;cJhygonf? pma&;&mwGif yg0ifrnfolrsm;. tpnf;ta0;ud/k puFmyltrsKd;om;wuUodkvf pmoifcef;wpfckwGif h usif;ycJhygonf? u|efawmf wdk@onf pD;yGm;a&;ynm&Sifvla[mif;rdwfaqGrsm;/ q&mrsm; todif;t0dkif;udk =unfh k aomtcg tcsKd@q&m}uD;rsm; ta=umif; a=umif;a=umifh ryg0ifEdkifawmhonfukd awG@&ygonf? tcsKd@q&m}uD; rsm;uvnf; usef;rma&;rjynfhpHkojzifh/ cGifhv$wf&ef awmif; yef=uygonf? yxrpmrl=urf;udk a&;om;&mwGif/ a'gufwmqGef'&rfu OD;aqmif&efjzpfygonf? rlv tpnf;ta0;Y yif/ jrefrmjynft&yf&yfESifh EdkifiHjcm;&Sd jrefrmynm&Sifrsm;ay;ydk@xm;aom pmwrf;rsm;ESifh tjcm;pkaygif;xm; onfh tcsuftvufrsm;tay: rlwnfI a&;yg onf? t=urf;zsOf;tm;jzifh aiGa&;a=u;a&; ay:vpDESifh b¾m a&;u¾udk ygarmuQ (Findlay) u t=urf;a&;om;ay;+yD;/ Industry, Agriculture, social, infrastructure wd@k udk u|efawmfu pm=urf;a&;om;ay;&ef/ jzpfygonf? u|efawmfwdk@udk tcsuftvuf pkaqmif;ay;&ef a'gufwmrsKd;!Gef@ESifh udaZmfOD;wdk@udk wm0efay;cJhygonf? pdkufysKd;a&;ay:vpDudka&;qGJ&eftwGuf/ jrefrmjynfY k pdkufysKd;a&;ESifh aus;vufabm*aA' okawoevkyfief;rsm;vkyf&mwGif/ u|efawmf.vufaxmuftjzpf a'gufwmrsKd;!Gef@u u|efawmhudk uln&efjzpfygonf? y&dk*suf. okawoevufaxmuf udaZmfOD;u tjcm; D k acgif;pOfrsm; a&;&mwGif tultnDay;&ef/ pDpOfxm;cJhygonf? tpkd;&taqmuftODðyjyifa&; Infrastructure a&;&mwGif/ u|efawmfESpfaygif;rsm;pGm tpdk;&. wm0efay;csuft& jynfol@tkyf csKyfa&;udk jyefvnfcdkifcef@atmif ðyjyifa&;twGuf tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;wGif wGzuf J aqmif&Gufbl;aoma=umifh ,if;tawG@tñuHrsm;onf txl;toH;0ifygonf? k yxrpmrl=urf;+yD;aomtcg/ q&mqGef'&rfu/ udk,fvlwd@k u|efawmfajymcsifwmawG ajym+yD;+yD/ h cifAsm;wd@k quf+yD; jyifqifa&;om;=uygawmh[lI u|efawmfESifh (Professor Findlay) vufod@k tyfvdufyg k onf? xdkpmrlwGif rlvpmrla&;pOfu/ tpDtpOfu bmom&yfwdif;wGif jrefrmjynf. u¾tvduf/ ordkif; k k tawG@tñuHukd yxrp+yD;rS ðyjyif&rnftcsuftvufrsm;/ ajymif;vJ&rnfrsm;udk wifjy&efjzpfygonf? q&m h qGef'&rf. pmrl=urf;udk zwfonftcgwGif/ jyem (2) ckudk awG@jrif&ygonf? wrsKd;rSm ta=umif;t&m h vdufI ordkif;a=umif;a&;onfhtcgwGif/ Oyrm- pdkufysKd;a&;u¾udk a&;&mwGif/ ,if;qdkif&m pD;yGm;a&;tawG@ k tñuHordkif;udk wifjy&ygrnf? xdenf;wl pufr_u¾udk wifjyonftcgvnf;/ xdu¾. vGefcJhaomtawG@ k h k tñuHukd jyefvnf wifjy&ygrnf? xdod@k wifjy&mwGif pD;yGm;a&; buftoD;oD;wGifysufpD;&jcif; ta=umif;&if; k rsm;rSm zGH@òz;a&;yHkpH ta&G@rsm;cJh+yD;/ ,if;. tusKd;qufrsm;a=umifh u¾toD;oD;wGifvnf;/ xdcdkufcHpm;&onfh ta=umif;rsm;udk wifjyzdk@vdygonf? pD;yGm;a&;ordkif;ta=umif; t&mwd@k udk u¾toD;oD;wGif/ jyefvnf k a&;om;&rnf jzpfojzifh tyfa=umif;xyfaeygonf? ,if;udk a'gufwmqGef'&rf.rl=urf;zwf&mwGif awG@&yg onf? xdk@tjyif a'gufwmqGef'&rfu zGH@òz;qJEdkifiHrsm;. pD;yGm;a&;wdk;wufa&;udk usrf;wpfapmifwpfzGJ@ 8
  13. 13. a&;om;cJhol jzpfjcif;a=umifh/ bmom&yfwdif;udk a&;om;&mwGif/ wcsKd@ae&mrsm;wGif tus,f0dwW& csJ@vGef;onf k [k xifygonf? xd@k a=umifh ,if;wd@k udkcsK@Hypf&efESifh ay:vpDa&;&mwGif vdtyfonfrsm;om wduspGm jyefvnf k jyifqifa&;om;zdk@ jzpfvmygonf? xdk@a=umifh a'gufwm (Findlay) u/ jrefrmjynf pD;yGm;a&;ordkif;a=umif;udk tusOf;csKH;wifjy&ef tydkif;wpfydkif;ud/k ed'gef; taejzifh a&;om;ay;&ef pDpOfcJhygonf? xd@k a=umifh yxrtcef;wGif jrefrmjynf. pD;yGm;a&;ordkif;twdcsKyfud/k rD;armif;xd;jy&ef pDpOfcJh&mwGif/ k k jrefrmjynf. t"dujy emrsm;udk azmfxkwfEdkifcJhygonf? od@k &mwGif EdkifiHa&;tpdk;&ESifh tm%modrf;ppftpdk;& wd@k . tul;tajymif;umv ta=umif;udk &Sif;vif;azmfjy&mwGif/ EdkifiHa&;orm;rsm;tay: tjypfwifcsufrsm; ae+yD;/ ppfwyftm%modrf;onfrSm jrefrmjynf . wd;wufa&;twGuf vrf;pyGifhvmovdk jzpfvmonfqdkaom/ k tawG;ay:apojzifh ,if;udkvnf; jyifqifa&;om;=u&jyefygonf? yxrrl=urf;+yD;pD;aomtcg/ ynm&Siftm;vH;udk zwfapcJh+yD;/ yxrt}udrfaqG;aEG;yGJudk 0g&Sifwefòr@wGif k urBmhvGwfvyfaompD;yGm;a&;tzGJ@tpnf;rsm; ynmAdrRmef (Free Enterprises Institute) wGif usif;ycJhygonf? ,if;tpnf;ta0;wGif a'gufwmqGef'&rfu/ u|efawmfwdk@ (2) a,mufud/k “udk,fvlESpfa,muf jyifa&;wmu/ h t&ifrlv ud,fa&;xm;wmESifh wjcm;pDjzpfaeygyaum” [k ajymygonf? odk@aomftm;vHk;udk oifhjrwfpGm oH; k k oyfxm;ojzifh/ aumif;ygonf/ vufcHEdkifygonf[lI ajymygonf? u|efawmfuvnf; rnfonfhtwGua=umifh f rlvpm=urf;udk jyifqif&a=umif;/ &Sif;jyygonf? a'gufwmjrarmif. rlvpmrl=urf;xJrSvnf; tESpftajccHwdk@ udk qGJoGif;pOf;pm;xm;a=umif; awG@&ojzifh/ a'gufwmjrarmifuvnf;/ yxrrl=urf;tay: auseyfr_&&SdcJhyg onf? od@k &mwGif u|efawmfwdk@ (2) OD;wm0ef,lxm;aom/ pufr_xGef;um;a&;/ pdkufysKd;a&;u¾ESifh aiGa&;a=u;a&;jyemrsm;rSm u|ef awmfwd@k ygarmuQ (2) OD; oabmrwlEdkif jzpfaeojzifh/ pmydk'fwdif;vdvdkyif k k tjiif;yGm;aqG;aEG;cJh&ygonf? aemufqHk;Y aps;uGuf udrlwnfI tpdk;&uvnf;/ nifompGm wduf&dkuf k k 0ifa&mufxdef;odrf; jr‡ifhwifay;aom pD;yGm;a&;pepfudk vufcH=uygonf? EdkbJ qk&ygarmuQ (Stiglitz) wifjy aom “aps;uGuu aumif;ygonf? ,if;udk tajccHaomfvnf; tpdk;&u OD;aqmifxdef;odrf;ay;&rnfh ae&m f rsm; &Sdaeygonf? aps;uGufcsn;jzifh rvHavmufyg” qdkaom rludk vufcHygonf? xdkenf;twlyif/ tpdk;&onf f k ol@ae&mESifhol jynfol@tusKd;udk xdcdufEdkifaom/ aps;uGufpepf. pnf;urf;vGefr_rsm;udk xdef;odrf;ay;Edkifaomf k vnf;/ tpdk;&uvnf; vHk;0 wm0ef,lEdkifjcif; r&Sdyg/ [laomrludk vufcHvdkuf=uygonf? &v'fwGif u|efawmf. t,ltqrsm;rSm aps;uGufbufukd ydkrdkeD;pyfvmouJhod@k / a'gufwm (Findlay) wd@k vd/k (neoclassical economist) awGuvnf;/ tpdk;&. wd;wufwm0ef,lr_udk vufcHoifhonfae&mwGif/ k h vufcHEdkif&ef a&;om;cJhygonf? &v'frSm jrefrmjynftwGuf taumif;qHk;aq;enf;azmfjrLvm[lI xifjrif=u ygonf? ,if;onfvnf; EdkbJqk&ygarmuQ (Stiglitz) wifjyaom/ “aps;uGuonf aumif;ygonf? ,if;udk f tajccHaomfvnf; txdef; tuGyfESifh tpdk;&u OD;aqmifay;&rnfae&mrsm;vnf;/ &Sdygonf? tpdk;&. h u¾onfvnf; ta&;}uD;ygonf? odk@aomf ,if;ESifh rvHkavmufyg? tpdk;&u OD;aqmifay;&rnfae&mrsm; h wGif/ vlwpfOD;/ yk*~dKvfwpfpktm; vuf0g;}uD;tkyf tcGifhta&;ay;aom tajctae ra&muf&ef a&Smif&Sm;& rnf?” qdkaom tcsufrsm;udk vufcH+yD;/ ta&S@tm&SEdkifiHrsm;wGif tpdk;&u OD;aqmif wdk;wufapr_rsm;udk vnf;/ tajctaet& vufcHoifhonfae&mwGif vufcH&efudk pOf;pm;=uygonf? h u|efawmf wm0efusaom pdkufysKd;a&;u¾ud/k a&;om;&mwGif a'gufwmrsKd;!$ef@u u|efawmhudk txl;ulnay;cJhygonf? useftcef;rsm;uda&;&mwGif/ okawoevufaxmuf udkaZmfOD;u tultnDtxl; D k ay;cJhygonf? yg&*l bGJ@usrf;twGuf avhvmae aomausmif;om;wpfOD;tzdk@/ u|efawmfwdk@ESifh yl;wGJ aqmif&Guf cGifh&onfrSm ol@twGuf taumif;qHk;oif=um;r_tawG@tñuH wpf&yf[lI ajym&rnf jzpfygonf? u|efawmfwd@k ESpfOD;. pOf;pm;yHkrsm;/ uGJvGcsufrsm;/ jiif;csufrsm;onf ol@twGuf txl; toHk;0ifrnfh tawG@tñuHyif jzpfyg J rnf? 9
  14. 14. aemufqHk;wGif pmrludk (copy editing) vkyf&mwGif/ pmrlpma&;[ef (styles) ESifh rSefuefr_rsm;udk aemufqHk;wnf;jzwf&rnfh tydkif;a&mufvmygonf? ,if;u¾udk okwoifwnf;jzwfay;&mwGif t*Fvdyf f pum;udk arG;uwnf;uajymaom/ wnf;jzwf jcif;/ tacsmudkifjcif;udk A[kokw&Sdaom t,f'DwmwpfOD;udk tcay;iSm;I jyifap&ef qHk;jzwfcJhygonf? odk@aomfvnf; u|efawmfwdk@pdwfóuufoifhavsmfaom yk*~dKvf r&&Sd ojzifh/ u|efawmfwd@k (2) OD;/ q&m (Findlay) ESifh u|efawmf tjyeftvSefðyjyif vduf=uygonf? aemufqHk;wGif k xkwa0olu u|efawmfwdk@ (2) OD;pvHk;u aocsmvGef;ojzifh “uJ æq&m}uD;wdk@/ r+yD;Edkif=u awmhbl;vm;? f xkwa0&rnftcsdefvnf; awmfaeyg+yD? ”qdkawmhrSyJ &yfvdkuf+yD;/ tqHk;owfay;vdufygonf? f h k &v'fum; pmayynm&Sifrsm;u oH;oyfonftwdif;/ yk*~dKvf (6) OD;u yg0ifa&;om;aomfvnf;/ k h k wifjycsufrsm;rSm wajy;wnf; wom;wnf;nD!wfpGm &Sdae=uonf[laom csD;usL;jcif;udk cH&ygonf? G Tpmtkyfudk a&;om;&mwGif/ trnfrazmfvkaom jrefrmynm&Sifrsm;. wifjycsufrsm;udkvnf; d qDavsmonfae&mrsm;wGif toH;cscJhygonf? ynm&Siftm;vHk; pkaygif;óu;yrf;r_rS ay:xGufvmaom toD; f h k tyGifh[lI owfrSwf&ygrnf? 10
  15. 15. bmomjyefqdkxm;aom jrefrmjyefpmtkyf. ed'gef; Tpmtkyfonf/ jrefrmjynftwGuf ta&;}uD;aom pD;yGm;a&;vrf;!$efpmwrf; jzpfvmrnf[k &nf &G,f awG;qcJhygonf? u|efawmfwd@k onf pD;yGm;a&;ynma0g[m&awG/ oabmw&m;awGudk tus,0dwWm& f rcsJ@/ t&Sif;EdkifqHk;/ em;vnf tEdkifqHk;jzpfatmif a&;om;cJhygonf? od@k aomf t*Fvdyfbmomjzifha&;om;xm; aom usrf;wapmifud/k jrefrmjynfol oef; (50) xJu rnfr# zwf=urnfenf;? tusKd;&SdpGm zwfEdkif=uygrnf vm;[k ar;p&mjzpfvmygonf? tpdk;&ydkif;wGif tkyfcsKyfolrsm;uvnf;/ ta&;}uD;aom tcsufrsm;udk jrefrmpm jzifh a&;om;ay;&ef pDpOfr_rsm; ðyvkyfonf[k =um;od&ygonf? xdtajctaewGif jrefrmjynfpD;yGm;a&;acwfajymif;awmfvSefa&;ozG,f vkyfaqmif&efvdonfh tcg k k wGif/ pdwf0ifpm;ol/ =oZm wduUr&Sdolrsm; em;vnfEdkifzdk@ vdkvmygonf? xdk@a=umifh Tpmtkyfudk jrefrmbmom jzifh jyefqdka&;om;&ef vdonfudk u|efawmf wdk@ em;vnf=uygonf? vltrsm;u u|efawmfwd@k a&;om;onfrsm; k ud/k em;vnfygu wdkif;jynfjyefvnfxaxmifa&;twGu/f tusKd;rsm;pGm &SdEdkifonfudk odygonf? l xd@k a=umifh jrefrmjyefqdk&ef/ &efyHkaiG&&Sda&;ESifh bmomjyefqdka&;wd@k udk apmpD;pGmuyif/ pwifcJhygonf? od@k aomf jrefrmvdjk yefaomtcg/ &Sif;vif;csufawG trsm;}uD;xnf+h yD;/ oabmw&m;rsm;udvnf; trsm;em; k vnfatmifa&;Edkifzdk@rSm/ rvG,fonfudk awG@& ygonf? u|efawmf. wynfhrsm;xJrS jrefrmESifh t*FvdyfpmESpfck vH;udk ydkifEdkifaom bmomjyefolukd &SmazGwm0efay;cJhaomf vnf;/ ZGJESifh vkyfEdkifol r&cJhyg? ,if;od@k jzpfaepOf k wGif/ udaZmfOD;ESifh 0g&Sifwef&Sd jrefrm&efyHkaiGtzGJ@&Sd yk*~dKvfrsm;. óu;yrf;csuft& t+yD;qHk;wdif bmomjyefEdkifol k k udatmifol+idrf;udk &&SdcJhygonf? ,if;yk*~dKvfrSm aq;ynmudk oif=um;cJhaomfvnf;/ jrefrmpmudvnf;u|rf;usif k k onfudk awG@&ygonf? tcef;wdif;vdvdk u|efawmfzwf&_ jyifqifI&&Sdaompmrlrsm;rSm/ ,ckyHkESdyfxm;aomjrefrm k k jyefyif jzpfygonf? udatmifol+idrf;rSm (1988) ckESpf/ awmfvSefa&;0ifausmif;om;wpfOD;jzpf+yD;/ tar&duef k axmufyHhr_t& [m;AwfwuUodkvf/ jynfol@tkyfcsKyfa&;ynmoifwef;ausmif;wGif wpfESpfoifwef;wufa&muf atmifjrifpGm bGJ@&cJhojzifh/ ,ck acwfpD;yGm;a&; tac:ta0:/ toH;tE_ef;rsm;udk em;vnf+yD; u|rf;usifpGmoH; k k EdkifcJhygonf? Tjrefrmbmomjyefpmrludk u|efawmfESifh udaZmfOD;/ a':ar+idrf;wdk@u jyefvnfwnf;jzwfay;+yD;/ k jrefrmjynfolrsm;twGuwifjy cJhygonf? csKd@,Gif;csufrsm; &Sdaomfvnf;/ trsm;. t=uHay;csufrsm;udk cH,lI/ f aemifxkwa0onft}udrfrsm;wGif jyefvnfðyjyifay;rnf jzpfygonf? f h tm;vH;aom pmzwfy&dowfESifh jrefrmjynfrS pdwf0ifpm;olrsm;u jyifqifjznfhpGuf&ef vdtyfonf k k rsm;&Sdygu t=uHðyay;&ef/ zdwfac:ygonf? 11
  16. 16. tcef; (1) ed'gef; 12
  17. 17. tcef; (1) ed'gef; vGefcJhaom 'kwd,axmifpkESpfumv tawmfrsm;rsm;wGif jrefrmEkdifiHonf/ ta¶S‹awmiftm&S&Sd EkdifiH trsm;teuf/ tpkpnf;tnD!GwfqHk;ESifh pD;yGm;a&;/ vlr_a&;t& =oZmv$rf;rdk;tiftm;}uD;cJhaom/ vl@tzGJ@ tpnf;tm;aumif;aom EdkifiHwckjzpfcJhonf? Oa&mywGif aemfrefvlrsKd;wkd@jAdwdefEkdifiHukd odrf;ykduftkyfpkd;aeqJ umvESifhacwfòyifumvwGifyif/ taemf&xmrif; (ouU&mZfESpf 1044-77 ckESpf) u wkif;jynfwckvkH;ukd/ d pnf;&kH;odrf;oGif;cJh+yD; jzpfayonf? oD&dvuFmrSwqifh pD;qif;0ifa&mufvmcJhaom ax&0g'Ak'<bmomrSonf ,Ofaus;r_ESifh,k=H unfukd;uG,fr_qkdif&m "avhxkH;pHrsm;/ pepfrsm;zGH@òz;wnfwHvmonfrSm/ ,ae@wdkif ckdfifckdifrmrm h wnf&SdaeqJjzpfonf? tdrfeD;csif;xdif;EdkifiH/ vmtdkESifhurfabm'D;,m;EdkifiHrsm;ESifhvnf; ,Ofaus;r_"avhxHk; k wrf;t& rsm;pGmeD;pyfr_&Sd aom EdkifiHwckjzpfonf? tpOftqufrif;aejynfawmfrsm; jzpfaom yk*H/ awmifil/ tif;0/ ukef;abmif tp&Sd onfh rif;qufrsm;wGif jrefrmwkd@. ppfa&;/ EkdifiHa&;=oZmoufa&mufr_rsm;onf a'otdrfeD;csif;EkdifiHrsm;odk@ jyef‹ESH@cJh+yD;/ taemufwkdif;ukefonfrsm;ESifh a=u;pm;ppfwyfrsm;uyif cef@nm;av; pm;cJh=u&onf? (19) &mpkESpf twGif; jrefrmEkdifiHukd t*Fvdyfwkd@u tqifhqifhe,fcsJ@odrf;ykdufcJh+yD;onfh aemufykdif;wGif jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;onf tdrfeD;csif;wkdif;jynfrsm;ESifh,SOfv#if omvGefwdk;wufaumif;rGefcJhonf? qefpyg;wifydk@r_/ u|ef;opfESifh tjcm; ukef=urf;wifykd@ukefrsm;a&mif;csEkdifr_wGif jrefrmEkdifiHu omvGefcJhonf? vl@ t&if;tESD;u¾zufwGifvnf;/ jrefrmEkdifiH&Sd pmwwfajrmufr_E_ef;wGif xdyfqkH;wGif&SdcJh+yD;/ udvdeDacwfwif k k G &&Sdonfh acwfynmoif=um;Edkifr_wGifvnf;/ vlenf;pktv$mtcsKd@om qnf;yl;avhvmEdkifcJhonf qdkaomfvnf;/ urBmESifh &ifaygifwef;EkdfifcJhonfhtqifhwGif&SdcJhonf? atmufazmfjyyg Z,m; (1? 1) wGif jrefrmEdkifiH.EdkifiHjcm;odk@wifydk@r_wefzdk;udk vlwOD;csif;jzifh Ed_if;,SOf wGucsufazmjfyxm;&mwGif/ (1936-39) ckESpfrsm;wGif&SdchJaom jrefrmEkdifiH.vlwOD;csif; EdkifiHjcm;ykd@ukefESifhoGif; f ukefwefzdk;rsm;udk tjcm;tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHrsm;jzpf=uonfh qkdif,rf (xkif;)/ e,fomvef tif'D;pf (tif'kdeD;&Sm;)/ d tif'kdcsKdif;em; (AD,uferf)/ jAdwdo# rmvm,k (rav;&Sm;)/ tdENd,/ w&kwfEkdifiHwkd@ESifh E_dif;,SOfazmfjyxm;ygonf? jrefrmwkd@. wefzkd;onf cef‹rSef;ajctm;jzifh tif'kdeD;&Sm;ESifh xkif;EkdifiHrsm;xuf ESpfq/ tif'kdcsKdif;em;xuf ok;q/ d H tdENd,xuf ajcmufq/ w&kwfEdkifiHxuf (25) qcef@ rsm;aeonfukd avhvmawG‹&SdEkdifayonf? owWKESifh &mbm ponfh obm0 o,HZmwrsm;jzihf aygºu,f0aom/ vlOD;a&tm;jzifhvnf;enf;aom jAdwdo#rmvm,kjynfe,fonf Tudef;*%ef;rsm;t&=unfhygu/ jrefrmEkdifiHxufpD;yGm;a&;u ydkwk;wufonf? d urBmpD;yGm;a&;pepfESifh csdwfqufr_twkif;twmwGifvnf; omonf[k qdkEdkifonf? odk@aomfynma&;wd;wufr_ d k wGifum;/ jrefrmEdkifiHu tqrsm;pGmomcJhygonf? uvwWm;wuUodvf. tcGJ/ aumvdyfwcktjzpf &efukefaum k vdyfonf (20) &mpk rprDuyif/ pwifzGifhvSpfEdkifcJhygonf? (1920) ckESpfwGif/ &efukefwuUodvfay:xGef;cJh+yD; xdk k wuUodvfY tr_xrf;cJhaomynm&Sifrsm;rSm/ aemiftcgwGif urBmausmynm&Sifrsm; jzpfcJh=uygonf? k f jrefrmEkdifiHonf 'kwd,urBmppf}uD;.'%fudk wkuf¶kdufcHpm;cJh&onfh jymykHb0rSyif/ ppf+yD;onfESifh&kef; d xGuEkdifcJh,Hkru/ (1950) ckESpfumvwGif ppf'%fukd rcHcJh&onfh tdrfeD;csif;EdkifiHwckjzpfaom xkif;EkdifiH. pD;yGm; f d a&;ESifh zGH@òz;r_qdkif&mudef;*%ef;rsm;ESifh rsm;pGmruGmjcm;onfudk awG@&Sd&onf? okd@&mwGif ,if;aemufykdif; (1950) rS (1995) ckESpfumvrsm;twGif; ,if;EkdifiHrsm;&Sd vlwOD;csif;pD. 0ifaiGwefzkd;csif; E_dif;,SOfvkufonfh d tcg jrefrmEkdifiHtaejzifh rsm;pGmuGmjcm;vsuf aemufususefcJhonfudk awG‹jrifEkdifavonf? Tudef;*%ef;rsm; udk yHk (1? 1) wGifjyxm;ygonf? xkumvtwGif;wGif vlwOD;csif;pD. 0ifaiGonf xkif;EkdifiHwGif jrefrmEdkifiH. d d (5) q/ tif'kdeD;¶Sm;onf jrefrmEdkifiH. (2) q ponfhjzifh wk;wufcJaomfvnf; jrefrmEkdifiHwGifrl rqkdpavmuf d h om wk;wufcJhonfudk awG‹jrifEkdifavonf? yHk (1? 1) wGif tjcm;xif¶Sm;onftcsufrSm vlwOD;csif;pD. 0ifaiG d h 13
  18. 18. wk;wufr_E_ef;onf (1950-65) umvrsm;twGif; rsm;pGmuGmjcm;r_ r&Sdaomfvnf; aemufydkif;wGif rsm;pGmuGm d jcm;cJhonfukd awG‹jrifEkdifavonf? Z,m; (1? 1) ta¶S‹awmiftm&SESifh tdENd,/ w&kwfEdkifiHrsm;. EdkifiHjcm;ukefoG,fr_wGif vlwOD;csif;pD.ysrf;r# wefzkd; (1936-39 ESpfrsm;twGif;ESpfpOfysrf;r#wefzdk;udk tar&duefa':vmtm;jzifhwGucsufxm;jcif; jzpfonf?) f jynfyydk@ukef (tar&duefa':vmtm;jzifh) 12 ²65 5 ²10 6 ²70 4 ²05 75 ²55 2 ²00 0 ²40 jrefrmEdkifiH qdif,rf k e,fomvef tif'D;pf tif'dkcsKdif;em; +Adwdo#rmvm,k tdENd, w&kwf jynfwGif;wifoGif;ukef (tar&duefa':vmtm;jzifh) 5 ²60 3 ²55 4 ²00 2 ²60 63 ²00 1 ²60 1 ²70 rl&if;? J.R. Andrus, Burmese Economic life, Stanford University Press, 1947. yHk (1? 1) vlwOD;csif;0ifaiGajymif;vJwk;wufvmr_jyyHk d Figure 1.1. Changes in Per Capita Income 4000 3500 3000 Burma Indonesia 2500 Philippines Thailand 2000 Malaysia 1500 1000 500 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 rl&if;? Various issues of World Tables, World Bank and authors' estimate. aemufa=umif;jyef=unf&aomf/ (1950) ckESpfrS (1962) ckESpfumvrsm;onf ppf+yD;acwfjrefrmEdkifiH h twGuf ‘a¶$acwf’ [k wifpm;Ekdifavonf? uk&D;,m;ppfyGJ+yD;qkH;oGm;I ppfa=umifhaps;jrifhwufaeaom qef d aps; usqif;oGm;ojzifh/ &SpfESpf=umaqmif&GufcJaom ‘jynfawmfompDrHudef;’. jrifhrm;aom &nfrSef;csufrsm; h udrjynfhrDEdkifcJhaomfvnf;/ tajccHtaqmuftODrsm;/ v,f,mu¾ESifh pufr_u¾udk rsm;pGm zGH@òz;wd;wufap k k cJhygonf? 14
  19. 19. (1962) ckESpfwGif ppfwyfrSwdif;jynftm%mudkodrf;ydkufcJ+h yD;aemufydkif;wGif ygvDreftpdk;&ed*Hk;csKyfcJh& k onf? aemufydkif;wGif jrefrmEdkifiHudk uyfysuftwGif; usqif;apcJhaom ‘jrefrmhenf; jrefrmh[ef qdk&S,fvpfpepf’ udk pwifusifhoHk;cJhonf? trsKd;om;a&;0g'udk tpGef;a&mufonftaetxm;txd a&S@wef;wifcJh+yD;/ yk*~vdu h aps;qdkifi,frsm;txdukdyg jynfolydkifodrf;cJhonf? jynfwGif;&Sdxkwfvyfa&;u¾rsm;udk odrf;usKH; aygif;pnf;cJh+yD;/ k Oya'pnf;rsOf;rsm;/ xdef;csKyfr_rsm;jzifh pD;yGm;a&;udkwif;usyfpGm csKyfudkifaqmif&GufcJonf? EdkifiH&yfjcm;ESifh h ukefoG,fa&;rSmusqif;cJh&onf? wenf;azmfjy&v#if ajratmufpD;yGm;a&;tjzpfikwfv#Kd;oGm;cJh&onf? jynfol trsm;. rauseyfr_rsm;aemufqHk;pk&Hk;vmum (1988) ckESpfwGif jynfvkH;u|wfqENjyyGJrsm;ay:aygufcJhonf? xdk qENjyyGJrsm;udk ppftpdk;&opfu jyif;jyif;xefxefòzcGJacsr_ef;cJh+yD;/ rdrdbmomzGJ@pnf;aom EdkifiHawmf+idrf0yfydjym;r_ wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@ (e0w) tpdk;&jzifh tpm;xdk;cJhonf? qdk&S,fvpf0g'udk pGef@v$wcJh+yD;/ aps;uGupD;yGm;a&; f f tiftm;pkrsm;ESifh EdkifiHwumod@k wHcg;zGifhvGwvyfcGifhay;aom rl0g'rsm;udk usifoHk;rnf[k xkwfjyefa=ujimcJh f h onf? aps;uGuf pD;yGm;a&;acwfopf wckpwifvmcJhonf? od@k aomfvnf; Tae&mwGifowdðy&eftcsufrSm tpdk;&taejzifh Oya'pnf;rsOf;rsm;jzifh pD;yGm;a&;pepf. u¾tawmfrsm;rsm;udk csKyfudifxm;qJjzpfonf? vGwf k vyfpGm wHcg;zGifh aqmif&GufcGifhðyonf qdkonfrSmvnf; tcsKd@oD;oef@u¾rsm;wGifomjzpfonf? ppftpdk;& taejzifh wdkuf&dkuf odk@r[kwfoG,f0dkufI wenf;wzHkqufpyfaeaom pD;yGm;a&;ukr`%Drsm;/ vkyfief;rsm;onf om TtusKd;ouf a&mufr_udk cHpm;=u&onf? ‘vGwfvyfaomaps;uGufpD;yGGg;a&;pepf’[lI trsm;u jrifxm; aom t"dy`g,fESifh rsm;pGm uGmjcm;onf? jrefrmppftpdk;&taejzifh oabmaygufxm;onfrSm rdrdwd@k vdtyf k ovdk wpdwfwydkif;vGwfvyfcGifhay;jcif;tm;jzifh/ ‚if;wdk@tzGJ@tpnf;tusKd;pD;yGm;twGuf ydkrdktusKd;&SdapEdkif+yD;/ ,cifusifoHk;cJhaom wif;usyfonfh qdk&S,fvpfpepfxuf EdkifiHjcm;pD;yGm;a&;ukr`%Drsm;ESifh/ EdkifiHjcm;tpdk;&rsm;ESifh h yGifhvif;jrifomr_r&Sdaom yl;aygif; aqmif&Gufjcif;u ydkI tusKd;jzpfapEdkifonf [lIjzpfonf? qdk&S,fvpf0g'usifhoH;r_udkpGef@v$wfcJjh cif;ESifh EdkifiHwumaps;uGufESifhwpdwfwydkif;wHcg;zGifhcJhjcif;twGuf k csufcsif;yif &vmaomtusKd;tjrwfukdwc% cHpm;cJh=u&onf? EdkifiHjcm;ydk@ukefrsm;wdk;wufvmapcJh+yD;/ EdkifiH&yf jcm;rS &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_rsm;vnf; pwif 0ifa&mufvmcJhonf? ,ckumvwGifawmh tajctaerSefudodvmaom k a=umifh vGifhys,foGm;=u+yD jzpfonf? Todk@&&Sdvmaom0ifaiGrsm;udk ppfwyftwGuom trsm;qHk;toH;ðycJh f k onf? EdkifiHjcm;aºu;+rDrsm;ESifh ay;qyf&ef&Sdaeaom twd;rsm;u ydkIjrifhrm;vmaecJhonf? EdkifiHjcm;rSc&D;oGm; k rsm;udk qGJaqmif&ef t"du&nf&G,fcsujf zifh ‘jrefrmhc&D;oGm;ESpf’udk aysmfyGJ&$ifyGJrsm;jzifh tpðycJhaomfvnf;/ aemufydkif;wGif ratmifrjrifjzpfcJh&onf? rkwWryifv,fauG@rS xdif;EdkifiHod@k wifydk@aeaom obm0"gwfaiG@ k a&mif;csr_rS&aeaom EdkifiHjcm;0ifaiGom&Sdawmh+yD;/ T0ifaiGa=umifh ppftpdk;&. tajccHpD;yGm;a&;pDrHudef;rsm;udk atmifjrifapaom tajctaetxd ray;Edkifyg? xdk@tjyif Tod@k obm0"gwfaiGydk@aeaom ydkufvkif;rSmvnf;/ d vl@tcGifhta&;csKd;azmufr_rsm;/ obm00ef;usifysufoOf;&r_rsm;a=umifh jiif;ckefzG,f&m jzpfae&onf? xdk@tjyif k tpdk;&taejzifh jynfoltrsm;. &efykHaiGrsm;udvnf; ðyef;wD;apcJhonf? aiGa=u;azmif;yGr_E_ef;rSm w[kefxdk; k jrifhwufae+yD;/ jyify aygufaps;wGifusyfaiGaps;E_ef;on/f (1994) wGif&Sdaeaom jyifyaygufaps;ESifh,SOfv#if (300) &mcdkifE_ef;txd usqif;cJh&onf? rdrdwd@k . vHðk cHr_udkom &nfoefI/ ppfwyfudvnf; wyfom;tiftm; (5) odef; k txdwk;jr‡ifhjcif;jzifh/ ppfwyfudxlaxmif&onfh p&dwf/ tukeftuscH&onfoHk;aiGrSmvnf; txl;jrifhrm;vmcJhyg d k h onf? aemufydkif;pmrsufESmrsm;wGif twdwumvuºuif;usefcJh&aom ordkif;qdkif&mtajccHtcsufrsm;ESifh f xdumvrsm;twGif; jrefrmEdkifiHpD;yGm;a&;tajctaerS oifcef;pmxkwfE_wf,lzG,fudpPrsm;udk wifjyoGm;rnfjzpf k ygonf? 15
  20. 20. ºuif;usef&pfaom twdwf.tarG (1) (2) (3) (4) udvdeDacwfumv k k ygvDref'Drdkua&pDtpdk;& vufxuf (1958-62) jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOf (1962-88) (e0w) ppftpdk;&vufxuf xd@k aemufydkif;wGif pD;yGm;a&;pepfwckvH;tay: taxGaxGokH;oyfcsufESifh tajccHrl0g'rsm;wnfaqmuf k xm;yHkudk qufvufaqG;aEG;oGm;rnf jzpfonf? tem*wfjrefrmEdkifiHtwGuf rdrdwdk@.&_jrifoHk;oyfcsufESifh r[m AsL[mrsm;udk u¾tvduf aemufydkif;wGif/ qufvufazmfjyaqG;aEG;oGm;rnf jzpfygonf? k tem*wftwGuf &_jrifoHk;oyfcsufESifh r[mAsL[m (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;u¾ pufr_u¾ obm0pGrf;tm;rsm;ESifh obm00ef;usif EdkifiHwum ukefoG,fa&; b¾ma&;ESifh aiGa=u;qdkif&mrl0g'rsm; qif;&JrGJawr_ESifh 0ifaiGcGJa0jzef@jzL;r_ ynma&;u¾ tajccHtaqmuftOD tzGJ@tpnf;qdkif&m pepfrsm; wdk@jzpfygonf? t"duOD;pm;ay;vkyfief;rsm;/ jyemrsm;ESifh vufawG@taumiftxnfazmfaqmif&Guf&mwGif ñuH awG@&rnfjh yemrsm;udk rdrdwdk@t=uHðycsufrsm;wGif vufawG@tajctaeESifhtnD tav;ay;wifjyxm;yg onf? aemufqHk;u¾wGif Tr[mAsL[mESifh tjriftqdkðycsuftay: tjiif;yGm;Edkifaomtcsufrsm;ESifh tjcm; qufvufaqG;aEG;ap&ef wdkufwGef;csufrsm;udkyg aqG;aEG;xm;ygonf? ºuif;usef&pfaom twdwf.tarG udkvdeDacwfumv k (1998) ckESpfwGif jrefrmEdkifiHvGwfvyfa&;&&SdcJhonfrSm ESpfig;q,fjynf+h yDjzpfygonf? odk@aomfvnf; 0rf;enf;zG,f&maumif;aomtcsufrSm pD;yGm;a&;pepf.tajccHtaqmuftODrsm;onf udkvdkeDpepfumv twGif;u c|if;csefxm;&pfaom tarGrsm;twdif; obm0tm;jzifh rajymif;rvJ/ rwdk;wufbJ usef&Sdaeao; k aom tcsufyif jzpfygonf? tajccHukef=urf;ypPnf;rsm; EdkifiHjcm;wifydk@r_tay:wGif rSDcdkae&aomtajctaerSm vnf; rajymif;rvJ wnf&Sdae+yD;/ vkyfom;tiftm;trsm;pkrSmvnf; v,f,mvkyfief;u¾tay:wGif tajcðy ae&aomtcsKd;rSm ododomomajymif;vJvmjcif; r&Sdao;yg? trSefpifppfwGif wdkif;jynfwck.pD;yGm;a&; vkyfief; pGrf;aqmifEdkifr_udk azmfjy&mwGif/ tajccHukef=urf;rsm; EdkifiHjcm;wifydk@Edkifaomyrm%jzifh wdif;wmazmfjy&rnf k qdkonfrSm tvGefqdk;&Gm;aom udpP jzpfygonf? tjcm;aomEdkifiHjcm;0ifaiG&&SdEdkifaomenf;vrf;rsm;vnf; &Sm=uHzefwD;EdkifcJhjcif;r&Sdyg? ukef=urf;udk ukefacsmtjzpf ajymif;vJxwfvkyfEdkifjcif; r&SdbJ/ ukef=urf;a&mif;ol k b0ESifh tjrJwrf;wnf&SdaeonfrSm vufcHEdkifp&m r&Sdyg? tcsKyftjcmtm%mydkifEdkifiHwcktwGuf r#waom/ a&&SnfwnfwHhaomzGH@òz;r_udk jzpfay:wdk;wufvmap&ef twGu/f tajccHukef=urf;rsm; EdkifiHjcm;od@k wifydk@jcif; udk ,m,D ckwkef;tjzpftoHk;ðyonfqdkv#if c%wmjzpfEdkif ygonf? od@k aomfvnf; ,ckjzpfaeaom tae 16
  21. 21. txm;onf udvdkeDtpdk;&vufxufuusifhoH;cJhaom pepfqdk;. tarGºuif;usef&pfaeqJjzpf+yD;/ eufeuf&d_if; k k &d_if;tjrpfwG,aeygao;onf? xd@k tjyifa&&Snfudkr=unfhaom tjrifwdr_ESifh wm0efcHr_r&Sdaom rl0g'rsm; f k a=umifh TuJhod@k jzpfae&jcif;jzpfygonf? aemuftcef;rsm;wGif tao;pdwfudk qufvufaqG;aEG; azmfjyoGm;yg rnf? jrefrmEdkifiHwGif +Adwdo#udkvdeDtpdk;&taejzifhusifhoH;cJhaom rl0g'rSm EdkifiHudk urBmpD;yGm;a&;aps;uGuf k k ESifh wHcg;zGifhawG@qHkapcJhjcif;jzpf+yD;/ ndEd_if;aqG;aEG;jcif; ðyEdkifjcif;r&SdbJ/ w&GwfwkufqGJac: wHcg;zGifhapcJhjcif; jzpfyg ‡ d onf? Tae&mwGif ,ckumvtif'dkeD;&Sm;/ AD,uferfEdkifiHa'orsm;wGif 'wfrsm;/ jyifopfrsm;.udvdeDðy aqmif k k &GufyHk rl0g'rsm;ESifhvnf; jcm;em;&Hkr#ru/ +Adwdo#uyif udvdkeDðycJhaom ,ckrav;&Sm;EdkifiHwGif aqmif&GufcJyHkESifh k h vnf; jcm;em;aeygao;onf? Oyrmtm;jzifh +Adwdo#rmvm,ku|ef;qG,fwif udvdkeDtpdk;&u a'ocHrsm;. G k tm%mydkifr_udk *&kwpdkufqufvuftodrSwfðyxm;cJh+yD;/ rav;&Sm;apmfbGm;rsm;vufod@k ydkifqdkifcGifhrsm;udk tyfESHcJhygonf? Tenf;tm;jzifh O,smOfjcHpdkufysKd;a&;vkyfief;ESifh owWKwGif;wl;azmfa&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif EdkifiH wumaps;uGuf tiftm;pkrsm;. zdtm;udk=um;cHxm;ay;EdkifcJhygonf? odk@aomfvnf; jrefrmEdkifiHwGif a*stufpf-zmeDA,f (J.S. Furnivall) axmufjycJhovd/k vH;0aps;uGufvufokd@yHktyfaom vpfZDzJ,m; (laissezk faire) rl0g'rsm;twdif; taumiftxnf azmfcJh=uygonf? k xif&Sm;I rSwfom;p&maumif;aomtcsufrSm +Adwdo#wdk@tkyfcsKyfaomudkvdeD atmufjrefrmEdkifiHudk k EdkifiHwumaps;uGuodk@ (1852) ckESpfwGif/ wHcg;zGifhay;cJh+yD;aemuf/ yGifhvef;vmcJhaomtcGifhtvrf;rsm;udk f txufjrefrmjynf&Sd jrefrmrsm;wk@H jyefaqmif&Guf=uyHkyif jzpfygonf? xdtcsdefwGif jrefrmEdkifiHwckvH;onf k k +Adwdo#vufatmuf rusa&mufao;bJ/ (1885) ckESpfa&mufrSom wEdkifiHvHk;udk odrf;ydkufcJjh cif;jzpfygonf? (1869) ckESpfwGif pl;tufw;ajrmif;zGifhvSpf+yD;aemufydkif;wGif tdENd,/ ta&S@awmiftm&Sa'orsm;ESifh Oa&my l ul;vl;qufqHr_ydkIvG,fuvm+yD;/ ydkrdkeD;pyfvmapcJhygonf? {&m0wDjrpf0u|ef;ay:a'oudk udkvdeDodrf;ydkufcJh+yD; l k aemufydkif;wGif urBmhpD;yGGg;a&;aps;uGufokd@ qefa&mif;csaompD;yGm;a&;aphaqmfr_a=umifh txufjrefrmjynfrS v,form;trsm;tjym; {&m0wDjrpf0u|ef;ay:od@k ajymif;a&$@tajccsvm=uygonf? olwkd@.vufrsm;jzifhyif EGHawmrsm;/ opfawmrsm;udk ckwfxGif&Sif;vif;um v,fwDxGifcJh=uygonf? q,fpkESpfwcktwGif;rSmyif qefpyg; wifydk@r_odoomom wd;wufvm+yD;/ wESpfv#if yHkrSef qefwefcsdef (3) oef;wifydk@Edkifaom taetxm;a&muf d k cJhygonf? (1930) ckESpf ESpfukefydkif;a&mufaomtcg pyg;a&mif;&aiGonf a':vm oef; (80) cef@&&Sdae+yD jzpf onf? xdtcsdefu xdif;EdkifiH.qefwifydk@r_rSm Tyrm%.w0ufcef@om&Sdygonf? 1 k k u|ef;opfESifh tjcm;opfrmrsm;xkwvkyfaom opfawmu¾onfvnf; tjcm;EdkifiHjcm;aiG&&Sdap f aomvkyfief;wck jzpfygonf? +Adwdo#ukr`%Drsm;uom opfxkwfvyf=uaomfvnf;/ udvdkeDtpdk;&taejzifh k k “a&&Snftrsm;qHk;xkwvkyfEdkifrnfE_ef;”2 twdif;&&Sdap&ef opfawmxdef;odrf;apmifha&Smufa&;pnf;urf;rsm;udk f h k wif;wif;usyfusyf csrSwfaqmif&GufcJ=h uygonf? qdkvdkonfrSm opfawmrsm;ckwfvSJaeaomyrm%tvduf/ k opfyifrsm;jyefvnfpdkufysKd;jcif;/ opfawmysKd;cif;rsm;pdkufjcif;udk jyefjznfjh cif;tm;jzifh tjrJwrf;xkwfvyfoGm;Edkif k &ef &nf&G,f&if;jzpfygonf? rnfonftyifudk ckwfvSJcGifh&Sdonf? oufwrf;rnfr#wGif xkwfvJ&rnf? ponfwdk@ h S udk pepfwusOya'jyXmef;+yD;/ u|rf;usifI tawG@tñuH&Sdaomynm&Sifrsm;udk opfawmXmersm;wGif cef@tyf wm0efay;apcdkif;cJhygonf? (1940) ckESpfwGif EdkifiHjcm;wifydk@aomopfyrm%onf wefcsdef (225000) &Sd+yD;/ wefzdk;tm;jzifh a':vm (10) oef;cef@&Sdygonf? tjcm;opfrmrsm;a&mif;cs&aomaiGrSm aemufxyfa':vm (2) oef;cef@&Sdygonf? xd@k tjyifa&eHudvnf; &SmazGazmfxkwcJh+yD;/ (1939-40) ckESpfwGif EdkifiHjcm;aiG a':vm (55) oef;&&Sd k f ap&ef wifydk@a&mif;csEdkifcJhygonf? cJ/ 0lz&ef/ oHjzLponfhwGif;xGufrsm; a&mif;cs&aiGrS a':vm (18) oef;&&SdcJhyg onf? xdtcsdefu EdkifiHjcm;odk@wifydk@ukefrsm;rS&&Sdaom0ifaiGrSm (1939-40) wGif pkpkaygif; a':vm (173) oef; k 1 2 J. C. Ingram, Economic Changes in Thailand 1850-1970. Oxford University Press, 1971. maximum sustained yield 17
  22. 22. &SdcJh+yD;/ trsm;pkrSm tajccHydk@ukefrsm;rS jzpfygonf? Tyrm%rSm tHh=oav;pm;zG,faumif;vSygonf? (Z,m; 1? 2 udk=unfhyg? ) Z,m; (1? 2) EdkifiHjcm;wifydk@ukefrsm;rS&aiG yrm%wefzdk; (1939-40) (tar&duefa':vm axmifaygif;) pkpkaygif; EdkifiHjcm;wifydk@r_wefzdk; qefESifh qefxGufypPnf; u|ef;opfESifh tjcm;opfrm cJ/ 0lz&efESifh oHjzL a&eHxGufypPnf; rl&if;? Andrus, 1947. 172937 81149 11919 18081 55492 xdtcsdefwGifyif jrefrmEdkifiH&SdrD;&xm;vrf;rsm;udkazmufvkyfcJhonf? jrefrmhrD;&xm;.wm0efrSm Tod@k k yrm%}uD;rm;aom tajccHxkwfuefrsm;udk EdkifiHjcm;wifydk@Edkif&eftwGuf qdyfurf;rsm;od@k ta&mufydk@Edkifa&;yif k jzpfonf? &xm;vrf;rsm;taejzifh ajrmuf-awmifudkoG,wef;xm;=u+yD;/ ta&S@-taemufqufpyfxm;r_ r&Sd f oavmufyifjzpfonf? &xm;vrf;pepfrsm;rSmvnf; vspfvsLðyxm;cH&onf[k ajymv#if&Edkifonf? òr@aygif; (100) ausmfwif v#yfppf"gwftm;&&SdoH;pGJEdkifcJhonf? G k qef}udwcGJjcif;/ a&eHoef@pifcsufvkyfjcif;ESifh tajccHukef=urf;rsm;udxkwvkyfðyjyifay;aompuf&HktcsKd@ f k f rSvGv#if/ jrefrmEdkifiHwGiftjcm;pufr_vkyfief;rsm;rxGef;um;oavmuf&SdcJhonf? +Adwdo#tkyfcsKyfr_rwdifrDu &SdcJh J k aom rd&dk;zvmvufr_ukefxkwfvkyfief;rSmvnf; vHk;0okwoif z,f&Sm;cHvduf&onf? aus;vufaerdom;pk f k rsm;taejzifhv,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;vkyfief;udkom t"duxm;vkyfudifvmcJh+yD;/ rdrdpm;oH;r_twGufvnf;aumif;/ k k òr#jyrsm;ESifh EdkifiH&yfjcm;&Sdaps;uGufrsm;od@k wifydk@a&mif;cs&eftwGuf xkwfvkyfpdkufysKd;=uonf? acwfopfynma&;pepfudk pwifcJhaomfvnf;/ vltenf;pk oD;oef@vlwpktwGuomoif=um;EdkifcGifh&Sd f cJhonf? (1920) ckESpfwGif &efukefwuUodvfudkwnfaxmifcJh+yD;/ ynm&yfydkif;qdkif&mav;pm;avmufaomXme k wcktjzpf zGH@òz;vmcJhonf? xdktcsdefu &efukefwuUodkvfonfta&S@awmiftm&SEdkifiHrsm;wGif taumif;qHk; wuUodvfwcktjzpf wnf&SdcJhonf? EdkifiH&yfjcm;rSpmvmoif=uaomygarmuQrsm;wGif ynm&yfydkifqdkif&mt& k xif&Sm;ausm=f um;oltrsm;tjym; &efukefwuUodkvfwif vma&mufvkyfudkifcJh=uonf? ‚if;wdk@.ausmif;om; G rsm;taejzifh òr@jytkyfcsKyfa&;Xmersm;wGifvnf;aumif;/ Oya'a&;&mpDrHcef@cGJa&;Xmersm;wGifvnf;aumif; tvkyf0if=uonf? ‚if;ausmif;om;trsm;pkrSm 'kwd,urBmppf+yD;umv&efukefwuUodvfwif q&mrsm;/ k G 0efxrf;rsm;jyefjzpfvm=uonf? Tod@k atmifjrifr_rsm;&&SdcJhaomfvnf;/ udkvdkeDacwfjrefrmEdkifiHtkyfcsKyfa&;onf rw&m;rr#wr_rsm;/ wef;wl&nfwlr&Sdaom vlr_qufqHa&;rsm; w&m;ud,fuyifygvmaoma=umifh/ aemufqufwJqdk;usKd;rsm;ESifh k G qHk;&_H;epfem&r_rsm;vnf; jzpfay:apcJhonf? rdrdwd@k avhvmawG@&Sdcsuft& jynfwGif;odk@jyefvnfwifydk@vmaom ukefrsm;rSm/ EdkifiHjcm;wifydk@ukefwefzdk;. w0ufr#om&SdcJhonf? Tonfud=k unfjh cif;tm;jzifh t&if;tESD;rsm; twGuay;&aomtwdk;aiGrsm;/ tjrwftpGef;rsm; rdcifEdkifiHod@k om jyefoGm;=u+yD;/ tajccHxkwukefvkyfief;rsm; f f udk wd;wufap&efvdtyfaomt&if;tESD;rsm;/ tajccHtaqmuftODrsm;twGuf vdtyfoavmuf vkyfaqmif k k k cJhjcif;udk tav;ray;cJha=umif; awG@&onf? a'ocHjrefrmjynfoltrsm;rSm pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif v,f,m pdkufysKd;a&;u¾Yom yg0ifaqmif&GufEdkif=uonf? u|rf;usifr_rvdtyfaomtvkyfrsm;jzpfonfh qef}udwfpuf k vkyfom;rsm;/ qdyfurf;ukefwifukefcsvkyfom;rsm;wGifyif tdENd,rSwifoGif;vmaom vkyfom;rsm;udk toHk;ðycJh =uonf? u|rf;usifr_vdtyfaomvkyfom;rsm;ae&mwGif jrefrmvlrsKd;rsm;twGuf tcGifhtvrf;rSm tpdk;&Xme k rsm;. ti,fwef;t&m&Sdae&mrsm;ESifh u|rf;usifolae&mrsm;avmufom &SdcJhonf? v,f,mvkyfief;twGuf vdtyfaom aiGa=u;yHhydk;ay;jcif;udk tdENd,EdkifiHawmifydkif;rSvma&muftajccsaom cspfwD;aiGwd;acs;pm;olrsm; k k uom t"duaqmif&GufcJh=uonf? aiGacs;&mwGifvnf; ajraygifcHIomaiGacs;onf? urBmhpD;yGm;ysufuyf}uD; qdkufI jrefrmEdkifiHodk@&dkufcwfvmaomaomtcg/ tusKd;qufrSmqdk;&Gm;vSonf? aºu; rqyfEdkifaomawmifol 18
  23. 23. v,form;rsm;. ajrtrsm;tjym; cspfwD;rsm;.vufwGif;odk@ usa&mufqHk;&_H;cJh=u&onf? q&mpHOD;aqmifaom v,form;olykefxr_}uD; (1930-32) umvrsm;wGif jzpfvmcJh&+yD;/ udvdkeDtpdk;&u &ufpufpGmacsr_ef;cJhonf? k udvdeDpepf. t}uD;rm;qHk;aom raumif;onfhaemufqufwJGtusKd;quf[k qdkEdkifaomudpPrSm k k (jrefrmEdkifiH&Sdynm&Sifrsm;omru/ omrefjynfolrsm;tm;vHk;) EdkifiHwumukefoG,a&;tay: r,H=k unfjcif;ESifh f oHo,0ifcJh=ujcif;jzpfonf? Tta=umif;tcsufa=umifhyif jrefrmEdkifiH&Sd vGwvyfa&;&+yD;csdefrSpwifI f tqufqufaomtpdk;&rsm;onf jynfwGif;pD;yGm;a&;udkuef@owfxm;&efESifh urBmhaps;uGua=umifhjzpfay:vm f rnf&dkufcwfr_rsm;udk Oya'pnf;rsOf;rsm;jzifh vHðk cHr_/ umuG,fay;Edkif&ef pOf;pm;r_rsKd;jzifhaqmif&GufapcJh=uyHk& h onf? xdodk@aqmif&GufcJaom rl0g'rsm;.tusKd;qufa=umifh wdif;jynf.pD;yGm;a&;zGH@òz;wdk;wufr_udk rsm;pGm wkH@ k h k aES;ap&Hkomru/ jynfolrsm;. vlaer_tqifhtwef;vnf; edrfhuscJh&onf? txl;ojzifh wdif;jynf.vlrsm;pk}uD; k jzpfaom qefpdkufoawmifol v,form;rsm;taejzifh ydkIepfemcJh&onf? l vGwfvyfa&;umvESifh ygvDref'Drdkua&pDtpdk&tkyfcsKyfa&; (1948-62) 'kwd,urBmppfa=umifh jrefrmEdkifiH.pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;trsm;tjym; ysufpD;qHk;&_H;cJh&onf? jrefrmEdkifiH taejzifh ppfyGJudk (2) }udrfñuHcJh&onf? (1942) *syef0ifvm+yD; +Adwdo#rsm;udtdENd,odk@ armif;xkwfpOfu k w}udrf/ (1944-45) r[mrdwfwyfrsm;u jyefvnfodrf;ydkuf+yD;0ifvmpOfu w}udrfjzpfonf? jrefrmrsKd;cspfrsm; taejzifh ppfyGJ (2) }udrfvH;wGif yg0ifwdufcdkufqifE$JcJh=uonf? yxrydkif;wGif *syefwd@k ESifhtwlwdkufcJ+h yD;/ aemuf k k ydkif;wGif r[mrdwfwyfrsm;ESifhtwl&yfwnfcJh=uonf? ydkIqdk;&Gm;apaomta=umif;rSm jrefrmEdkifiHvGwvyfa&; f &+yD; rsm;r=umrDrSmyif/ t,l0g'a&;twGuaomfvnf;aumif;/ wdif;&if;om;ta&;twGuaomfvnf;aumif; f k f &nf&G,faom a&mifpHkolykefxr_rsm;ESifh ñuHcJh&jcif;jzpfonf? TtusKd;qufrsm;udk pD;yGm;a&;u¾wGifrnfod@k rnfyHk&dkufcwfcJhonfudk pm&if;Z,m;rsm;jzifh Z,m; (1? 3) wGifazmfjyxm;ygonf? TZ,m;rSm (1938-39) tajctaeudk (100) tjzpf tajcðyxm;jcif;jzpfygonf? Z,m; (1? 3) jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;tajctae (1947-52) 1947-48 1949-50 1951-52 jynfwGif; pkpkaygif; 72 61 74 xGufukefwefzdk; (*sD'DyD) vlwOD;csif;tvdkuf jynfwGif; 66 55 64 pkpkaygif; xGufukefwefzdk; 3 pdkufysKd;a&;u¾rS xkwfvkyfr_ 77 65 75 rl&if;? Walinsky, Economic Development of Burma 1951-1960. New York: The Twentieth Century Fund, 1962. xdtwGua=umifh xkwfvkyfEdkifr_rSm ppfóuacwfumv. (av;yHkoHk;yHk) om&Sdawmh+yD;/ vlwOD;csif; k f tvdufxwfvkyfEdkifr_E_ef;rSm (oH;yHkESpfyHk) r#om&Sdygawmhonf? ta=umif;rSm vlOD;a&wdk;yGm;vmaoma=umifhjzpf k k k ygonf? wdif;jynfpD;yGm;a&;wGif t"duxkwfukef (3) rsKd;jzpfaom qefpyg;/ u|ef;opfESifh tjcm;opfrmrsm;xkwf k vkyfEdkifr_tajctaerSm pkpkaygif;!$ef;udef;rsm; (Aggregated Indeces) jzifhaygif;I jyoygu ydkIqdk;&Gm;pGmedrfh uscJygonf? h vGwvyfcgp jrefrmEdkifiHtzdk@ wdkif;jynfwnfaxmifolzcif/ AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;tygt0if tjcm;aom f vkyfazmfukifzufacgif;aqmifrsm;vkyf=uHcH&I/ usqHk;cJh&aoma=umifh rsm;pGmqHk;&_H;epfemcJh&ygonf? xdvkyf=uHcH& d k aomtcsdefonf wdif;jynfvwfvyfa&;r&rD (6) vtvdk tcsdefjzpfygonf? od@k aomfvnf; OD;Ek.OD;aqmifr_ k G 3 GDP per Capita 19
  24. 24. atmufwGif tpdk;&opfudkzGJ@I &J&ifhpGmvSrf;EdkifcJh=uygonf? vufiif;ta&;ay:aeaom a&mifpHkolykefxr_ jyemudkxdef;odrf;Edkifonftcg wdif;jynfpD;yGm;a&;zufodk@jyefI OD;vSnhvmEdkifygonf? h k f wdif;jynfpD;yGm;a&;pepf. zGJ@pnf;r_qdkif&mpepfrsm;onf vGwfvyfa&;&+yD;umvaemufydkif;wGif k tajccHususajymif;vJcJhygonf? pdkufysKd;Edkifaomv,fajrrsm;udk jynfoydkifodrf;ydkufcJ+h yD;aemuf/ v,form;rsm; l xHok@d jyefvnfcGJa0ay;cJhygonf? vlwOD;v#if trsm;qHk; (10) {utxdowfrSwfI cGJa0ay;cJhygonf? jynfy ukefoG,fa&;qdkif&m pnf;rsOf;rl0g'rsm;/ vpmxkway;aomE_ef;xm;rsm;udkvnf; jyifqifowfrSwfcJhygonf? f ,cifudvdkeDtpdk;&vufxufupI usifoHk;vmcJhaomvGwfvyfpGmukefoG,fa&;tay:wGif tpdk;&topfu k h tcGefE_ef;xm;rsm; tenf;i,fwdk;I aumufcHcJhygonf? (1937) ckESpfwdkifatmif jrefrmEdkifiHwGifoH;pGJaeaom k aiGa=u;rSm tdENd,&lyD;udk tajccHIoHk;pGJygonf? aemufydkif;wGif ppfrjzpfrDumvtxd jrefrmaiGa=u;jzifh tpm; xd;cJh+yD;/ w&lyD;ESifh nDr#aomaiGa=u;udk jyefvnf&dkufESdyfoH;pGJcJhygonf? xdk@twGua=umifh jrefrmEdkifiHwGif &SdaecJh k k f aomaiGa=u;pepfrSm (100) &mcdkifE_ef;tjynfh EdkifiHjcm;aiGrsm;ESifhvJv,fokH;pGJEdkifaomaiGjzpfcJhygonf? vGwvyf S f a&;&+yD;aemufydkif;wGif tpdk;&u EdkifiHawmfA[dkb%fudxlaxmifcJh+yD;/ tpdk;&.vdaiGjyr_rsm;udk ajz&Sif;Edkif&ef k k aiGa=u;rsm; &dkufESdyfoH;pGJcJhygonf? od@k aomfvnf; vdtyfonfhtaetxm;t& +Adwdo# aygifpwmvifaiGESifh k k csdwfqufxm;aomaiGvJE_ef;udk toH;ðycJhygonf? EdkifiHjcm;aiGvJv,fr_udk wif;usyfpGmxdef;csKyfxm;cJh+yD;/ k S jynfwif;od@k wifoGif; aomukefrsm;twGuvnf; oGif;ukefvdkifpifpepfjzifh uef@owfxm;cJhygonf? Tenf;tm; G f jzifh jynfwif;odk@wif oGif;vmaomukefrsm;. EdkifiHwumaygufaps;ESifh jynfwGif;aygufaps;udk tqufjzwfxm; G +yD;/ uGmjcm;aeapcJhygonf? jynfyod@k wifydk@r_wGif/ qefwifydk@r_ESifh u|ef;opfwifydk@r_udk EdkifiHawmftpdk;&uvuf0g;}uD;tkyfxm;cJhyg onf? EdkifiHawmf aumufyJoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;tzGJ@ (SAMB) udzGJ@pnf;cJh+yD;/ v,form;rsm;xHrSpyg;udk jyify k aygufaps;xufedrfhaom/ owfrSwfxm;aomaps;E_ef;jzifh 0,f,lcJhygonf? xdk@tjyifjynfwif;odk@ukefwifoGif;cGifh G udk cGifhðycsufvdifpifcsay;aompepfjzifh csKyfudifxm;aoma=umifh/ jynfwif;odk@wifoGif;vmaomvloH;ukefypPnf; k k G k rsm;rSm EdkifiHwumaygufaps;xufydkI jrifhaeygonf? xdtwGufa=umifh jynfwif;wGifpdkufysKd;xkwfvyfaeolrsm; k G k .0ifaiGrSm Ed_if;,SOfcsuftm;jzifh tvsiftjrefyif usqif;vmcJh+yD;/ EdkifiHawmfoDESHa&mif;0,fa&;bkwftzGJ@odk@ a&mif;cs=u&rnfh tydkoD;ESHrsm;pdkufysKd;xkwfvkyf&ef/ rufvkH;aphaqmfr_rsm;vnf; usqif;vmygonf? xdk@tjyif qefaygufaps;rSm EdkifiHwumaygufaps;xufavsmhenf;aeaoma=umifh jynfwif;wGif0,f,lpm;oHk;r_ ydkIrsm;vm G onfESifhtr#/ EdkifiHjcm;odk@wifydk@Edkifaomqefyrm%rSm ydkIydkIavsmhenf;vm&ygonf? EdkifiHwumaps;uGufayguf aps;ESifh jynfwGif;aygufaps;t=um;uGm[aeaom aps;E_ef;u/ jynfyodk@wifydk@aomqefwwef. tjrwftpGef;udk qHk;jzwfay;ygonf? Todk@qefwqefv#if&&SdaomtjrwfaiGESifh EdkifiHjcm;wifydk@aomqefwefcsdefudk ajr‡mufygu &&Sdrnfyrm%onf/ EdkifiHawmfoD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;bkwftzGJ@. 0ifaiGyifjzpfygonf? qef}udwcGJp&dwf/ xdef;odrf; h f ydk@aqmifp&dwf/ odavSmif&Hkp&dwfrsm;E_wfvkufygu usefaeaomtjrwfaiGrsm;udk tpdk;&b¾maiGxJok@d v$J k d ajymif;ay;=uygonf? TaiGonfom tpdk;&.t"du0ifaiGjzpfygonf? ygvDreftpdk;&vufxuf pD;yGm;a&;pGrf;aqmifEdkifr_a,bk,stajctaeudk Z,m; (1? 4) wGifazmfjy xm;aom (1951-52) aumfvHESifh (1959-60) aumfvHwdk@t=um; Ed_if;,SOf=unfhjcif;tm;jzifh odomEdkifygonf? xd@k tjyif (1959-60) tajctaeESifh (1938-39) tajctaeudvnf; Ed_if;,SOf=unfapvdkygonf? yxrEd_if;,SOf k h csufwif=unfhrnfqdkv#if pD;yGm;a&;qdkif&mpGrf;aqmifr_rSm tm;&txif}uD;p&myifjzpfygonf? wdif;jynf.pkpk G k aygif;xkwfukefwefzdk; (*sD'DyD) taejzifh (40) &mcdkifE_ef;ausmfjrifhwufvmcJh+yD;/ vlwOD;csif;twdkif;twmESifh *sD'DyD/ pdkufysKd;a&;xkwukef xkwvkyfr_ESifh pyg;txGufrSm (oH;yHkwyHk) wdk;wufvmcJhygonf? u|ef;opfESifhtjcm;opfrm f f k xkwvkyfr_wGifvnf; ododomomwd;wufcJhygonf? u|ef;opfxkwfvyfr_wGif ESpfqausmfwd;wufvmcJhygonf? f k k k qefpyg;EdkifiHjcm;wifydk@r_wGifvnf; ta&twGuyrm%t&=unfrnfqdkv#if/ ESpfq&SdvmcJhygonf? f h od@k aomfvnf; (1938-39) tajctaeESifh Ed_if;,SOf=unfhrnfqdkygu/ pD;yGm;a&;t&pGrf;aqmifEdkifr_rSm pdwfysufzG,f&myif jzpfygonf? pkpkaygif;jynfwGif;xkwukefwefzdk; (*sD'DyD) onf (7) &mcdkifE_ef;omjrifhwufvmcJh f +yD;/ pdkufysKd;a&;u¾rS xkwvkyfr_rSmvnf; jyefvnfemvHxlvmaom tajctaejzpfygonf? vlwOD;csif;pDtae f 20
  25. 25. jzifh (*sD'DyD) rSmvnf; ppfóuacwfumvtajctae. atmufwGif&Sdaeygonf? tjcm;opfrmxkwfvkyfr_wGifom ppfóuacwfumvxuf (20) &mcdkifE_ef;ausm&Hk/ ydkrsm;ygonf? pkpkaygif;tom;wift&if;tESD;pkaqmif;vmr_rSm f ta&;}uD;onfESifhtr#/ pkpkaygif;t&if;pkaqmif;rdvmr_rSm jynfwGif;xGuukefwefzdk; (*sD'DyD) . (20) &mcdkifE_ef;r# f om&Sdaoma=umifh/ vsmxm;csuftwdif;rpGrf;aqmifEdkifaom taetxm;udk ydkIcHpm;rdapygonf? xdk@tjyif k xdumvwGif tawmftwefrsm;aom EdkifiHwumaxmufyHhulnDr_rsm;ESifh *syefEdkifiHxHrS&&Sdaom ppfavsmfa=u; k aiGrsm;vnf; wdif;jynf.b¾mtwGif;od@k pD;0ifvmcJhygonf? k TumvtwGif; ratmifjrifcJh&aomta=umif;. t"dutajccHtcsufrSm pdkufysKd;a&;u¾twGuf rufvkH;aphaqmfr_ r&Sdjcif;yif jzpfygonf? txl;ojzifhqefpyg;pdkufysKd;a&;wGifjzpf+yD;/ jynfywifydk@r_udk EdkifiHawmf oD;ESHa&mif;0,fa&;bkwftzGJ@rS xdef;csKyfxm;ygonf? jynfwif;ukefwifydk@r_udvnf; vdifpifpepfjzifhxdef;csKyfxm; G k k cJha=umif; a&S@ydkif;wGifazmfjycJh+yD; jzpfygonf? tjcm;Ed_if;,SOfavhvmzG,faumif;aomtcsufrSm u|ef;opfESifh u|ef;opfr[kwfaom tjcm;opfrmxkwfvkyfr_yif jzpfygonf? u|ef;opfxkwfvkyfa&;udk EdkifiHawmfopfvkyfief; bkwftzGJ@u vuf0g;}uD;tkyfxdef;csKyfxm;+yD;/ tjcm;opfrmrsm;xkwfvyfr_udk yk*~vduu¾od@k vrf;zGifhay;xm; k cJhygonf? Z,m; (1? 4) wGifazmfjyxm;onftwkif;/ u|ef;opfxkwfvyfr_rSm ppfóuacwfxkwfvkyfr_xuf avsmh h d k enf;aomfvnf;/ tjcm;opfrmxkwfvyfr_rSm (20) &mcdkifE_ef;ydkI wd;wufcJhygonf? k k Z,m; (1? 4) t"duvloH;ukefypPnf;rsm;. pkpkaygif;!$ef;udef;rsm; (1938-60) k (Main Commodities Aggregate Indices, 1938-60) 1938-39 100 1951-52 74 1959-60 107 11 64 85 v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;u¾ xkwfvkyfr_!$ef;udef; 108 75 100 pyg;xkwfvkyfr_ (wef&Snf oef;aygif;) 8² 05 5² 25 6² 92 453 141 333 u|ef;opfr[kwfaom opfxkwfvkyfr_ (ukAwef axmifaygif;) 502 349 611 qefEdkifiHjcm;wifydk@r_ (wef&Snf oef;aygif;) 3² 3 1² 16 2² 1 *sD'DyD !$ef;udef; (GDP Index) vlwOD;csif;twGuf wGufaom*sD'DyD!$ef;udef; (Per Capita GDP Index) (Agricultural production Index) (Paddy Production- million long tons) u|ef;opfxkwfvkyfr_ (ukAwef axmifaygif;) (Teak Production--thousand cubic tons) (Non-Teak Production--thousand cubic tons) (Rice Export --million long tons) rl&if;? Walinsky. xd@k tjyifpdkufysKd;xkwfvkyfolrsm;taejzifh aps;E_ef;aumif;&r_tay:wkH@jyefaqmif&Guf=uyHkudk axmufcH azmfjy&eftajctaew&yfrSm/ xdumvtwGif; pdkufysKd;xGufukefoD;ESHrsm; trsKd;tpm;csJ@xGifvmcJhjcif; jzpfyg k onf? tpdk;&.qnfa&ay;pDrHudef;rsm;u ulnDyHhydk;ay;cJhaoma=umifh (1959-60) wGif ajryJxkwvkyfr_onf f ppfóuacwftajctaexuf (52) &mcdkifE_ef;wdk;wufrsm;jym;vmcJh+yD;/ ESrf;xkwfvkyfr_rSm (47) &mcdkifE_ef;rsm;jym; vmcJhygonf? xdk@tjyif=uHxufrSm (10) &mcdkifE_ef; wdk;wufcJhygonf? G od@k aomfvnf; EdkifiHawmfydkifpuf&Hkrsm;rSpGrf;aqmifr_onf rsm;pGmnHhzsif;aom taetxm;rSom yg0ifcJh ygonf? EdkifiHawmfaq;0g;xkwfvkyfa&;puf&HkqdkonfrSmvnf; jynfyrSwifoGif;vmaomaq;0g;ypPnf;rsm;udk ykvif;oGw&Hk/ xkwfydk;&Hktqifhom&SdcJhygonf? wefzdk;jr‡ifhwifap&efaqmif&Gufay;aom vkyfief;tenf;i,fr#om f aqmif&GufEdkifcJhygonf? oHr%dpuf&HkrSmvnf; t"dy`g,ftenf;i,fr#om&Sdygonf? csnfr#ifxkwfvyfief;ESifh k txnfpufrsm;ud=k unfhygu wefzdk;ay;&r_ESifh jyef&aomtjrwftajctaeud=k unfygu Tpuf&Hkrsm;uyifydkI h tvkyfjzpfonfukd awG@&ygonf? od@k aomfvnf; Tpuf&Hkrsm;udk nHzsif;pGm pDrHcef@cGJtkyfcsKyfcJh=uygonf? jynfol h trsm;.0efaqmifvkyfief;rsm;. pDrHcef@cGJr_rSmvnf; pdwfysufp&maumif;avmufatmifnHhzsif;I t&_H;ESifhñuHcJh& 21
  26. 26. ygonf? Todk@nHhzsif;aompDrHcef@cGJr_,EW,m;rsm;wGif EdkifiHawmfydkifpuf&Hkrsm;omrubJ/ EdkifiHawmf aumufyJ oD;ESH a&mif; 0,fa&;tzGJ@/ EdkifiHawmfopfxkwvkyfa&;bkwftzGJ@ ponfrsm;vnf; tygt0ifjzpfygonf? 4 f ud&D;,m;ppfyGJumvqefrsm;wifydk@ae&+yD;/ aps;aumif;&r_a=umifh (1950) ckESpfqefydkif;umvrsm;wGif k EdkifiHjcm;aiGa=u;azmazmoDoD &SdaecJhygonf?Todk@0ifvmaomEdkifiHjcm;aiGrsm;/ EdkifiHwumtaxmuftyHhrsm;ESifh ppfavsmfa=u;aiGrsm;udk v#yfppf"gwftm;xkwvkyfa&;/ &xm;vrf;wdk;csJ@azmufvkyfa&;vkyfief;rsm;ESifh tjcm; f tajccHtaqmuftODudpPrsm;twGuf tusKd;&SdpGmtoH;ðyEdkifcJhygonf? tpdk;&.pufr_vkyfief;rsm;wGif t}uD;pm; k pufr_vkyfief;rsm;udk ydkItom;ay;cJh=uyg+yD;/ epfemqHk;&_H;&r_ jzpfapcJhygonf? tu,fITpGrf;tm;rsm;udk yk*~vduu¾ vloH;ukefxkwfvkyfa&;vkyfief;rsm;rSom &,ltoHk;ðycGifhðycJhrnfqdkygu/ ydkItjrwftpGef;rsm;rsm; k &&SdapEdkifaom tajctaeudjk zpfapEdkifygonf? xdumv'Drdkua&pDtpdk;&. tapmydkif;umvpD;yGm;a&;pepfrSm/ tjcm;aom vGwvyfvm=uonfh k f tm&SEdkifiHrsm;&Sd tajctaeESifhwyHkpHwnf; jzpfygonf? Oyrmtm;jzifh tdENd,EdkifiHwGif uGef*&ufygwDacgif;aqmif ae&l;.vufatmuf&Sdtajctae/ tif'dkeD;&Sm;&Sd qlumEdk.tajctae pojzifh twlwjl zpfygonf? xdtcsdefu k xdacgif;aqmifrsm;pdwf0ifpm;cJh=uonfrSm +Adwdo#avbmygwD. tawG;tac:ynm&Sifacgif;aqmif [m&dk;vf'f k vufpuD (Harold Laski) a&;om;onfh “ta&mtaESmpD;yGGg;a&;pepf”5 yHkpHrsKd; jzpfygonf? ‚if;.t,ltq t&yk*~vduu¾rsm;udk vkyfydkifcGifhwpHkw&may;xm;aomfvnf;/ pD;yGm;a&;pepf. t"duarmif;ESiftm;udk EdkifiH awmftpdk;&u¾rSom aqmif&Gufom;&efjzpfonf? Tt,ltqudvufcH=uaomynm&Siftrsm;pku v,fo G k rm;ESifh jynfwGif;pD;yGm;a&;tiftm;pkrsm;tay: odyfrpGrf;aqmifEdkif/ xdef;ausmif;ay;&rnf[k jrif=uonf? yxr tcsufrSm wdif;jynf.zGH@òz;wdk;wufr_vdtyfcsuftwGuf twif;t=uyfpkaqmif;apcdkif;&rnf[k jrif+yD;/ aemuf k k wcsufrSm cGifhðyEdkifor#aomtwdif;twmtwGif; cGifhðyay;&rnf[kjrifonf? qdkvdonfrSm TtjrifwGif T k k v,form;rsm;ESifh jynfwGif;&SdpD;yGm;a&;tiftm;pkrsm;tay: oHo,tjrifygonf? jrefrmEdkifiH&SdydkIvGwfvyfyGifhvif;aom/ aps;uGuftajccHusaom pD;yGm;a&;pepfudkusifoHk;&ef arS;rSdef h tm;enf;apaom tjcm;ta=umif;tcsufrsm;vnf;&Sdygonf? ‚if;rSm (1930) ckESpfu jzpfyGm;cJh&aom urBmh pD;yGm;ysufuyf}uD;.&dkufcwfcH&r_/ udvdkeDpepf. cg;oD;aomqdk;arGudkrarhEdkif=uao;bJ &Sdaeonfhtjyif/ wdif; k k jynf.vufvvufum;a&mif;0,fa&; ukefonf}uD;rsm;Y tdENd,ESifh ygupPwefrSqif;oif;vmaomvlrsKd;EG,f D 0ifrsm;uom ae&m,lxm;=uaoma=umifh jzpfonf? Tukefonf}uD;rsm;trsm;pkrSm jrefrmEdkifiHom;tjzpfcH,l xm;=uaomfvnf;/ olwdk@udk EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm;[kom trsm;ujrif=uonf? xdtwGua=umifh oGif;ukefvdifpif k f k csay;jcif;wdk@uJhod@k aom pD;yGm;a&;tcGifhtvrf;rsm;udk jrefrmwdkif;&if;om;rsm;odk@om csay;cJhonf? Tod@k oGif; ukevdifpif&olrsm;teufrS trsm;pkrSmvnf; EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh eD;pyfaomrdwfaqGrsm;/ aqGrsKd;rsm;jzpf f k =uonf? ToGif;ukefvdifpifrsm;udk tajcus+yD;om;/ ,ciftawG@tñuH&Sd+yD;om; pD;yGm;a&;ukefonf}uD;rsm;xH k 4 acgif;aqmifpma&;ol. xyfwdk;wifjycsuf? ,if;acwf. wdk;wufr_tvm;tvmudk oHk;oyf&mwGif/ qENapmr_/ umvausmf rjrifEdkifr_ u|efawmfwdk@wGif &SdaecJhygonf? u|efawmfudk,fwdkifyif tmabmiftm&if; oefoefjzif/h (zqyv) acwf/ pufr_vkyfief;rsm;. rSm;,Gif;aer_rsm;udk/ wuUodkvfpmoifcef;udk EdkifiHa&;pifjrifhozG,f oabm xm;+yD; wbufowfajymcJh=uygonf? v#yfppfjzifh wnfaqmufaom tao;pm;oH&nfóudpufonf tvm;tvmr&Sdaom pdwful;,Ofr_jzpf onf/ rnfonfhenf;ynmoabmt& jzpfap ratmifjrifEdkif/ oHr%dpuf&Hkudk aygif;zdkpepfjzifh a':vmbDv#HESifcsDIoHk;rS xkwftm;aumif;aom h puf&Hkudk wnfaqmufEdkifrnf? aq;0g;pug&HkrSmvnf; enf;ynmtwGuf tqrwefay;&onf/ a&&SnftusKd;r&SdEdkif/ tvm;tvmr&Sd[lI a0zef cJygonf? h u|efawmfwdk@qENapm+yD;/ a0zefcJonfrsm; tm;vHk;rSm;cJygonf? v#yfppfudk toHk;cs+yD; oHusKd; oHyJhawGudk oH&nfóudcsufaompuf&Hkrsm;u/ aemif h h tcgwGif bDv#Ha':vm t&if;ðyxm;aom puf&Hk}uD;awGudk tjywftowftEdkif&cJygonf? aq;0g;xkwfvkyfa&;rSmvnf; tvGef}uD;rSm;,Gif;ae h aom y&dk*sufr[kwfyg? ,if;uJhodk@ tqifhtwef;jrifaom xkwfvkyfenf;rsm;udk &,lvdkv#if/ tbdk;tcay;&rnf jzpfygonf? TuJhodk@puf&Hkrsm; h aqmif&Gufjcif;jzifh tdENd,EdkifiH&Sd aq;0g;xkwfvkyfief;rsm; t&Sdef&,l pwifcJygonf? xdkpOfu u|efawmfwdk@. aq;0g;puf&Hku tqifjh rifI ypPnf; h h xGuf trsKd;rSefojzif/h puf&Hkxkwfaq;0g;ypPnf;rsm;udk xdkif;EdkifiHESifh w&kwfEdkifiHodk@ wifydk@a&mif;cscJh&ygonf? ,ckawmh xdkjzpfpOf. ajymif;jyefjzpf aeyg+yD? w&kwfEdkifiHxkwf t&nftaoG;rjynfhrDaom aq;0g;ypPnf;rsm;udk 0,f,loHk;pGJae&ygonf? xdkif;EdkifiHxkwf ypPnf;rsm;rSmvnf;trsKd;tpm; rrSefuef/ pHcsdef rudkufonfrsm;udk oHk;ae=u&ygonf? xdkpOfu pwifI pufr_wnfaxmif&ef óud;yrf;cJolrsm;udk/ u|efawmfwdk@rSm;cJaom t,l h h tqrsm;twGuf awmif;yefvdkygonf? odk@aomf xdkyk*~dKvfrsm; TavmuwGif r&Sd=uawmh+yD jzpfygonf? (ygarmuQ a'gufwmcifarmif=unf) 5 Mixed Economy 22
  27. 27. od@k om jyefa&mif;pm;=uonf? xdod@k vdifpif&olrsm;u jynfwif;aps;E_ef;ESifh urBmhaps;uGuaps;E_ef;uGmjcm;r_rS k k G f tjrwf&onftjyif/ tpdk;&uoGif;ukefcGefoufomcGifh&aoma=umifhvnf; ydkI tusKd;tjrwfcHpm;=u&onf? h tjcm;wenf;tm;jzifhazmfjy&rnfqdkv#if TOyrmonf/ usrf;&dk;pmtkyfrsm;wGifazmfjyaeonfhtwdif; “eD;pyfol k rsm;udk rsufESmomay;/ tcGifhta&;ay;r_”om jzpfonf? xdkodk@wifoGif;vmaomukefrsm;udk urBmhaps;uGu&Sd f aps;E_ef;xufwifI a&mif;csjcif;/ wifoGif;vmaomukef=urf;ypPnf;rsm;uvnf; aps;}uD;pGm0,f,lae&jcif;rsm; udk xdtcsdefuvlxktrsm;u a0zefaxmufjyaqG;aEG;cJh=uonf? oGif;ukefvdifpifxkwfay;jcif;. &nf&G,fcsuudk k k f ar;cGef;xkwfvm=uonf? oGif;ukefvdifpifxkway;jcif;. &nf&G,fcsuu ckwf&mwjcm;/ &S&mwvGJjzpfapcJh k f f onf? xdkodk@xkway;xm;aom oGif;ukefvdifpifrsm;wefzdk;&Sdae&aomta=umif;rSm tjcm;r[kwf? jynfwif;&Sd f k G aps;E_ef;onf urBmhaps;uGufaygufaps;xufjrifhrm;aejcif;ESifh cGifhðycsuf&&Sd&ef cufcJ&Sm;yg;jcif;wd@k a=umifhomjzpf onf? tu,fI ukefoG,fr_udkta&twGufyrm%t& ruef@owfxm;ygu/ jynfwif;aps;uGufaygufaps;onf G urBmhaygufaps;ESifh jynfwGif;YowfrSwfxm;aomoGif;ukeftcGefr#om jzpfayvdrfhrnf? Trl0g'. r&nf&G,fbJ&&Sdvmaom tjcm;&v'fwckrSm jynfwGif;Ypufr_vkyfr_vkyfief;rsm;zGH@òz;vmap &ef pGef@pm;&if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHolrsm; ay:vmjcif;yifjzpfonf? xdtcsdefYjynfwif;&Sdukr`%Dtrsm;pkrSm oGif;ukefvdifpif& k G k &eftwGuf ol@xufig/ tpdk;&tm%mydkifrsm;ESifh tqifajyap&efcsOf;uyfae=uaomtcsdefY/ trSefwu,fpD;yGm; a&;vkyfief;ta=umif; em;vnfolrsm;rSm TjzpfpOftwGif;rScGJcGgxGuukef=uonf? tjcm;wbufwGifwifoGif; f vmaomukefypPnf;rsm;&Sm;yg;jcif;ESifh pufr_ukef=urf;rsm;ESifh pufypPnf;rsm;wifoGif;r_udk tavsmay;rsufESmom h ay;xm;aom tajctaeudtcGifhaumif;,lonf? xdpufrsm;jzifhjynfwif;vdtyfaeaom vlok;ukefypPnf;xkwf k k G k H aompufr_vufr_ tvkyf&Hkrsm;trsm;tjym; ay:aygufvmawmhonf? oHowWKypPnf;rsm;/ yvyfpwpfypPnf; rsm;/ csnfxnfESifh qifoufwpfta&mtaESmxnfrsm;/ tpm;taomuf/ tazsmf&nf/ pD;u&uf paomukef ypPnf;xkwfvkyfolrsm; wd;wufrsm;jym;vmcJhonf? &efukeftif;pdwfa'ow0dkufwGif ti,fpm;vloH;ukefypPnf; k k xkwaompuf&Hkrsm; (1955) ckESpfY rd_vdkrsm;jym;ay:aygufvmcJhonf? f +Adwdo#ESifh tdENd,ukefoG,fa&;ukr`%Drsm; wdif;jynftwGif; usef&Sdvnfywfaeao;aomtajctae k wGif/ jrefrmukr`%Drsm;taejzifh xdukr`%D}uD;rsm;ESifh jynfywifydk@&mwGifvnf;aumif;/ jynfwif;wifoGif;&mwGif k G vnf;aumif;/ jzef@jzL;a&mif;cs&mwGifvnf;aumif; t}udwte,fòyifqdkif=u&onf? xdtcsdefu jrefrmukr`%D f k rsm;vnf; ta&twGut&rsm;jym;vm+yD;/ pGrf;aqmifEdkif&nfrsm; tcsdefwdtwGif; jrifhvm=uonf? 'Drdkua&pD f k tpdk;&umvtwGif;u jynfwif;&Sdyk*~vdupD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm; tcef;u¾.aqmif&GufEdkifr_rSm txif}uD; G zG,f aumif;vSonf? odk@aomfvnf; xdtcsdefutpdk;&u OD;pm;ay;vkyfaqmifaeaomtcsufrSm tjcm;wbuf k jzpfaom t}uD;pm;pufr_vkyfief;rsm;zGH@òz;a&;udk tm&Hkxm;OD;pm;ay;aecJhonf? tjcm;wbufwGifvnf; EdkifiHawmfuOD;aqmifI t"duaqmif&Gufotjzpf pufr_vufr_vkyfief;rsm; l zGH@òz;wdk;wufatmif aqmif&Guf&rnf[laomtcsufukd vkyf&if;udif&if;/ tuef@towfrsm;awG@vm&aom k a=umifh oifcef;pm&vm=uonf? (1956) ckESpfwGif t}uD;tus,f0g'jzef@csdcJhaom jynfawmfompDrHudef;onf &efykHaiGtcuftcJa=umifh &yfqdkif;vduf&onf? ta=umif;rSm xdtcsdefuEdkifiHwumaps;uGufwGif qefaps;E_ef; k k usqif;vmae+yD;/ xdkpDrHcsuf.t"du0ifaiGjzpfrSm qefa&mif;&aiGudtajcðyxm;aoma=umifh qufvufrvnf k ywfEdkif jzpfvm&onf? xdk@tjyiftjcm;wcsufrSm tpdk;&zufwGifwwfodynm&Sifrsm;ESifh u|rf;usifr_csKd@,Gif; aoma=umifhjzpfonf? EdkifiHa&;acgif;aqmiftrsm;oabmaygufvm=uonfrSm/ yk*~vdupD;yGm;a&;u¾. yg0if yHhydk;r_r&SdbJESifh zGH@òz;a&;pDrHudef;rsm; raqmif&GufEdkif[k oabmaygufvm=uonf? (1957) ckESpfwGif EdkifiHjcm; &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_qdkif&mOya' yxrrl=urf;udk pD;yGm;a&;ESifhvlr_a&;bkwftzGJ@rStwnfðycJh+yD;/ (1962) ckESpfwGif Oya' tjzpf jyXmef;EdkifcJhonf? (1960) ckESpfqef;ydkif;umvrsm;u tpdk;&taejzifh wdif;jynf.zGH@òz;a&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif k yk*~vdutcef;u¾udk yg0ifaqmif&GufcGifay;&ef/ OD;wnfajymif;vJaecJh+yD jzpfonf? h wòyifeufwnf;rSmyif tpdk;&taejzifhoabmaygufem;vnfaecJhaomtcsufrSm/ tpdk;&Xmersm;udk jyefvnfjyifqif pkzGJ@&efvdtyfae+yD[laom tcsufjzpfonf? ,cifudvdkeDtpdk;&vufxufu oHr%dausm&dk;[k k k trnfaumif;cJhaom tpdk;&0efxrf;Xmersm;udk opPm&Sdaom/ xda&mufxufjrufaom/ zufrvdufaomtpdk;& k 23
  28. 28. 0efxrf;rsm;jzifh 'Drdkua&pDtpdk;&wck. vkyfxHk;vkyfenf;usifhpOftwGif; jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;a&;jzpfonf? xdodk@jyef k vnfzGJ@pnf;&mY EdkifiHa&;t&rsufESmomay;r_/ qufEG,fr_rsm;udvnf; a&Smif&Sm;&rnfjzpfonf? xd&nf&G,f k k csufjzifh jynfol@0efxrf;Xmersm;qdkif&mOya'udk jyXmef;cJh+yD;/ 0efxrf;Xmersm;udk 'Drdkua&pDpepftajccHtwGif;Y oHr%dausm&dk;ozG,fjzpfapa&;twGuf jyefvnfzGJ@pnf;&ef jyifqifcJhonf? xdtcsdefrSmyif wdkif;&if;om;tif k tm;pkrsm;uvnf; (1947) zGJ@pnf;tkyfcsKyfyHktajccHOya't& jyXmef;xm;aom jynfaxmifpkrScGJxGu&ef tcGifh f ta&;udk olwk@d u pGef@v$wonfh cH0efcsufuwduday;rnf? tjyeftvSeftaejzifhjynfe,frsm;wGif tm%mcGJa0 f k ay;a&;ESifh ydkrdktkyfcsKyfcGifh&&Sda&;/ ud,fydkifjyXmef;cGifh&&Sda&;udk awmif;qdkvmcJh=uonf? k Tod@k tajymif;tvJrsm; jzpfay:aepOfrSmyif/ tm%mcGJa0r_rSmvnf; A[dkrSpkpnf;csKyfudkifxm;aom taetxm;rS ydkIjyef@ESH@um A[kqefvm+yD;/ pD;yGm;a&;zufwifvnf; ydkIyGifhvif;aom tajccHzufod@k ajymif;vJ G vmaecsdef jzpfonf? xdtcsdefwGifyif u|rf;usifolynm&Siftoif;rsm;/ apwemh0efxrf;toif;rsm;/ pdwfwol k l rsm; pkzGJ@aomtoif;rsm;/ tvkyform;or*~rsm;/ bmoma&;toif;tzGJ@rsm; ponfwkd@vnf; trsm;tjym; ay:ayguf vmae+yD;/ vlxktajcðyvlr_tzGJ@tpnf;rsm; pwnfwnfaqmuftm;aumif;vmcsdef jzpfonf? xdkod@k jynfwif;r+idrfroufr_rsm;ESifh olykefxr_rsm;twGif; tiftm;rsm;pkpnf;rdvmaom tajctaeonf wdif;jynf G k tm%m. yifrtcef;u¾wGif ae&may;cHxm;&onfh jrefrmhwyfrawmftwGuf owday;aeaom pdk;&drfzG,f&m tajctae jzpfvmonf? wdif;jynftwGif; olykefxr_rsm;vnf;ajy+idrf;t&SdefusoGm;onfESifhtr#/ tkyfcsKyfa&; k oHr%dausm&dk;uvnf; ydkrdkcdkifrmtm;aumif;vmonfESifhtr#/ tm%m. A[dkcsufronf A[dkrSaeI tpGef tzsm;t&yfrsm;jzpf aomvlr_tzGJ@tpnf;rsm;/ pD;yGm;a&;tiftm;pkrsm;qDodk@ ajymif;a&$@oGm;onfESifhtr#/ ppf wyftaejzifh ydkIpdwfrcs jzpfvmonf? rvHkrðcHcHpm;vm&onf? aemufqHk; tm%mjyefvnfcsKyfudifEdkifa&; k twGuf óu;yrf;vmjyefonf? trSefpifppfwGif ppfwyfutm%modrf;ydkufcJjh cif;twGuf azmfjy&mwGifta=umif;jycsuf (2) rsKd;&SdcJh onf? wckrSmwdkif;jynf. trsKd;om;zcif}uD; AdkvfcsKyfatmifqef;csrSwfcJaom qdk&S,fvpfEdkifiHawmfxaxmifa&; h l vrf;a=umif;rS aoGzDae+yD;/ t&if;&Sifvrf;a=umif;odk@csDwufaeonf[k ta=umif;jyonf? 'kwd,tcsufrSm wdif;&if;om;rsm;udk ud,fydkiftkyfcsKyfa&;ay;vdufygu wdkif;jynfòyuGapvdrfhrnf[k ta=umif;jyonf? aemuf k k k J qHk;&v'frSm wdif;jynf.tkyfcsKyfa&;,EW,m;wpHkvH;udk EdkifiHa&;ygwDwckwnf;ucs,fvS,aom tajctaeudk k k f qdkufa&mufapcJhonf? uGefjrLepfrsm;rygbJ uGefjrLepf0g'udusifhoH;aom/ vDeif0g'pGJudkifaomygwDwck r&SdbJ k k vDeif0g'udusifhoH;aomtajctae jzpfonf? wyfrawmfuom EdkifiH.t"dutm%mydkifjzpfvm+yD;/ wdif;jynf k k k . EdkifiHa&;/ pD;yGm;a&;jzpfpOfrsm;udcsKyfudif cs,fvS,fcJhonf? k k jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOf (1962-1988) TumvrSm jrefrmEdkifiH.acwfopfpD;yGm;a&;ordkif;wGif oHo,&Sdp&mrvdavmufatmif t}uD; k tus,uyf'kuQqdkuf&aomumv jzpfcJhonf? tkyfcsKyfcJhaom ppftpdk;&.tm%mudkrv$wfwrf;udkifxm;vdk f aomqENESifh xdef;csKyfr_trsKd;rsKd;udwif;wif;usyf=uyfðyxm;&efvdktyfonf[k ,k=H unfaer_a=umifh/ jyifyurBm k ESifh tquftoG,jf zwfawmufcJhonf? r&Sdrjzpfvdtyfaom taetxm;avmufom EdkifiHwumESifhqufoG,f k a&; xm;&SdcJhonf? EdkifiHjcm;om;rsm;ydkifaom pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;omru/ jynfwif;&Sd pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm; G udvnf; jynfolydkifodrf;ydkufcJhonf? jynfwif;&SdvufvDvuUm;a&mif;0,fa&;vkyfief;rsm;ESifh ukefoG,r_rsm;udk k G f vnf; jynfolydkifodrf;cJhonf? 'Drdkua&pDtpdk;&vufxufu cGifhðyxm;cJhaom/ jynfwGif;&SdpD;yGm;a&;orm;rsm; vkyfudifaqmif&Gufaeonfh atmifjrifaeaom pufr_vufr_ukefxkwfvkyfief;rsm;tm;vH;udkvnf;jynfolydkif k k odrf;ydkufcJhonf? v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;u¾udk jynfolydkifrodrf;ydkufcJaomfvnf;/ v,form;rsm;rSm Oya'pnf; h rsOf;rsm;t& ydkIcsKyfcs,fr_/ aps;E_ef;t&csKyfcs,fr_udk cH=u&onf? jrefrmEdkifiHwGif usifhoH;cJhaomqdk&S,fvpfpepf k yHkpHudk tvnfvma&muf=uaomtpdk;&t&m&Sdrsm;/ ynm&Sifrsm;ESifh qdkAD,uf/ ta&S@Oa&myqdk&S,fvpfEdkifiHrsm; rSoHwrmefrsm;yifv#if =ocs=u&onf? xdolrsm;taejzifh oabmayguf=uonfrSm Tr#wif;usyfpGmzdESdyftkyf k csKyfxm;aompepfudk qdk&S,fvpf0g'trnfwyfygu xdk0g'taejzifhemrnfysuf&&Hkyif&Sdawmhrnf[lI jzpfonf? 24
  29. 29. wdif;oljynfom;rsm;rSm pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;wGif ‚if;wd@k pdwfwdkif;usvkyfudifaqmif&GufcGifhr&=uaoma=umifh k k omru/ tjcm;vlr_vGwfvyfcGifhrsm;qHk;&_H;=u&aoma=umifh ydkIxdcdkufepfem=u&onf? t&yfom;tpdk;& t&m&Sdrsm;/ refae*smrsm;/ u|rf;usifolrsm;tm;vHk;udk ppfwyft&m&Sdrsm;.wdkuf&dkuf}uD;=uyfr_atmufwGif xnfoGif;zGJ@pnf;aponf? txl;ojzifh vufawG@vkyfief;vkyfaqmif=u&mrsm;wGifyif em;rvnforsm;.}uD; h l =uyfr_udk cH=u&onf? usOf;ajrmif;aomtrsKd;om;a&;tjrifzufrS csOf;uyfr_a=umifh/ wdkif;jynftwGif;usef&Sdae aom EdkifiHjcm;om;aoG;EG,folvlrsKd;pkrsm; wdif;jynfrStpktðyHvdufxufcGmoGm;apjcif;jzpfcJh&onf? ta=umif; k k G rSm xdolrsm;tzdk@ wdif;jynftwGif; qufvufaexdkifyguvnf;/ b0&SifoefcGifh&&ef tcGifhta&;rsm;r&Sd=uaom k k a=umifh jzpfonf? (1963) ckESpfwGifjyXmef;cJhaom v,f,majroD;pm;csxm;a&;Oya't&/ v,f,majrvkyfydkifcGifhrSm aus;vufa'orsm;wGifzGJ@pnf;xm;cJhaom ajr,maumfrwDYom t"duvkyfydkifcGifh&Sdonf? TaumfrwDrSaeI cGJa0ay;Edkifaomajrrsm;udk tqif;&JqHk;aomv,form;rsm;odk@ cGJa0ay;onf? Tod@k cGJa0ay;&mY TajruGu& f &Sdrnfol. xkwfvkyfEdkifpGrf;tm;/ vuf&Sd&Sdaeaom t&if;tjrpfrsm;udk xnfhoGif;wGufcsujf cif; rðyay? xd@k tjyif h v,f,mpdkufysKd;a&;vkyfief;wGif vufawG@rusaomvdkufem&ef pnf;rsOf;pnf;urf;rsm;udk vdkufemaqmif&Guf&ef ysufuGufolrsm;/ wm0efausoD;ESHray;oGif;olrsm;xHrS v,fajrudjk yefvnfodrf;,ljcif;txd jypf'%fay;EdkifcGifh&Sd onf? Oyrmtm;jzifh- rEWav;ESifh ppfudkif;wdkif;rsm;&Sd qnfa&oGif;pdkufysKd;aoma'orsm;wGif/ v,form;rsm;udk olwk@d .rd&dk;zvmpdkufysKd;ae=u oD;ESHrsm;jzpfaom pyg;/ ajryJ/ ESrf;/ i&kwfESifh =uufoGefrsm;pdkufysKd;cGifhrðybJ/ tpdk;& ydkifpuf&Hkodk@oGif;&ef 0gpdkufapcJhonf? trSefwu,f jzpfoifhonfrSm EdkifiHjcm;odk@wifydk@a&mif;&aiG ydkrdk&&SdapEdkif aom rd&dk;zvm pdkufoD;ESHrsm;xkwvkyfa&;udk ydkrdkwd;wufatmif/ enf;ynmESifh t&if;tESD;rsm;jynfhpHkatmif f k ðyI/ ydkrdkxGuf&Sdvmaom ypPnf;rsm;udk EdkifiHjcm;odk@ wifydk@a&mif;cs+yD;/ EdkifiHjcm;rS csnfr#if&Snf0gjyefvnf wifoGif; jcif;rsKd; jzpfoihfayonf? xd@k tjyif tpdk;&taejzifh v,form;rsm;tcGifhta&;umuG,fapmifha&Smufay;a&; Oya'udk jyXmef;cJh ao;onf? xdkOya't& aiGwd;acs;olu aiGjyefrqyfEdkifygu/ v,fajrodrf;,ljcif;/ u|JEGm;rsm;odrf;,ljcif;ESifh k O,smOfjcHrsm;odrf;,ljcif;wdk@udk wm;jrpfxm;onf? Tod@k v,form;rsm;udk ‘umuG,f’ay;xm;aom tajc taeonf/ v,form;rsm;udk tjrJEdkifiHawmftpdk;&. taxmuftyHhrsm;udkom rSDcdkI b0&yfwnf&Sifoefae& aomtaetxm;udk a&mufaponf? oD;ESHrsm;ysufpD;qHk;&_H;&jcif;onf v,form;rsm;wGifom vH;vH;wm0ef&Sd k k +yD;/ rnfonftajctaejzpfap EdkifiHawmftpdk;&xHod@k owfrSwfxm;aom wm0efauscGJwrf;oD;ESHudk owfrSwf h xm;aomaps;E_ef;jzifh ay;oGif;&ef wm0ef&Sdaeonf? Tod@k v,f,mu¾ESifhywfoufI aqmif&GufcJaomOya'rsm;/ rl0g'rsm;udowWKcs=unfhygu/ aemuf h k qHk;&v'frSm vlwOD;csif;taejzifh v,f,mxGufukefxkwfvkyfr_usqif;vmapjcif;jzpf+yD;/ EdkifiHjcm;od@k wifydk@Edkif aomqefyrm% usqif;vmapcJhonf? qefpyg;uJodk@ wif;usyfpGmcsKyfudkifxm;jcif;r&Sdaom rwfyJESifh yJtrsKd; h rsKd;pdkufysKd;a&;rSmrl xkwfvkyfr_wd;wufvm+yD;/ EdkifiHjcm;wifydk@r_yg wd;wufcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; qefpyg;wifydk@ k k r_rS&&Sdaom EdkifiHjcm;aiGqHk;&_H;&r_udk jyefvnfaxrdapaom taetxm;r&Sdyg? xd@k tjyif pufr_xkwfukefrsm;wGifvnf;/ EdkifiHawmftpdk;&.}uD;=uyfr_atmufwGif ,cif'Drdkua&pD tpdk;&vufxufuwnf;u tpysKd;xm;cJhaom/ oGif;ukeftpm;xd; pufr_vkyfief;rsm;udk csJ@xGif&efóu;yrf;cJh k onf? xGefpufxkwvkyfa&;ESifh armfawmfum;wyfqifa&;puf&Hkrsm;/ aºuxnfpuf&Hk/ rSefpuf&HkESifh tjcm;ypPnf; f rsm;xkwfvkyfaom puf&Hkrsm; wdk;csJ@vkyfudkifcJhonf? Tpuf&Hkopfrsm;onf rlv&Sdxm;cJhaomEdkifiHawmfydkifpuf&Hk rsm;uJhodk@yif/ jynfyrSwifoGif;vmaom pufr_ukef=urf;ESifh pufrsm;tay:wGif rSDcdkae=u&onf? tajccHxkwukef f wifydk@Edkifr_ usqif;vmonfESifhtr#/ EdkifiHjcm;0ifaiGusqif;vm+yD;/ pufr_vkyfief;rsm;wGif ukef=urf;ESifh enf; ynm jznfqnf;toH;csEdkifr_rsm; usqif;vm&onf? xd@k tjyif 'Drdkua&pDtpdk;&vufxufu tm;ay;cJhaom h k yk*~vduydkif pufr_vufr_vkyf ief;rsm;rSmvnf;/ jynfolydkifodrf;ydkufjcif;ESifh pDrHcef@cGJr_nHhzsif;jcif;wdk@a=umifh zGH@òz;r_ &yfqdkif;cJh&onf? wckwnf;aom taumif;&v'frSm ti,fpm;tdrfwGif;pufr_vkyfief;rsm;zGH@òz;vmcJhjcif; jzpf+yD;/ yvyfpwpfypPnf;rsm;/ vlokH;ukefypPnf;rsm;/ tpm;taomufxkwvkyfa&;vkyfief;rsm;/ pufjyifvkyfief;rsm; f 25
  30. 30. aqmif&Gufvm=uonf? Tu¾rSm tpdk;&utowdrrlrdbJ/ xdef;csKyfjcif;r&Sd v$wfxm;ay;cJhaoma=umifh jzpf onf? EdkifiHudk txD;wnf;wHcg;ydwfxm;r_a=umifh/ pufr_enf;ynmtopfrsm;&&SdEdkifaom tcGifhta&;rsm;vnf; qHk;&_H;cJh&onf? Tumv. jrefrmhpD;yGm;a&;umv=um&Snf usqif;vmaer_ESifh ,d,Gif;ysufpD;vmr_udk EdkifiHjcm;ESifh k ukeoG,fr_vkyfief;rS pdwfysufzG,f&mudef;*%ef;rsm;=unfjh cif;tm;jzifh odomEdkifonf? Tudef;*%ef;rsm;udk f Z,m; (1? 5) wGifazmfjyxm;ygonf? (1962) ckESpfrS (1988) txd/ EdkifiHjcm;odk@wifydk@ukefrsm;rS &&Sdaomwefzdk; onf/ tar&duefa':vm (260) oef;rS/ qdk&S,fvpfpepfaemufydkif;ESpfrsm;jzpfaom (1985) rS (1988) umv wGif ESpfpOf a':vm (217) txd usqif;cJhonf? EdkifiHjcm;od@k wifydk@Edkifr_wefzdk;onf wufvdkufusvduf rwnf k +idrfbJ &SdaecJhonf? tjrifhqHk;tjzpf (1980) ckESpfwGif tar&duefa':vm (472) oef;&Sd+yD;/ tedrfhqHk;ESpf (1970) ckESpfwGif tar&duefa':vm (107) oef;&Sdonf? Tudef;*%ef;rsm;u xif[yfazmfjyaeaom tajctaexuf/ vufawG@wGif tajctaeu ydkIqdk;onf? EdkifiHjcm;odk@wifydk@ukefwckcsif;taeESifh (1960) ckESpfrsm;rS (1980) ckESpfrsm;twGif;/ ukef,lepfwckcsif;.wefzdk; (4) qr#wdk;wufvmcJhonf? odk@aomfvnf; wifydk@Edkifonfhukef yrm%onf (50) &mcdkifE_ef;r# usqif;cJhonf? jynfwif;odk@wifydk@ukeftaejzifh ppftpdk;&tpumvwGif G tar&duefa':vm (220) oef;&Sd&mrS/ ed*Hk;umvrsm;wGif tar&duefa':vm (250) oef;txd wd;wufvmcJh k onf? rdrdbmomzlvHa&;udk OD;pm;ay;aqmif&Gufonf[k azmfjycJhaomfvnf;/ EdkifiHjcm;aºu;+rDrSm rlvu k tenf;i,frxifr&Sm;r#om &Sd&mrS/ qdk&S,fvpftpdk;&aemufydkif;umvrsm;wGif tar&duefa':vmoef; (4000) txd wd;wufvmcJhonf? k w&m;0ifvrf;a=umif;rsm;twdif;ukefoG,f&ef/ k rufvk;aphaqmfr_r&Sdaoma=umifhjzpfay:vmcJhaom H aemufqufwJtajctaerSm/ xdkif;EdkifiH/ w&kwfESifh b*Fvm;a'h&SfEdkifiH e,fpyfrsm;udkjzwfausmI w&m;r0ifukef G f oG,r_rsm; jzpfvmjcif;jzpfonf? yifv,fqdyfurf;rsm;rSwqifh/ urBmhaps;uGuaygufaps;twdif; ydkIoufomap f f k aomo,f,lydk@aqmifa&;pepftpm;/ ydkItusKd;tjrwf&&Sdr_enf;aom tjcm;vrf;a=umif;rsm;od@k ajymif;apukef onf? jynfwGif;xkwfukefrsm;udk jynfwif;Ytpdk;&owfrSwfxm;aom yHkrSefr[kwfbJedrfhaomaps;E_ef;rsm;jzifh G a&mif;csI wefzdk;r&SdaomjrefrmusyfaiGrsm;&,lrnftpm;/ tjcm;EdkifiHrsm;rS ukefrsm;jzifhzvS,vm=uonf? od@k h f aomfvnf; w&kwfEdkifiHESifh xdif;EdkifiHrsm;rSjyefvnfwifoGif;vmaomukefrsm;rSm t&nftaoG;edrfhaom/ aps;}uD; k aomukefrsm; jzpfae=uonf? xdktwGua=umifh wdif;jynftaejzifh tpdk;&.vufawG@rusaom/ t"rRowfrSwf f k xm;aom ukefaps;E_ef;}uD;=uyfa&;rl0g'rsm;a=umifh (2) cgepfem=u&onf? odk@aomfvnf; emusn;zG,f&m f aumif;onfrSm Tod@k w&m;r0ifarSmifcdkukeful;oef;a&mif;0,faejcif;rsm;a=umifhyif/ wdkif;jynfpD;yGm;a&;udk vnfywfaeapcJh+yD;/ vHk;0òyvJysufpD;&rnfh tajctaerS umuG,fay;xm;cJhjcif; jzpfonf? TonfrSm ta&S@ Oa&myEdkifiHrsm;ESifh qdkAD,uf,leD,Hwkd@wGifñuHcJh&aom arSmifcdkpD;yGm;a&;/ wenf; pifòyifpD;yGm;a&;pepfrsKd;ESifh yHko¿mefwlonf? bdef;jzLrsm;udk EdkifiHjcm;wifydk@jcif;ESifhtwl &&Sdvmaom0ifaiGjzifh/ wdif;jynftwGif; vdtyfae k k aomukefypPnf;rsKd;pHkudk 0,f,lwifoGif;cJh=uonf? EdkifiHjcm;0ifaiGusqifvmjcif;ESifh tvkyfrjzpfaomEdkifiHawmfydkifpuf&Hkrsm;/ pD;yGm;a&;vkyfief;rsm;udk quf vufxdef;odrf;xm;&jcif;a=umifh/ tpdk;&b¾maiGtaejzifh vuf&Sdtpdk;&toH;p&dwfrsm;umrdapavmuf k atmif/ 0ifaiGr&SdbJ jzpfvmcJh&onf? zGH@òz;a&;pDrHcsufrsm;qdkif&moHk;pGJaiGqdkv#if aemufydkif;wGifvH;0roH;Edkfifawmh k k aom tajctaeqdkufa&mufcJ&onf? aemufqHk;ajz&Sif;&ef enf;vrf;rSm/ aiGpuUL&dkufESdyfxkwa0a&;yifjzpf+yD;/ h f aemufydkif;wGif t}udrf}udrfaomaiGpuULzsufodrf;jcif;rsm;vkyfcJhonf? rdrdbmom&dkufESdyfxkwfa0xm;aom aiGpuULrsm;udk w&m;r0ifa=ujimjcif;jzifh pD;yGm;a&;pepftwGif;vSnhvnfaeaom aiGa=u;rsm;udzsufodrf;cJh f k onf? Tenf;tm;jzifh aiGpuULvSnhvnfpD;qif;r_udk ydkrdkjrefqefaponfrSefaomfvnf;/ aiGa=u;azmif;yGr_udk f ydkqdk;apcJhonf? aiGpuUL&dkufESdyfxnfoGif;r_ESifhtwl ukefaps;E_ef;rsm;u (1970) ckESpfrsm;wGif w[kefxd;wd;wuf h k k vmcJhonf? (1980) ckESpfrsm;tv,fydkif;a&mufaomtcg xdef;rEdkifawmhavmufatmifwufom;+yD jzpfonf? G TonfrSm jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOf. pD;yGm;a&;rl0g'rsm; òyvJapcJh&jcif;. ta=umif;w&yfjzpfonf? T tcsufrsm;a=umifh (1988) ckESpfwGuf vlxktHkºuqENjyyGJrsm;jzpfvmapcJh+yD;/ ppfwyfu t=urf;zufESdrfeif;cJh 26
  31. 31. onf? qdk&S,fvpfpepfjzifh prf;oyf&mwGif/ vHk;0ysufpD;qHk;&_H;oGm;aponftcsufudk todtrSwfðycJh=u+yD;/ tpdk;& h a[mif;udk tpm;xdk;cJhonfh/ EdkifiHawmf+idrf0yfydjym;r_wnfaqmufa&;tzGJ@ (e0w) u qdk&S,fvpfpepf usifhoH; k aer_udk pGef@v$wcJha=umif; a=ujimcJhonf? vGwvyfaomwHcg;zGifhaps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepfudk usifhoHk;rnf[k a=u f f jimcJhonf? Trl0g'opft& EdkifiHjcm;&if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_rsm;ESifh jyifyurBmESifhukefoG,fr_udk zdwfac:cJhonf? (e0w§etz) ppftpdk;&vufxuf (1988 aemufydkif;umv) jrefrmhqdk&S,fvpfvrf;pOfjzifh aqmif&GufcJpOfuysufpD;cJh&aom pD;yGm;a&;pepftarGqdk;rsm;udk topf h wufvmaom ppftpdk;&u qufvuftarGcH&onf? xdtcg jrefrmEdkifiH. pD;yGm;a&; tajctaerSm aoG;opf k oGif;uko&ef vdtyfaeaom vlrrmuJodk@jzpfonf? Todk@tajctaewGif tajymif;tvJrsm;udkaqmif&Guf&ef k h ESifh ppftkyfpk.tm%mcsKyfudifxm;r_udk xdef;odrf;xm;&efqdkonfrSm/ w&kwfEdkifiHwGifaqmif&GufcJaom acgif; k h aqmif}uD;wdef@ a&Smifyif. pD;yGm;a&;ðyjyifajymif;vJr_ rl0g'rsm;uJod@k / vGwfvyfaomaps;uGuf xlaxmifrSom h jzpfEdkifawmhrnf? EdkifiHjcm; &if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_rsm;ESifh ukefoG,fr_rsm;udzGifhay;jcif;tm;jzifh vdtyfaeaom t&if; k k tjrpfrsm; &vmap+yD;/ òyvJaeaompD;yGm;a&;pepfudk emvHxlapEdkifrnf jzpfonf? wòyifeufwnf;rSmyif EdkifiHa&;t& twduftcHðyr_rsm;udvnf; qufvufESdyfuGyfxm;cJhonf? ppfwyfu 'Drdkua&pDpepfudk ðyjyif k k ajymif;vJ&efóu;yrf;r_tqifhwpfck taejzifh a&G;aumufyGJ ðyvkyfay;cJhaomfvnf;/ &v'frSm olwd@k twGuf pdwf ysufzG,fjzpfcJhonf? ppftpdk;& &&Sdvmaom &v'frSm t"dutwduftcHygwD trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pDtzGJ@csKyfu k (1990) ygwDpHka&G;aumufyGJwGif/ awmifòy urf;òytEdkif&cJhjcif; jzpfonf? TtajctaewGif ppftpdk;&u a&G; aumufyGJ&v'fudk vspfvsLðycJh+yD;/ EdkifiHa&; v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udk ydkIwif;usyfpGmcsKyfcs,fvmcJhonf? a':atmifqef; pk=unfudkyif tdrfwGif;tus,fcsKyfjzifhxdef;odrf;xm;cJhonf? EdkifiHjcm;ukefoG,fr_rS &vmaomudef;*%ef;rsm;udk =unfhygu/ wdkif;jynfudkpD;yGm;a&;wHcg;zGifhvdufjcif; k jzifh atmifjrifr_&onf[k qdkEdkifonf? Z,m; (1? 5) wGif azmfjyxm;onfudk=unfhygu jynfyydk@ukeftaejzifh ESpf pOfwd;wufaecJhonf? (1988) wGif jynfyydk@ukefwefzdk; tar&duefa':vm (147) oef;&Sd&mrS (1995) ckESpfwGif k tar&duefa':vm (846) oef; jzpfvmonf? (1987) rS (1989) ckESpfrsm;twGif; EdkifiHjcm;odk@qefwifydk@r_rSm ysrf;r# (180000) wef&Sdaomfvnf;/ (1994) ckESpfwGif qefwefcsdef (1) oef;txd wd;wufvmcJhonf? od@k aomf k aemufydkif; (1995) ckESpfwGif (353000) wefodk@ jyefvnfusqif;oGm;onf? qefpyg;xkwvkyfr_taejzifh (50) f &mcdkifE_ef;ausmfwd;wufcJhonf? (1988) ckESpfwGif qeftxGufrSm (13) oef;wef&Sd&mrS (1995) ckESpfwGif k (19² 5) oef;wef&SdcJhonf? pdkufysKd;ajr{uwd;wufvmovdk/ w{utvduftxGufE_ef;vnf; wd;wufvmcJh k k k onf? qefpyg;xkwvkyfr_wGif/ TuJhod@k &v'f&vmjcif;rSm oD;xyfpdkufysKd;jcif;a=umifhjzpf+yD;/ jrefrmEdkifiH f tv,fydkif; a&oGif;pdkufysKd;&majrrsm;ESifh atmufjrefrmjynfjrpf0u|ef;ay:a'orsm;wGifyg oD;xyfpdkufysKd;cJh=u onf? od@k aomfvnf; TuJhod@k tESHwdkESifhoD;aompyg;rsKd;rsm;pdkufysKd;&jcif;rSm a&v$rf;rdk;jcif;'%fudk ydkIcH&Edkif+yD;/ ydk;ESHaumif'%fudvnf; cHEdkif&nfenf;onf? orm;&dk;uspdkufaom trsKd;tpm;rsm;u ydkIcHEdkif&nf&Sd=uonf? k Tod@k tajrmuftrsm;xGuf&Sdvmaom oD;ESHrsm;udk odavSmifxdef;odrf;&ef *dka'gifrsm;vnf; vHvHavmuf k k k avmuf r&Sdao;ay? xdkr#ru jynfyod@k wifydk@Edkifa&;udOD;pm;ay;cJhaoma=umifh/ r=umc%qdkovd/k jynfwGif; k oH;ESifh tydk@txkwfwd@k udk rcsifhcsdefEdkif jzpfcJhonf? xdtwGufa=umifh òr@jyaeolrsm;qef0,f,lpm;oH;&aom k k k ukefusp&dwfwdk;jrifhvmcJhonf? jynfwif;qefaps;E_ef; wdk;wufvmapcJhonf? Tta=umif;a=umifhyif EdkifiHjcm; G qefwifydk@r_pHcsdefudk wefwoef;wGif rxdef;xm;EdkifawmhbJ/ (1995) ckESpfwGif wefcsdef (353000) od@k jyefvnf usqif;cJh&onf? od@k aomfvnf; Ed_if;,SOfcsuft& ,cifowfrSwfxm;aomcGJwrf;pyg;udk owfrSwfaps;E_ef;jzifha&mif;cs ae&r_udk tenf;i,fuif;vGwfcGifhay;cJhaoma=umifh/ ,cifuef@owfxdef;csKyfxm;r_rsm;udk av#mhcsay;cJhaom a=umifh v,form;rsm;wGif aps;E_ef;t&jzpfvmaomrufvkH;aphaqmfr_ jzpfvmcJh&onf? tpydkif;wGif EdkifiHjcm; 27
  32. 32. wifydk@r_ wd;wufrsm;jym;vmcJhao;onf? Todk@wdk;wufvmr_udk aemufydkif;wGifqufvufwnfwhaeatmif k H rxdef;odrf;xm;EdkifcJhay? (e0w) ppftpdk;&vufxufwGif EdkifiHjcm;wifydk@Edkifr_yrm% wd;wufvmcJhonf[kqdkaomfvnf;/ k tao;pdwftaetxm; jyef=unfv#if/ owdðy&rnftcsufrSm qefpyg;wifydk@a&mif;csEdkifr_onf (1960) ckESpf h h wGif&Sdaeaom tajctaewefcsdef (2) oef;. w0ufr#om&Sdao;onfudk awG@&ayrnf? ppfóuacwfumv yrm%ESifh Ed_if;,SOfv#if (oHk;yHkwyHk) r#om &Sdygao;onf? urBmhqefaps;E_ef;onf (1960) ckESpfaygufaps;xuf tq (6) qwd;wufvmcJhaomfvnf;/ jrefrmEdkifiH. EdkifiHjcm;qefwifydk@r_rS&&Sdaom0ifaiGpkpkaygif;onf (3) qr# k om wdk;wufcJhygonf? (1994-95) ckESpfwdkifatmif (e0w) ppftpdk;&twGuf EdkifiHjcm;0ifaiGtrsm;qHk;ay;aeaom a&mif; ukefrSm u|ef;opfjzpfaecJhygonf? u|ef;opfEdkifiHjcm;wifydk@r_rS &&SdaomaiGrSm tenf;i,frwnfr+idrf&SdaecJhaomf vnf;/ ysrf;r#tm;jzifh tar&duefa':vm oef; (120) cef@ESpfpOf &SdaecJhygonf? tjcm;opfrmwifydk@r_u ESpfpOf aemufxyf a':vm oef; (40) cef@ xyfrH&&Sdapygonf? Tpkpkaygif;opfa&mif;csr_0ifaiG a':vm (160) oef; onf/ qefESifhqefxGufypPnf;rsm;wifydk@aiGrS&&Sdaom a':vm oef; (40) xuf tqrsm;pGmrsm;ygonf? qefwif ydk@r_0ifaiGrS xl;xl;jcm;jcm;rsm;jym;pGm&&SdaomESpfrSm (1994-95) ckESpfjzpf+yD;/ qefwefcsdefwoef;wifydk@r_rS0ifaiG a':vmoef; (200) &&SdcJhygonf? xdESpfu opfwifydk@r_rS 0ifaiGrSm a':vm oef; (145) om&Sdygonf? odk@aomf k vnf; rdrdwdk@avhvmawG@&SdcJhonftwdif;/ qefwefcsdefwoef;wifydk@Edkifr_udk a&&Snfxef;xm;&ef rpGrf;omyg? h k d (1995-96) ckESpfwGif qefwifydk@r_wefcsdef (300000) od@k jyefvnfusqif;cJh+yD;/ (1996-97) ckESpfwGifvnf; xyfrHusqif;rnf[k cef@rSef;&ygonf? ta=umif;rSm oabFmwifaer_E_ef;rsm; usqif;vmaeaoma=umifh jzpfyg onf? tpdk;&taejzifh pyg;0,f,lpkaqmif;r_rS&&Sdaom qefwefcsdefrSmvnf;/ vsmxm;r_xufavsmenf;ae+yD;/ h ,cifpHcsdefrsm;xufvnf; avsmhaeygonf? Z,m; (1? 5) EdkifiHjcm;ukefoG,fr_ (1950-95) rl&if;? World Bank, World Data Series 1995. rwfyJESifh yJtrsKd;rsKd;onfvnf; EdkifiHjcm;aiG&apaom xGuukefrsm;jzpfygonf? yJtrsKd;rsKd;wifydk@r_ f yrm%rSm ododomomwdk;wufvmcJhygonf? (1990-91) ckESpfwGif wefcsdef (200000) wifydk@cJh&mrS/ aemuf qHk;oH;ESpfumv (1993-95) wGif ESpfpOfysrf;r#wefcsdef (450000) wifydk@cJh+yD;/ 0ifaiGtm;jzifh tar&duefa':vm k (120) oef;&&SdcJhygonf? Ed_if;,SOfcsuft&qdkv#if aps;E_ef;a=umifhjzpfay:vmaomrufvHk;rSm yJtrsKd;rsKd;u qef pyg;pdkufysKd;r_xuf ydkomygonf? od@k aomfvnf; vuf&SdpdkufysKd;xkwvkyfaer_xuf ydkIcsJ@xGifpdkufysKd;Edkifaom f tvm;tvm enf;yg;ygonf? EdkifiHjcm;c&D;oGm;vkyfief;rSvnf; EdkifiHjcm;aiGwd;wuf&&SdapcJhygonf? (1990-91) k ckESpfwGif EdkifiHjcm;c&D;oGm;vkyfief;rS 0ifaiG tar&duefa':vm (25) oef;om&&SdcJhaomfvnf;/ (1995-96) ckESpf wGif a':vm (153) oef;txd wd;wufvmcJhygonf? r=umao;rDujzpfvmcJhaom EdkifiHa&;rwnf+idrfr_rsm; k a=umifh jyefvnfusqif;&ef tvm;tvm&Sdygonf? aemufydkif;jyefIjrifhvmaprnfh tvm;tvmrsm;ESifh ywf oufIvnf; oHo,&SdzG,f jzpfygonf? wHcg;zGifhaps;uGufpD;yGm;a&;pepfusifhoH;cJhr_twGuf xl;xl;jcm;jcm;awG@vm&aom&v'frSm jynfwGif; k oGif;ukefzuftydkif;Y ydkIodomxif&Sm;pGm awG@&ygonf? (1988) ckESpfwGif jynfwif;odk@oGif;ukefwefzdk;onf G tar&duefa':vm (244) oef;om&Sdaomfvnf;/ (1993) ckESpfESifh (1994) ckESpfwGif a':vmoef; (800) ausmf jzpfvmygonf? (1995) ckESpfwGif txl;jrifhrm;vmonf[kqdkEdkifaom a':vmoef; (1300) txdwd;jrifhvmcJhyg k onf? (1988) ckESpfwGif ukefoG,fa&;vdaiGjyaiG a':vm (96) oef;&Sdae&mrS/ aemufydkif; (2) ESpft=umtxd k 28
  33. 33. tenf;i,fydkaiGjycJhygonf? od@k aomfaemufydkif;wav#mufvHk;wGif vdaiGjyr_t}uD;tus,&SdcJh+yD;/ worwfwnf; k f vdaiGjyaecJhygonf? (1995) ckESpfwGif EdkifiHjcm;ukefoG,fa&;rS vdaiGjyaiG a':vm (488) oef;&SdcJhygonf? k k (1988) ckESpfrSpwifI vdkaiGjyr_udk pkpkaygif;vdkufrnfqdkygu a':vmoef;aygif; (1100) ausm&Sdae+yD jzpfygonf? f ‚if;rSm jynfywdif;jynfrsm;rSacs;aiG,l&aom yrm%ESifh wajy;nDjzpfygonf? (1990) ckESpfwGif EdkifiHjcm;aºu;+rD k a':vmoef;aygif; (4400) &Sd&mrS/ (1995) ckESpfwGif a':vmoef;aygif; (6100) jzpfvmcJhygonf? yHk (1? 2) aiGa=u;wdk;wufrsm;jym;vmr_ESifh aiGazmif;yGr_E_ef; 360 1,200,000 340 1,100,000 Consumer Prices 320 300 1,000,000 Money in circulation (million kyat) 280 900,000 260 240 800,000 220 700,000 200 180 600,000 160 500,000 140 120 400,000 100 300,000 80 60 200,000 40 100,000 20 0 0 1950 1955 1960 1965 1970 1975 1980 1985 1990 1995 Money (million kyat) Consumer price index (base year=1990) Figure 1.2. Inflation and Monetary Growth rl&if;? IMF, International Financial Statistics, Data CD 1995 and Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development, Review of Financial, Economic and Social Conditions for 1995/ 96, Union of Myanmar. (e0w) ppftpdk;&usifoHk;aompD;yGm;a&;rl0g'rsm;. tjcm;ta&;}uD;aomtcsufwckrSm/ wdif;jynf. h k aiGa=u;wnf+idrfr_ESifh b¾ma&;&oH;aiGpm&if;bwf*sufwnf+idrfr_udk vHk;0ypfy,fI tvGeftusL;wm0efrJhpGm k aqmif&Gufaer_yifjzpfonf? aiGa=u;&dkufESdyfxnfhoGif;r_rSm usyfoef;aygif; (16355) rS usyfoef;aygif; (1108660) txd/ tq (70) ausmwd;wufrsm;jym;vmcJhygonf? pm;oH;olaps;E_ef;q!$ef;udef;rSm (5) qr# f k k wd;wufvmcJh+yD;/ Ttajctaeud=k unfhjcif;tm;jzifh aiGa=u;azmif;yGr_rnfr#wd;wufvmcJh+yD; jynfotrsm; k k l rnfr# 'kuQa&muf=u&onfukd rSef;qEdkifygonf? b¾ma&;oH;pGJaiGwdk;csJ@ oH;pGJaejcif;a=umifh/ aemufydkif;wGif ppftpdk;&u&&SdEdkifaom b¾maiGxuf k k rsm;pGm ausmvGefrsm;jym;vmygonf? urBmhb%f. (1995) ckESpf atmufwdkbmv (16) &ufae@wGif xkwa0 f f cJhaom tpD&ifcHpmwckwGif azmfjycJhonftwdif;/ tcGefaumufcHr_rsm;rS &&Sdaomb¾maiGrSm ESpfpOf wdif;jynf h k k . pkpkaygif;xkwukefwefzdk; (*sD'DyD) ESifh,SOfv#if avsmusqif;aeygonf? (1991) ckESpfwGif &&Sdaom tcGef f h b¾maiGrSm *sD'DyD. (10) &mcdkifE_ef;r#&Sd+yD;/ (1995) ckESpfa&mufaomtcg tcGefaiGrSm *sD'DyD. (7) &mcdkifE_ef; r#yifr&Sdwwfawmhyg? pkpkaygif;toH;p&dwfrSmvnf; (1991) ckESpfwGif *sD'DyD. (17² 6) &mcdkifE_ef;&Sd&mrS avsmh k enf;usqif;vmcJh&m/ (1995) ckESpfwGif pkpkaygif;oHk;pGJaiGrSm *sD'DyD. (12² 3) &mcdkifE_ef;r#om&Sdygawmhonf? od@k aomfvnf;b¾ma&;vdaiGjyr_rSm ESpfpOf*sD'DyD. (6) &mcdkifE_ef;wGif yHkrSef&SdaecJhygonf? Tb¾ma&;vdaiGjyr_ k k tm;vH;udk aiGa=u;rsm;&dkufESdyfjznfqnf;jcif;jzifhom ajz&Sif;cJhygonf? k h 29
  34. 34. xdtcsufrsm;a=umifh (e0w) ppftpdk;&. pD;yGm;a&;tvm;tvmrSm atmifjrifr_&&ef tcGifhtvrf; k rsm; arS;rSdefaeygonf? EdkifiHjcm;wduf&dkuf&if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_rsm;rS 0ifvmaomaiGrSm yxrydkif;wGiftm;wufp&m k aumif;avmufatmif wdk;wufaecJhaomfvnf;/ aemufydkif;wGif tjrifrSm;zG,f&mjzpfvmapygonf? vufawG@ taetxm;wGif wd;wufvmaomtaetxm;ESifh udufnDr_r&Sdyg? EdkifiHjcm;&if;ESD;jr‡KyfESHr_rsm;0ifa&mufaqmif k k &Gufae=uaomvkyfief;rsm;rSmvnf;/ a&wdoabmydkaqmif+yD;/ qlvG,feyfvG,f aiGay:tjrwf&vG,aom k f vkyfief;rsm;wGifom vkyfaqmifae=ujcif; jzpfygonf? ppftpdk;&taejzifh tm;xm;ar#mfvifhp&musefaeaom wckwnf;aomvrf;rSm ,lEdku,f/ wdw,fvfukr`%Drsm;ESifhaqmif&Gufaeaom obm0"gwfaiG@ydkufvdkif;rS&&Sd k vmrnfh 0ifaiGrsm;om usef&Sdygawmhonf? 30
  35. 35. tcef;(2) taxGaxGoHk;oyfcsufESifh tajccHrl0g'rsm;wnfaqmufxm;yHk 31

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