AP Biology
Carbohydrates
AP Biology 2006-2007
OH
OH
H
H
HO
CH2OH
H
H
H
OH
O
Carbohydrates
energy
molecules
AP Biology
Carbohydrates
 Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O
carbo - hydr - ate
CH2O
(CH2O)x C6H12O6
 Function:
 ene...
AP Biology
Sugars
 Most names for sugars end in -ose
 Classified by number of carbons
 6C = hexose (glucose)
 5C = pen...
AP Biology
Functional groups determine function
carbonyl
ketone
aldehyde
carbonyl
AP Biology
Sugar structure
5C & 6C sugars form rings in solution
Carbons are numbered
Where do
you find solutions
in biolo...
AP Biology
Numbered carbons
C
CC
C
C
C
1'
2'3'
4'
5'
6'
O
energy stored in C-C bonds
AP Biology
Simple & complex sugars
 Monosaccharides
 simple 1 monomer sugars
 glucose
 Disaccharides
 2 monomers
 su...
AP Biology
Building sugars
 Dehydration synthesis
|
glucose
|
glucose
monosaccharides disaccharide
|
maltose
H2O
AP Biology
Building sugars
 Dehydration synthesis
|
fructose
|
glucose
monosaccharides
|
sucrose
(table sugar)
disacchari...
AP Biology
Polysaccharides
 Polymers of sugars
 costs little energy to build
 easily reversible = release energy
 Func...
AP Biology
Linear vs. branched polysaccharides
starch
(plant)
glycogen
(animal)
energy
storage
What does
branching do?
slo...
AP Biology
Polysaccharide diversity
 Molecular structure determines function
 isomers of glucose
 structure determines ...
AP Biology
Digesting starch vs. cellulose
starch
easy to
digest enzyme
enzyme
cellulose
hard to
digest
AP Biology
Cellulose
 Most abundant organic
compound on Earth
 herbivores have evolved a mechanism to
digest cellulose
...
Regents Biology
Cow
can digest cellulose well;
no need to eat other sugars
Gorilla
can’t digest cellulose well;
must add a...
Regents Biology
Helpful bacteria
 How can herbivores digest cellulose so well?
 BACTERIA live in their digestive systems...
Regents Biology 2006-2007
Let’s build some
Carbohydrates!
EAT
X
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Carbohydrates

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Carbohydrates

  1. 1. AP Biology Carbohydrates
  2. 2. AP Biology 2006-2007 OH OH H H HO CH2OH H H H OH O Carbohydrates energy molecules
  3. 3. AP Biology Carbohydrates  Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O carbo - hydr - ate CH2O (CH2O)x C6H12O6  Function:  energy u energy storage  raw materials u structural materials  Monomer: sugars  ex: sugars, starches, cellulose sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugarsugar C6H12O6(CH2O)x
  4. 4. AP Biology Sugars  Most names for sugars end in -ose  Classified by number of carbons  6C = hexose (glucose)  5C = pentose (ribose)  3C = triose (glyceraldehyde) OH OH H H HO CH2OH H H H OH O Glucose H OH HO O H H HO H Ribose CH2OH Glyceraldehyde H H H H OH OH O C C C 6 5 3
  5. 5. AP Biology Functional groups determine function carbonyl ketone aldehyde carbonyl
  6. 6. AP Biology Sugar structure 5C & 6C sugars form rings in solution Carbons are numbered Where do you find solutions in biology? In cells!
  7. 7. AP Biology Numbered carbons C CC C C C 1' 2'3' 4' 5' 6' O energy stored in C-C bonds
  8. 8. AP Biology Simple & complex sugars  Monosaccharides  simple 1 monomer sugars  glucose  Disaccharides  2 monomers  sucrose  Polysaccharides  large polymers  starch OH OH H H HO CH2OH H H H OH O Glucose
  9. 9. AP Biology Building sugars  Dehydration synthesis | glucose | glucose monosaccharides disaccharide | maltose H2O
  10. 10. AP Biology Building sugars  Dehydration synthesis | fructose | glucose monosaccharides | sucrose (table sugar) disaccharide Anabolic reactions! H2O
  11. 11. AP Biology Polysaccharides  Polymers of sugars  costs little energy to build  easily reversible = release energy  Function: 1. energy storage  starch (plants)  glycogen (animals)  in liver & muscles 2. structure  cellulose (plants)  chitin (arthropods & fungi)
  12. 12. AP Biology Linear vs. branched polysaccharides starch (plant) glycogen (animal) energy storage What does branching do? slow release fast release
  13. 13. AP Biology Polysaccharide diversity  Molecular structure determines function  isomers of glucose  structure determines function… in starch in cellulose
  14. 14. AP Biology Digesting starch vs. cellulose starch easy to digest enzyme enzyme cellulose hard to digest
  15. 15. AP Biology Cellulose  Most abundant organic compound on Earth  herbivores have evolved a mechanism to digest cellulose  most carnivores have not  that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients  cellulose = indigestible roughage But it tastes like hay! Who can live on this stuff?!
  16. 16. Regents Biology Cow can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugars Gorilla can’t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to diet
  17. 17. Regents Biology Helpful bacteria  How can herbivores digest cellulose so well?  BACTERIA live in their digestive systems & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) meals
  18. 18. Regents Biology 2006-2007 Let’s build some Carbohydrates! EAT X

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