Ap Bio Ch3 PowerPoint

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Biological Molecules

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  • Ap Bio Ch3 PowerPoint

    1. 1. Biological Molecules
    2. 2. Why Is Carbon So Important? <ul><li>Organic vs. Inorganic in Chemistry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organic refers to molecules containing a carbon skeleton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inorganic refers to carbon dioxide and all molecules without carbon </li></ul></ul>
    3. 3. Why Is Carbon So Important? <ul><li>Carbon atoms are versatile and can form up to four bonds (single, double, or triple) in rings and chains </li></ul><ul><li>Bonds are very high in energy (strongest substance on Earth = pure carbon = …?) </li></ul><ul><li>Functional groups in organic molecules confer chemical reactivity and other characteristics… </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Hydroxyl </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen </li></ul>Example Groups, I <ul><li>Polar / Nonpolar </li></ul><ul><li>Dehyd. Synth / Hydrolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all biochemicals </li></ul><ul><li>Polar </li></ul><ul><li>Dehyd. Synth / Hydrolysis </li></ul><ul><li>Sugars </li></ul>H OH
    5. 5. <ul><li>Amine or Amino </li></ul><ul><li>Carboxyl (Carboxylic acid) </li></ul>Example Groups, II <ul><li>Polar & acidic </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Fats; amino acids </li></ul><ul><li>Polar & basic </li></ul><ul><li>Peptide bonds </li></ul><ul><li>Amino acids; proteins </li></ul>COOH NH 2
    6. 6. <ul><li>Methyl </li></ul><ul><li>Phosphate </li></ul>Example Groups, III <ul><li>Acidic & polar </li></ul><ul><li>Energetic bonds; Links nucleotides </li></ul><ul><li>DNA; ATP; Phospholipids </li></ul><ul><li>Nonpolar </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrophobic </li></ul><ul><li>Many, especially lipids </li></ul>H 2 PO 4 CH 4
    7. 7. Joining Monomers Together <ul><li>Builds bigger molecules </li></ul><ul><li>H from one joins OH from another </li></ul><ul><li>Forms water (condensation) – the molecule loses water “DEHYDRATION” </li></ul><ul><li>Loose bonds of remaining molecules join </li></ul><ul><li>“SYNTHESIS” of starch </li></ul>
    8. 8. Splitting Polymers Apart <ul><li>Opposite of condensation </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Splitting (lysis) with water (hydro-)&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>Molecule broken in two </li></ul><ul><li>Water is split ( “HYDROLYSIS” ) </li></ul><ul><li>– H + goes to one; –OH - goes to other </li></ul><ul><li>Digestion </li></ul>
    9. 9. Dehydration / Hydrolysis Dehydration Synthesis Hydrolysis
    10. 10. Monosaccharides <ul><li>“ Mono-” means “one” </li></ul><ul><li>Simple sugars — glucose, fructose </li></ul><ul><li>Usually with 5 or 6 carbons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>5-carbon sugars are pentoses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6-carbon sugars are hexoses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soluble in water </li></ul><ul><li>Taste sweet </li></ul>Deoxyribose Galactose 1. Carbohydrates O HOCH 2 H OH H HO HO H H CH 2 OH H HO H OH H HO H OH H O
    11. 11. Oligosaccharides <ul><li>“Oligo-” means “few” </li></ul><ul><li>Few monosaccharides joined together </li></ul><ul><li>Sucrose is disaccharide of glucose & fructose </li></ul><ul><li>Often combined with other molecules </li></ul><ul><li>Sometimes used for cell I.D. </li></ul>Sucrose & Water 1. Carbohydrates HO H CH 2 OH H HO H OH H HO H H O O HOCH 2 H CH 2 OH H HO H HO O CH 2 OH H HO H OH H HO H OH H O Glucose O HOCH 2 H CH 2 OH H HO HO H HO Fructose + +
    12. 12. Plant Starch (Amylose) Actually forms a spiral Glucose 1. Carbohydrates Polymerization of glucose to form starch OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH
    13. 13. Starch 1. Carbohydrates OH O CH 2 OH OH O CH 2 OH OH O CH 2 OH OH O CH 2 OH CH 2 OH OH O CH 2 OH OH O O O O O O O O CH 2 OH
    14. 14. Cellulose OH O O CH 2 OH HO O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH HO O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH HO O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH HO O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH HO O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH HO O O CH 2 OH OH O O CH 2 OH
    15. 15. Cellulose Structure & Function 1. Carbohydrates
    16. 16. Chitin <ul><li>Like cellulose, but with nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Arthropods’ exoskeletons, fungal cell walls </li></ul><ul><li>Strong, very resistant to digestion </li></ul>1. Carbohydrates N H C O CH 3 N H C O CH 3 O O CH 2 OH O O CH 2 OH O O CH 2 OH O O CH 2 OH O O CH 2 OH N H C O CH 3 N H C O CH 3 N H C O CH 3
    17. 17. Chitin 1. Carbohydrates
    18. 18. Lipids - 2nd of 4 Classes of Organic Compounds <ul><li>Slippery-oils </li></ul><ul><li>Nonpolar; mostly C & H, little bit of O </li></ul><ul><li>Heterogeneous group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Other classes more homogeneous </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unified by insolubility in water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fatty-acid types: Oils & waxes </li></ul><ul><li>Nonfatty-acid types: steroids </li></ul>
    19. 19. Fat Molecules <ul><li>Triglycerides from beef, vegetable oils </li></ul><ul><li>Three fatty acids and a glycerol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycerol has 3 carbons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each with an –OH group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Each fatty acid has a COOH </li></ul><ul><li>These condense to form triglyceride and H 2 O </li></ul>2. Lipids
    20. 20. Fatty Acids <ul><li>Determines properties of fat </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrocarbon chain with a COOH </li></ul><ul><li>Most fats = 3 FAs + glycerol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycerol: 3-carbon alcohol </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 OHs attract the COOH of FAs </li></ul></ul>2. Lipids
    21. 21. Components of Triglycerides
    22. 22. Triglyceride (Fat) Formation Triglyceride Add 3 Fatty Acids Glycerol 3 Waters Remove These Waters H H C H C H OH C H OH OH C O C C C H H H H H H H C C H H H H H H H C C O C O C C C H H H H H H H C OH C C C O H H H H H H H HOH HOH HOH C OH C C C O H H H H H H H C OH C C C O H H H H H H H O C H C H C H O O H H C O C C C H H H H H H H C C H H H H H H H C C O C O C C C H H H H H H H
    23. 23. Fatty Acid Types <ul><li>Saturated - No C=C double bonds </li></ul><ul><li>animal fat, solid @ </li></ul><ul><li>room temp, “bad” fats </li></ul><ul><li>Unsaturated - One or more </li></ul><ul><li>C=C double bonds </li></ul><ul><li>plants & fish, liquids </li></ul><ul><li>oils, “good” fats </li></ul>2. Lipids
    24. 24. Phospholipids <ul><li>Phospholipids - mostly in cell membranes </li></ul><ul><li>1 glycerol, 2 FAs, & 1 polar phosphate group </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Like a triglyceride... </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 FA swapped for polar, phosphate group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Soap-like properties </li></ul><ul><li>Likes to get between polar and nonpolar materials </li></ul>2. Lipids
    25. 25. Phospholipids Polar Head Glycerol Fatty Acid Tails Hydrophobic Hydrophilic 2. Lipids
    26. 26. <ul><li>Complex ring forms </li></ul><ul><li>Some hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Cholesterol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural substance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Found in membranes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gives membranes natural flexibility </li></ul></ul>Steroids 2. Lipids
    27. 27. Steroids Cholesterol 2. Lipids Estradiol Testosterone
    28. 28. Proteins - 3 rd of 4 Classes of Organic Compounds <ul><li>Proteins are amino acid polymers </li></ul><ul><li>Many roles in the cell… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzymes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Structure (muscle, hair, nails) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cell membrane pumps and channels </li></ul></ul>
    29. 29. Amino Acids <ul><li>Small molecules — 20 kinds </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1 amino group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 carboxyl group </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1 &quot;R&quot; group </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Joined by peptide bonds to form polypeptide </li></ul><ul><li>Different sequence makes different protein </li></ul>3. Proteins
    30. 30. Generic Amino Acid: 20 Different “R” Groups Amine Group     The “R” Group Placeholder Carboxylic Acid Group “ Alpha” Carbon R
    31. 31. Amino Acids: Glutamic Acid Structure Glutamic Acid “R” Group Amine Group   Carboxylic Acid      Group “ Alpha” Carbon
    32. 32. Amino Acids: Leucine Structure Leucine “R”      Group 3. Proteins Amine Group   Carboxylic Acid      Group
    33. 33. Amino Acids: Cysteine Structure Cysteine “R”      Group 3. Proteins Amine Group   Carboxylic Acid      Group
    34. 34. Structural Proteins 3. Proteins Hair Horn Spiderweb
    35. 35. Peptide Bond Formation By Condensation between COOH & NH 2 Phenylalanine Leucine 3. Proteins
    36. 36. Peptide Bond: Phenylalanine-Leucine Dipeptide Water The Peptide Bond
    37. 37. Levels of Protein Structure <ul><li>Like describing a knot by starting with the strands of the rope </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary : The amino acid sequence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Secondary : Coiling or folding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tertiary : folding, kinking, twisting entire structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quaternary : Two or more chains together </li></ul></ul>3. Proteins
    38. 38. Illustration of Protein Structure Primary (Sequence) Secondary (Coiling) Tertiary (Bending) Quaternary (Layering)
    39. 39. Pleated Sheets “ Right-side up” AAs “ Flipped” AAs Hydrogen Bonds 3. Proteins
    40. 40. Nucleic Acids: 4 th Class of Organic Compound <ul><li>Nucleic acids are nucleotide polymers </li></ul><ul><li>Genetics & cell control </li></ul><ul><li>DNA : Genes </li></ul><ul><li>RNA : Manages protein synthesis </li></ul>
    41. 41. Nucleotides <ul><li>5-carbon sugar, a PO 3 , and a nitrogenous base </li></ul><ul><li>Not only serve to make RNA & DNA </li></ul><ul><li>Some are energy carriers ( ATP , NAD) </li></ul><ul><li>Some are chemical messengers ( cAMP ) </li></ul>4. Nucleic Acids
    42. 42. Nucleotide Structure: 3 Parts Nitrogenous Base (1 of 5) Pentose Sugar Phosphate Group 4. Nucleic Acids CH 2 H Deoxyribose or Ribose O H OH H H H OH HO P O O N HC N C C C CH N N NH 2
    43. 43. Nucleic Acid Molecule <ul><li>Nucleotides can be joined together into a chain </li></ul><ul><li>Result is a nucleic acid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nucleotide polymer </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DNA, RNA </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Connected by “sugar-phosphate” backbone </li></ul>4. Nucleic Acids
    44. 44. Cyclic AMP: (Adenosine Monophosphate) Used for intracellular communication CH 2 H Ribose O H O OH H H OH O O P N HC N C C C CH N N NH 2
    45. 45. ATP: (Adenosine Triphosphate) Used for energy transfer from one molecule to another 4. Nucleic Acids CH 2 H Deoxyribose or Ribose O H OH H H H OH P O O O P O P HO OH O OH O N HC N C C C CH N N NH 2
    46. 46. Coenzyme Structure 4. Nucleic Acids CH 2 H Deoxyribose or Ribose O H OH H H H OH HO P O O N HC N C C C CH N N NH 2
    47. 47. The End

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