22 ch03carbs2008

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  • carb = carbon hydr = hydrogen ate = oxygen compound
  • maltose
  • sucrose = table sugar
  • Polysaccharides are polymers of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharides
  • Can you see the difference between starch & glycogen? Which is easier to digest? Glycogen = many branches = many ends Enzyme can digest at multiple ends. Animals use glycogen for energy storage == want rapid release. Form follows function. APBio/TOPICS/Biochemistry/MoviesAP/05_07Polysaccharides_A.swf
  • Starch = all the glycosidic linkage are on same side = molecule lies flat Cellulose = cross linking between OH (H bonds) = rigid structure
  • Cross-linking between polysaccharide chains: = rigid & hard to digest The digestion of cellulose governs the life strategy of herbivores. Either you do it really well and you’re a cow or an elephant (spend a long time digesting a lot of food with a little help from some microbes & have to walk around slowly for a long time carrying a lot of food in your stomach) Or you do it inefficiently and have to supplement your diet with simple sugars, like fruit and nectar, and you’re a gorilla.
  • The digestion of cellulose governs the life strategy of herbivores. Either you do it really well and you’re a cow or an elephant (spend a long time digesting a lot of food with a little help from some microbes & have to walk around slowly for a long time carrying a lot of food in your stomach) Or you do it inefficiently and have to supplement your diet with simple sugars, like fruit and nectar, and you’re a gorilla. APBioTOPICS/20Biochemistry/MoviesAP/Macromolecule-Lifewire.swf
  • 22 ch03carbs2008

    1. 1. AP Biology Carbohydrates
    2. 2. 2006-2007AP Biology OH OH H H HO CH2OH H H H OH O Carbohydrates energy molecules
    3. 3. AP Biology Carbohydrates  Carbohydrates are composed of C, H, O carbo - hydr - ate CH2O (CH2O)x C6H12O6  Function:  energy energy storage  raw materials structural materials  Monomer: sugars  ex: sugars, starches, cellulose sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugar sugarsugar C6H12O6(CH2O)x
    4. 4. AP Biology Sugars  Most names for sugars end in -ose  Classified by number of carbons  6C = hexose (glucose)  5C = pentose (ribose)  3C = triose (glyceraldehyde) OH OH H H HO CH2OH H H H OH O Glucose H OH HO O H H HO H Ribose CH2OH Glyceraldehyde H H H H OH OH O C C C 6 5 3
    5. 5. AP Biology Functional groups determine function carbonyl ketone aldehyde carbonyl
    6. 6. AP Biology Sugar structure 5C & 6C sugars form rings in solution Carbons are numberedCarbons are numbered Where do you find solutions in biology? In cells!
    7. 7. AP Biology Numbered carbons C CC C C C 1' 2'3' 4' 5' 6' O energy stored in C-C bondsenergy stored in C-C bonds
    8. 8. AP Biology QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Simple & complex sugars  Monosaccharides  simple 1 monomer sugars  glucose  Disaccharides  2 monomers  sucrose  Polysaccharides  large polymers  starch OH OH H H HO CH2OH H H H OH O Glucose
    9. 9. AP Biology Building sugars  Dehydration synthesis glycosidic linkage | glucose | glucose monosaccharides disaccharide | maltose H2O
    10. 10. AP Biology Building sugars  Dehydration synthesis | fructose | glucose monosaccharides | sucrose (table sugar) disaccharide Let’s go to the videotape! H2O QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    11. 11. AP Biology Polysaccharides  Polymers of sugars  costs little energy to build  easily reversible = release energy  Function:  energy storage  starch (plants)  glycogen (animals)  in liver & muscles  structure  cellulose (plants)  chitin (arthropods & fungi) QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture.
    12. 12. AP Biology Linear vs. branched polysaccharides starch (plant) glycogen (animal) energy storage What does branching do? Let’s go to the videotape! slow release fast release
    13. 13. AP Biology Polysaccharide diversity  Molecular structure determines function  isomers of glucose  structure determines function… in starch in cellulose
    14. 14. AP Biology Digesting starch vs. cellulose starch easy to digest starch easy to digest enzyme enzyme cellulose hard to digest cellulose hard to digest
    15. 15. AP Biology Cellulose  Most abundant organic compound on Earth  herbivores have evolved a mechanism to digest cellulose  most carnivores have not  that’s why they eat meat to get their energy & nutrients  cellulose = undigestible roughage But it tastes like hay! Who can live on this stuff?!
    16. 16. Regents Biology Cow can digest cellulose well; no need to eat other sugars Gorilla can’t digest cellulose well; must add another sugar source, like fruit to diet
    17. 17. Regents Biology QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Helpful bacteria  How can herbivores digest cellulose so well?  BACTERIA live in their digestive systems & help digest cellulose-rich (grass) meals Ruminants QuickTime™ and a TIFF (Uncompressed) decompressor are needed to see this picture. Tell me about the rabbits, again, George! I eat WHAT! Caprophage
    18. 18. 2006-2007Regents Biology Let’s build some Carbohydrates! EAT X

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