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Biochemistry Unit 1


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Biochem Unit for Biology 12 in BC

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Biochemistry Unit 1

  1. 1. BIOCHEMISTRY Unit 1 - 2016
  2. 2. BIOCHEMISTRY BASICS Parts of the Atom What are the main parts of an atom that are shown below? Neutron Proton Nucleus Orbital Electron
  3. 3. BIOCHEMISTRY BASICS Bonding What is the difference between ionic and covalent bonding?
  4. 4. BIOCHEMISTRY BASICS Representing Covalent Bonding How do we represent covalent bonds? Electron Dot Structural Molecular
  5. 5. BIOCHEMISTRY BASICS Representing Covalent Bonding How do we represent covalent bonds?
  6. 6. BIOCHEMISTRY BASICS Representing Covalent Bonding This is what you will see most: Hydrocarbon chain Amino acid Glucose
  7. 7. WATER Properties and Importance
  8. 8. WATER ➤ Liquid at room temperature ➤ Universal solvent for polar molecules ➤ Both cohesive (self) and adhesive (other) properties ➤ Density difference btw solid and liquid states ➤ High specific heat capacity ➤ Polar molecule - Hydrogen bonding (H-bonds)
  9. 9. WATER Electronegativity What is electronegativity? Defn: The affinity of an atom to attract bonding pair of electrons. The higher the electronegativity, the more attractive forces the atom has. O H 3.5 2.1 (–) (+)
  10. 10. WATER Electronegativity What is the result of electronegativity on a water molecule?
  11. 11. WATER Polarity and Hydrogen Bonding in Water The result of the electron pull in water creates polar regions in the molecule. Covalent Bond Hydrogen Bond
  12. 12. Organic Molecules
  13. 13. ORGANIC MOLECULES Which atom is found in all organic molecules? All organic molecules contain at least one carbon atom. “Captain, I am detecting carbon- based life forms on the surface.”
  14. 14. HYDROCARBONS Basics and Functional Groups Hydrocarbons are simply long chains of Carbon atoms (C) with Hydrogen atoms (H) attached. These can be linear or cyclic. Linear (unbranched) Cyclic
  15. 15. HYDROCARBONS Basics and Functional Groups Hydrocarbons may contain single, double, or triple bonds between Carbon atoms. We group these into Alkanes, Alkenes, and Alkynes based on the type of bond.
  16. 16. HYDROCARBONS Basics and Functional Groups Hydrocarbons can contain functional groups that provide them with various properties. Below are examples of 3 functional groups that we will see in this course. carboxyl grouphydroxyl groupamine group
  17. 17. MACROMOLECULES Building Blocks All large molecules (macromolecules) in our bodies are created from monomers. The building and deconstruction of these macromolecules are done by two processes. Dehydration Synthesis Simply put, we take small things and make one big thing. Dehydration = removing water Synthesis = put together Hydrolysis Simply put, we use water to break a big thing apart. Hydro = water lysis = break apart
  18. 18. CARBOHYDRATES Structure and Function
  19. 19. CARBOHYDRATES Structure The building blocks of carbohydrates are monosaccharides. All carbohydrates follow the generic formula of CnH2nOn Examples of monosaccharides include: Glucose (C6H12O6) Fructose (C6H12O6)
  20. 20. CARBOHYDRATES Function Structural: Plants, Bacteria, Insects. Energy: Short term use and storage.
  21. 21. CARBOHYDRATES Polymers Disaccharides: When two monosaccharides are joined together in a dehydration synthesis reaction they form a disaccharide.
  22. 22. CARBOHYDRATES Polymers Examples of Disaccharides: Maltose = Glucose + Glucose Sucrose = Glucose + Fructose Lactose = Glucose + Galactose
  23. 23. CARBOHYDRATES Polymers Polysaccharide: When very long chains of monosaccharides are arranged into a complex molecule we call this a polysaccharide. Polysaccharides have different structures and functions depending on the monomers that produce them.
  24. 24. CARBOHYDRATES Polymers Glycogen: Produced when very long chains of the monomer glucose are bonded together. Function: Long term energy storage in animals.
  25. 25. CARBOHYDRATES Polymers Starch: Produced when very long chains of the monomer glucose are bonded together. Function: Long term energy storage in plants.
  26. 26. CARBOHYDRATES Polymers Cellulose: Produced when very long chains of the monomer glucose are bonded together. The difference between starch and cellulose is the monomer glucose is reversed 180 degrees each time in cellulose. Function: Structural compound found in plants.
  28. 28. LIPIDS Structure and Function
  29. 29. LIPIDS Structure All lipids are insoluble in water. The building blocks of lipids are glycerol and fatty acids. Glycerol fatty acid (saturated)
  30. 30. LIPIDS Function Long term energy stores Membrane formation Serve as hormones Provide insulation Protection of internal organs
  31. 31. LIPIDS Polymers Triglycerides: fats and oils that are formed by synthesizing a glycerol molecule with 3 fatty acids.
  32. 32. LIPIDS Polymers Triglycerides: the fatty acids (10-30 carbon chains) are what provide the variability in fats and oils. Saturated fatty acids: all the carbon atoms in the chain contain the maximum number of hydrogen atoms. Usually solid at room temperature Unsaturated fatty acids: one or more double bonds between carbon atoms in the chain. Usually liquid at room temperature.
  33. 33. LIPIDS Polymers Triglycerides: Unsaturated Saturated
  34. 34. LIPIDS Polymers Phospholipids: A modified triglyceride. One fatty acid is removed and replaced with a phosphate group. This creates a polar molecule. One end hydrophilic (water loving) and the other is hydrophobic (water hating)
  35. 35. LIPIDS Polymers Cholesterol and Derivatives: found in many areas of the body such as cell membranes. Also include steroids and bile acid.
  36. 36. PROTEINS Structure and Function
  37. 37. PROTEINS Structure The building blocks of proteins are amino acids. One end contains an amine group and one end contains a carboxyl group. There are 20 amino acids, of which 9 can not be produced by your body. The generic amino acid molecule looked like this:
  38. 38. PROTEINS Function Structural Proteins Enzymes - speed reactions (end in ase) Antibodies Transport carriers Allow materials to cross cell membrane
  39. 39. PROTEINS Polymers Peptide chains: amino acids are bonded together via dehydration synthesis. The bond formed between amino acids are called peptide bonds.
  40. 40. PROTEINS Polymers Levels of Organization: The more amino acids that are added to the structure, the more complex it becomes. We group proteins structures into 4 classifications. Primary: polypeptide chain. Secondary: helix and sheets Tertiary: Globular Structures Quaternary: Multiple polypeptide chains.
  41. 41. PROTEINS Polymers Levels of Organization:
  42. 42. PROTEINS Polymers Levels of Organization:
  43. 43. PROTEINS - DISEASE Alzheimer’s Amyloid plaque made of protein envelops axons Tau changes shape and stick together causing tangles inside cell bodies.
  44. 44. PROTEINS - DISEASE Creutzfeld-Jacobs disease Normally soluble prion proteins become insoluble These proteins become insoluble in the presence of other insoluble prions Insoluble prions damage brain tissue causing disease
  45. 45. NUCLEIC AIDS Structure and Function
  46. 46. NUCLEIC ACIDS Structure The building blocks of nucleic acids are nucleotides. Nucleotides consist of a phosphate group, a 5 sided sugar, and a nitrogenous base. The generic nucleotide molecule looked like this:
  47. 47. NUCLEIC ACIDS Structure There are 5 nitrogenous bases that are used to create the polymers DNA and RNA.
  48. 48. NUCLEIC ACIDS Function Energy Storage and transfer of genetic information
  49. 49. NUCLEIC ACIDS Polymers DNA and RNA:
  50. 50. NUCLEIC ACIDS Polymers DNA and RNA:
  51. 51. NUCLEIC ACIDS Polymers DNA:
  52. 52. NUCLEIC ACIDS Special Nucleotide: ATP Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) contains the nucleic acid adenine. It has 3 high energy phosphates attached. ATP is the energy currency for the cell.When phosphates are removed, energy is released that allow for reactions to occur in the cell.
  53. 53. NUCLEIC ACIDS Special Nucleotide: ATP