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402 Lecture Reinforcement


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Reinforcement issues relating to Behavior Modification.

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402 Lecture Reinforcement

  1. 1. Behavior Modification<br />Reinforcement Issues<br />Spring 2010<br />
  2. 2. Reinforcement <br /><ul><li>Any stimulus added or removed contingent upon a behavior that maintains or increases the strength of the behavior
  3. 3. Positive reinforcement
  4. 4. Contingently ADDING a stimulus following a behavior to strengthen or maintain a behavior.
  5. 5. Negative reinforcement
  6. 6. Contingently REMOVING a stimulus following a behavior to strengthen or maintain a behavior
  7. 7. These are consequences of operant behavior.
  8. 8. Reinforcement is a LAW.</li></li></ul><li>Using reinforcement<br /><ul><li>Selecting a behavior
  9. 9. Start general (being successful)
  10. 10. Get more specific (being to work on time)
  11. 11. Choosing a reinforcer
  12. 12. Different reinforcers work differently for different people
  13. 13. Consumable; activity; manipulative (play with a fav toy, etc); possessional and social.
  14. 14. Satiation and deprivation (motivating operations)
  15. 15. Temporarily alter the effectiveness of a reinforcer.
  16. 16. Establishing operation (increases effectiveness) - deprivation
  17. 17. Abolishing operation (decreases effectiveness) - satiation</li></li></ul><li>Using reinforcement cont.<br /><ul><li>Reinforcer size
  18. 18. Size is important – usually, but not always, as you increase the size of the reinforcer it maintains more behavior
  19. 19. $$$$$$$$$
  20. 20. Must watch out for satiation!
  21. 21. Using rules
  22. 22. Instructions are good to use with humans, but not necessary
  23. 23. They speed up the learning process
  24. 24. Placeholders for the delay to reinforcement</li></li></ul><li>Using reinforcement, cont.<br />Immediacy<br />Typically, the sooner you can reinforce, the better.<br />Placeholders to long delays help (these can be small reinforcers) – self statements work here too.<br />Contingent vs. non-contingent<br />Reinforcers that are non-contingent do not affect the behavior in question – we call them rewards.<br />Accidental reinforcement – adventitious leads to superstitious behavior<br />Working toward natural reinforcers<br />Most behaviors do have natural reinforcers – but we need to get the behavior mod program to reach these.<br />
  25. 25. Conditioned Reinforcers<br />Unconditioned reinforcers – primary<br />Food, water, sex, warm<br />Conditioned reinforcers<br />By pairing neutral stimuli with primary reinforcers you can develop conditioned or secondary reinforcers<br />Clickers, photos, money<br />You present the conditioned Sr and then later, on occasion present the backup Sr (the primary or even secondary reinforcer)<br />Tokens<br />Token economies work on this principle – you earn tokens and exchange them for other reinforcers. Immediacy.<br />
  26. 26. Conditioned Reinforcement, Cont.<br />Make sure the backup reinforcer is actually a reinforcer<br />Food is not a reinforcer to a satiated organism<br />Use many backup reinforcers<br />Generalized conditioned reinforcer – connects to MANY backup reinforcers<br />Intermittent reinforcement is still the best (in terms of the backup Sr)<br />Don’t let the conditioned Sr extinguish. <br />
  27. 27. Problems<br />Consistency – make sure that the conditioned Sr actually leads to a backup Sr.<br />Punishment has the same issue.<br />The extinction problem – make sure that you use effective backup Sr.<br />
  28. 28. Intermittent reinforcement<br />Schedules of reinforcement<br />A rule of how frequently a behavior will be reinforced, if at all.<br />The ones that maintain the highest rates are intermittent reinforcement.<br />Ratio schedules<br />Dependent on the number of behaviors performed<br />Interval schedules<br />Dependent on ONE behavior after a given amount of time.<br />Limited hold<br />After an interval – a response will produce a reinforcer only for a given window of time.<br />Duration Schedules<br />Used with continuous behavior<br />Must be performed for a given length of time to receive the reinforcer<br />