Schedules of reinforcement


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Schedules of reinforcement

  1. 1. Schedules of Reinforcement A mature study by two immature minds Copyright © 2012 Sequels.
  2. 2. Reinforcement is a term in psychology for a process of strengthening a directly measurable dimension of behaviour--such as rate (e.g., pulling a lever more frequently), duration (e.g., pulling a lever for longer periods of time), magnitude (e.g., pulling a lever with greater force), or latency (e.g., pulling a lever more quickly following the onset of an environmental event)--as a function of the delivery of a "valued" stimulus (e.g. money from a slot machine) immediately or shortly after the occurrence of the behaviour. A Reinforcer is a temporally contiguous environmental event, or an effect directly produced by a response (e.g., a musician playing a melody), that functions to strengthen or maintain the response thatCopyright © 2012 Sequels.
  3. 3. timing Life’s Rewards The world would be a different place if poker players never played cards again after the first losing hand, fishermen returned to shore as soon as they missed a catch, or telemarketers never made another phone call after their first hang- up. The fact that such unreinforced behaviours continue, often with great frequency and persistence, illustrates that reinforcement need not be received continually for behaviour to be learned and maintained. In fact, behaviour that is reinforced only occasionally can ultimately be learned better than can behaviour that is always reinforced. Copyright © 2012 Sequels.
  4. 4. Classifications Reinforcement Continuous Intermittent Fixed Interval Variable Interval Fixed Ratio Variable Ratio Copyright © 2012 Sequels. .
  5. 5. Fixed-interval scheduleWhere the first response is rewarded only after a specified amount of time has elapsed. This schedule causes high amounts of responding near the end of the interval, but much slowerCopyright © 2012 Sequels.
  6. 6. • Students often study minimally or not at all until the day of the exam draws near. – Just before the exam, however, students begin to cram for it, signalling a rapid increase in the rate of their studying response. As you might expect, immediately after the exam there is aCopyright © 2012 Sequels.
  7. 7. Variable-interval schedule Where the first response is rewarded after an unpredictable amount of time has passed. This schedule produces a slow, steady rate of response. Copyright © 2012 Sequels.
  8. 8. ♂One example of a fixed-interval schedule is a weekly pay- cheque. ♂Example for variable interval will be the famous surprise quizzes .Students have to read and keep themselves up-to-date for their upcoming battle. Copyright © 2012 Sequels.
  9. 9. Variable-ratio scheduleWhere a response is reinforced after an unpredictable number of responses. This schedule creates a high steady rate of responding. Gambling and lottery games are good examples of a reward based on a variable ratio schedule.Copyright © 2012 Sequels.
  10. 10.  One example of a variable-ratio schedule is a telephone salesperson’s job. He might make a sale during the 3rd , 8th , 9th , and 20th calls without being successful during any call in between. Although the number of responses he must make before making a sale varies, it averages out to a 20 percent success rate. Under these Copyright © 2012 Sequels.
  11. 11. Fixed-ratio schedule Where a response is reinforced only after a specified number of responses. This schedule produces a high steady rate of responding with only a brief pause after the delivery of the reinforcer.. Copyright © 2012 Sequels
  12. 12. ♀One example of a fixed-ratio schedule is a weekly daring Mathlab assignments. Only after submitting we get our respective marks :D ♀This scheduleCopyright © 2012 Sequels.