UCS (Unconditioned Stimulus)
Leads to a certain response without previous training
UCR (Unconditioned Response)
Occurs automatically when UCS is presented.
CS (Conditioned Stimulus)
A neutral stimulus that after training leads to a response.
CR (Conditioned Response)
The response that the CS causes.
Ivan Pavlov designed an experiment that
proved you could condition dogs.
What is the UCS?
General Principles of
Classical conditioning occurs gradually.
The more frequently the tuning fork was paired with
food the stronger the salivation response was.
Circle vs. Oval
Little Albert Experiment (pg. 26)
Operant conditioning is learning from the
consequences of behavior.
To get rewards or avoid punishment.
Differences between operant and classical
1) The learner must behave in a certain way that
produces some consequences.
2) Classical conditioning involves automatic
responses, operant conditioning may involve the
acquisition a wide range of voluntary behaviors.
A stimulus or event that affects the
likelihood that a behavior will be
Types of Reinforcement
Adding something in order to increase a response or behavior.
Taking something negative away in order to increase a
response or behavior.
Adding something unpleasant to decrease a response or
Taking something away to decrease a response or behavior.
Reinforcement depends on a specified quantity of
Requires that an average number of responses be
made for each reinforcement.
Reinforcement is available after a set period of time.
The time in which reinforcement occurs varies
throughout the conditioning procedure.