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Conditioning
Classical Conditioning
 Key Terms
 UCS (Unconditioned Stimulus)
 Leads to a certain response without previous training
...
Pavlov’s Dogs
 Ivan Pavlov designed an experiment that
proved you could condition dogs.
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=...
General Principles of
Classical Conditioning
 Classical conditioning occurs gradually.
 The more frequently the tuning f...
Operant Conditioning
 Operant conditioning is learning from the
consequences of behavior.
 To get rewards or avoid punis...
Reinforcement
 A stimulus or event that affects the
likelihood that a behavior will be
repeated.
 Social Approval
 Mone...
Types of Reinforcement
 Positive Reinforcement
 Adding something in order to increase a response or behavior.
 Ex: Rewa...
Schedules of
Reinforcement
 Fixed-Ratio Schedule
 Reinforcement depends on a specified quantity of
responses.
 Variable...
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Conditioning

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A PowerPoint on classical and operant conditioning.

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Conditioning

  1. 1. Conditioning
  2. 2. Classical Conditioning  Key Terms  UCS (Unconditioned Stimulus)  Leads to a certain response without previous training  UCR (Unconditioned Response)  Occurs automatically when UCS is presented.  CS (Conditioned Stimulus)  A neutral stimulus that after training leads to a response.  CR (Conditioned Response)  The response that the CS causes.
  3. 3. Pavlov’s Dogs  Ivan Pavlov designed an experiment that proved you could condition dogs.  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hhqum fpxuzI  What is the UCS?  The UCR?  The CS?  The CR?
  4. 4. General Principles of Classical Conditioning  Classical conditioning occurs gradually.  The more frequently the tuning fork was paired with food the stronger the salivation response was.  Generalization  Circle vs. Oval  Discrimination  Screams  Little Albert Experiment (pg. 26)  Taste Aversions
  5. 5. Operant Conditioning  Operant conditioning is learning from the consequences of behavior.  To get rewards or avoid punishment.  Differences between operant and classical conditioning:  1) The learner must behave in a certain way that produces some consequences.  2) Classical conditioning involves automatic responses, operant conditioning may involve the acquisition a wide range of voluntary behaviors.
  6. 6. Reinforcement  A stimulus or event that affects the likelihood that a behavior will be repeated.  Social Approval  Money  Extra Privileges  Punishments  Criticism
  7. 7. Types of Reinforcement  Positive Reinforcement  Adding something in order to increase a response or behavior.  Ex: Rewards  Negative Reinforcement  Taking something negative away in order to increase a response or behavior.  Ex: Nagging  Positive Punishment  Adding something unpleasant to decrease a response or behavior.  Ex: Spanking  Negative Punishment  Taking something away to decrease a response or behavior.  Ex: Grounding
  8. 8. Schedules of Reinforcement  Fixed-Ratio Schedule  Reinforcement depends on a specified quantity of responses.  Variable-Ratio Schedule  Requires that an average number of responses be made for each reinforcement.  Fixed-Interval Schedule  Reinforcement is available after a set period of time.  Variable-Interval Schedule  The time in which reinforcement occurs varies throughout the conditioning procedure.

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