Behavior Modification<br />Decreasing Behavior, Extinction, Stimulus Control<br />
Other schedules – to DECREASE behavior<br />Odd – you can use reinforcement to decrease rates of behavior.<br />This is be...
DRL<br />Differential Reinforcement of low rates of behavior<br />What is DIFFERENTIAL?<br />DRL – limited responding<br /...
DR0<br />Reinforcer only occurs if a given response does not happen during a given time<br />If the unwanted behavior happ...
DRI<br />Differential reinforcement of INCOMPATIBLE responding.<br />The response being reinforced MUST prevent the undesi...
DRA<br />Differential reinforcement of Alternative responding.<br />Similar to DRI, but the response just has to be differ...
Decreasing behavior - Extinction<br />If a previously emitted response is not followed by a reinforcer then the person is ...
Factors influencing extinction<br />Control of the reinforcers<br />You must be able to actually control the source of the...
More factors<br />Make use of rules<br />The schedule of SR effects the speed of extinction<br />Extinction bursts<br />Pr...
The 3 term contingency<br />Any behavior can be viewed in terms of a 3 term contingency<br />Stimulus (discriminative) – r...
Stimulus control<br />Not all behavior is maintained by the same consequences in different situations or reinforced at all...
Types of controlling stimuli<br />Sd – indicates that a reinforcer is available for a given behavior<br />SΔ – indicates t...
Stimulus generalization<br />A behavior becomes more likely in a new situation as a result of being reinforced in another ...
Discrimination training<br />To develop stimulus control<br />Make the Sd distinct<br />Minimize error<br />Add verbal cue...
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Cedp 402 week 3

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Reducing Behavior through reinforcement schedules, Extinction, stimulus control.

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Cedp 402 week 3

  1. 1. Behavior Modification<br />Decreasing Behavior, Extinction, Stimulus Control<br />
  2. 2. Other schedules – to DECREASE behavior<br />Odd – you can use reinforcement to decrease rates of behavior.<br />This is because reinforcment schedules MAINTAIN behavior at a given rate – and as you change the schedule you get a clear effect on behavior. <br />These are NOT punishment. <br />
  3. 3. DRL<br />Differential Reinforcement of low rates of behavior<br />What is DIFFERENTIAL?<br />DRL – limited responding<br />Given number of responses is allowed over a time period in order to receive Sr.<br />DRL – spaced responding<br />Response does not occur for a given time, and then after that period has passed – the first response will be reinforced.<br />
  4. 4. DR0<br />Reinforcer only occurs if a given response does not happen during a given time<br />If the unwanted behavior happens during the interval, the interval resets.<br />There is a logical problem with this<br />Prefer the term differential reinforcement of OTHER responding (not zero).<br />Change the duration to make it more successful – start small.<br />
  5. 5. DRI<br />Differential reinforcement of INCOMPATIBLE responding.<br />The response being reinforced MUST prevent the undesirable response from occurring. <br />They cannot be performed at the same time.<br />Sitting and standing<br />
  6. 6. DRA<br />Differential reinforcement of Alternative responding.<br />Similar to DRI, but the response just has to be different than the unwanted behavior – not necessarily incompatible.<br />
  7. 7. Decreasing behavior - Extinction<br />If a previously emitted response is not followed by a reinforcer then the person is less likely to do that behavior in that situation in the future.<br />It does not work on the first trial<br />It is a gradual decrease<br />
  8. 8. Factors influencing extinction<br />Control of the reinforcers<br />You must be able to actually control the source of the reinforcers in order to remove access to them<br />Other people can effect your extinction program<br />It does not necessarily generalize to different environments<br />Functional assessment – must ensure that the reinforcer being withheld is actually the one maintaining the behavior.<br />Extinguish one behavior while reinforcing another – in the same context.<br />Try to use the same reinforcer if possible<br />Setting is important<br />Minimize alternative SR<br />Maximize the chance of the behavior modifier sticking with the program<br />
  9. 9. More factors<br />Make use of rules<br />The schedule of SR effects the speed of extinction<br />Extinction bursts<br />Produces aggression in some cases – also produces frustration<br />Spontaneous recovery.<br />
  10. 10. The 3 term contingency<br />Any behavior can be viewed in terms of a 3 term contingency<br />Stimulus (discriminative) – response – stimulus (reinforcer)<br />The controlling factor is the consequence<br />But it does so in a given context<br />The ability of this context to generalize is susceptible to new or existing consequences<br />The ability of the behavior to generalize is susceptible to new or existing consequences<br />
  11. 11. Stimulus control<br />Not all behavior is maintained by the same consequences in different situations or reinforced at all.<br />Behavior that is reinforced in the presence of one stimulus and not another comes under STIMULUS CONTROL.<br />Where that stimulus indicates that a particular behavior will receive reinforcement<br />Stimulus control is the degree of correlation between a stimulus and a particular response<br />The stimulus gives information about the consequences<br />
  12. 12. Types of controlling stimuli<br />Sd – indicates that a reinforcer is available for a given behavior<br />SΔ – indicates that no reinforcement is available for a given behavior<br />A given stimulus can serve as both for different behaviors in the same context<br />
  13. 13. Stimulus generalization<br />A behavior becomes more likely in a new situation as a result of being reinforced in another one. <br />Similarity is a big part of this<br />But what about things that aren’t similar?<br />Classes – concepts (must know what makes up a concept, and what doesn’t – discrimination and generalization)<br />
  14. 14. Discrimination training<br />To develop stimulus control<br />Make the Sd distinct<br />Minimize error<br />Add verbal cues – make incorrect responses impossible<br />Give many trials<br />Use rules<br />

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