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European Policies from Open Data to Civic Engagement


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Department of Informatics
State University of New York at Albany
Feb 10, 2016

Published in: Technology
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European Policies from Open Data to Civic Engagement

  1. 1. European Policies from Open Data to Civic Engagement Luigi Reggi Department of Informatics State University of New York at Albany Feb 10, 2016
  3. 3. 1a Competitiveness for growth and jobs 142.13 1b Economic, social and territorial cohesion 366.79 Youth Employment Initiative (specific top-up allocation) 3.21 Regional convergence (Less developed regions) 185.37 Transition regions 35.70 Competitiveness (More developed regions) 55.78 Territorial cooperation 10.23 Cohesion fund 74.93 Outermost and sparsely populated regions 1.56 Margin 0.00 2 Sustainable Growth: Natural Resources 420.03 European Agricultural Guarantee Fund (EAGF) — Market related expenditure and direct payments 312.74 European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development (EAFRD) 95.58 European Maritime Affairs and Fisheries 7.40 European Maritime and Fisheries Fund 6.40 International fisheries agreements and obligatory contributions to Regional Fisheries Management Organisations (RFMOs) 1.01 Environment and climate action (Life) 3.46 Agencies 0.39 Margin 0.47 3 Security and citizenship 17.73 4 Global Europe 66.26 5 Administration 69.58 6 Compensation 0.03 TOTAL 1082.56 Structural and Investment Funds (ESIFs) 466 billion Euros 43% of total EU budget Billion Euros, current prices EU Budget 2014-2020
  4. 4. 0 20 40 60 80 100 Outermost & Sparsely Populated Discontinued Measures Efficient Public Administration Technical Assistance Information & Communication Technologies Climate Change Adaptation & Risk… Educational & Vocational Training Sustainable & Quality Employment Social Inclusion Low-Carbon Economy Research & Innovation Network Infrastructures in Transport and… Environment Protection & Resource… Competitiveness of SMEs Billion € Available funding by theme (2014-2020)
  5. 5. Eligible areas (ERDF and ESF)
  6. 6. Multi-level governance EU Commission National Governments Regional Governments Local Governments and municipalities • Common EU Regulation • 530+ Operational Programmes • Hundreds of Managing Authorities
  7. 7. 3 PROBLEMS
  8. 8. 1. A problem of efficiency Absorption rate % of Funds paid out by the EU Commission in the period 2007-13, Feb 2016
  9. 9. 2. A problem of (measuring) effectiveness • Dominant result indicator = absorption capacity • Weak system of policy indicators – Data quality issues (output and outcome) – Only aggregated figures • Hard to evaluate the results of millions of projects funded
  10. 10. 3. A problem of social accountability • Weak downwards accountability – Improved but still insufficient provisions for transparency – absence of institutional mechanisms through which administrators face consequences for their decisions (Bovens, 2007) – complex governance does not help • Weak upwards accountability – Stakeholders engagement in the monitoring committees is often limited to the “usual suspects”, while a much greater resort to genuinely bottom-up policies would be needed (Rodriguez-Pose, 2013)
  11. 11. Some preliminary hypotheses • Detailed, high-quality and legible Open Government Data (OGD) on projects funded by ESIFs can potentially enable new forms of – citizen monitoring of actual policy progress and results, – citizen participation and collaboration in policy making • If specific institutional mechanisms are in place, the feedback collected from the bottom-up can improve the quality of policy making and ultimately the efficiency and effectiveness of the policy
  13. 13. Community 1 Community 2 Community n Intermediaries Media … OGD Portals Open Data Internal data flows Beneficiaries of funding
  14. 14. Community 1 Community 2 Community n Intermediaries Media … OGD Portals Feedback flows transparency advocates, civic tech community
  15. 15. Community 1 Community 2 Community n Intermediaries Media … OGD Portals • How the administrations are collecting the data on projects’ progress and performance? • What managerial and legal mechanisms influence the quality of existing monitoring systems? • Do high-quality monitoring systems enhance the quality of OGD provision? administrative data STEP 1 Internal data collection and management Beneficiaries of funding
  16. 16. Community 1 Community 2 Community n Intermediaries Media … OGD Portals OGD • What is the quality of OGD in terms of detail, completeness, legibility, process transparency? (Picci 2006, Shkabatur 2012) • What are the strategies for OGD publication? (Dawes 2010, Reggi and Ricci, 2011) • What proactive actions are implemented to promote data re- use? How to stimulate citizen engagement and participation? STEP 2 OGD publication & engagement
  17. 17. OGD Portals Media directfeedback Community 1 Community 2 Community n … Intermediaries • How local communities can measure the impact of public projects on the ground? • What conditions and capabilities are necessary? • What IT tools are used/useful for citizen monitoring (Zuckerman 2014)? • What is the role of the intermediaries and the media? STEP 3 OGD use & feedback collection transparency advocates, civic tech community
  18. 18. Community 1 Community 2 Community n Intermediaries Media … OGD Portals • What is the impact of existing follow-the-money and citizen monitoring campaigns based on open data availability and developed by civil society organizations? • How public administrations can integrate citizen’s feedback into the policy cycle? What kind of institutional and legal mechanisms should be developed? • How the multi-level, complex governance can influence this process? • What conditions are necessary? What is the role of political will, institutional capacity, human and financial resources? STEP 4 Closing the feedback loop