Strategies for Local
Electronic Governance
Foundations, Cases and Success factorsFoundations, Cases and Success factors
Ad...
IDENTITY Dual - University and UN
ESTABLISHED 1972
MISSION To contribute – through collaborative research,
teaching, capac...
UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITY NETWORK
INSTITUTES
UNU-CRIS Regional Integration Belgium
UNU-EHS Environment and Human Security ...
CENTER FOR ELECTRONIC GOVERNANCE
IDENTITY
Center of Excellence on
Electronic Governance research
and practice, part of UNU...
There are many reasons for the increasing prominence of local government,
local governance and consequently local e-govern...
Our goal is to seek answers to the following questions:
1) What do we understand by Local Electronic Governance (Local EGO...
OUTLINE
1. Foundational Concepts
2. E-Governance Strategy Models
3. Local E-Governance Strategies
1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL...
The goal of this section is explore the
meaning of Local Electronic Governance
and Local Electronic Governance Strategy,
b...
CONCEPT 1 - GOVERNANCE
Governance is the means through which government – an institution of the state; acts to perform its...
CONCEPT 2 - LOCAL GOVERNANCE - DEFINITION
First, we link the concept of Local Governance to that of Local Government - an ...
Attributes of Good Local Governance include1:
1) Quality, effectiveness and efficiency of local administration and public ...
CONCEPT 3 - ELECTRONIC GOVERNANCE
E-Governance includes:
o delivering public services
over e-channels,
o ICT-enabled parti...
CONCEPT 4 – LOCAL ELECTRONIC GOVERNANCE
The transformational use of ICT, including the internet to achieve local good gove...
CONCEPT 5 - STRATEGY
There are different schools of thought on the notion of a strategy. Its conceptualization largely
det...
CONCEPT 6 - ELECTRONIC GOVERNANCE STRATEGY
An E-Governance strategy specifies the contextual meaning of e-governance for a...
CONCEPT 7 - LOCAL E-GOVERNANCE STRATEGY
Local E-Governance strategy specifies what e-governance really means in the a spec...
OUTLINE
1. Foundational Concepts
2. E-Governance Strategy Models
3. Local E-Governance Strategies
1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL...
Electronic government strategies, particularly at the national level are largely driven by models
underpinning internation...
Known E-Governance development models include:
1) E-Governance Maturity Model
2) E-Governance Value Chain Model
3) Hybrid ...
MATURITY MODEL APPROACH – DEFINITION AND EXAMPLES
An E-Governance maturity model prescribes staged growth or evolutionary ...
As popular and influential as the e-government maturity model has been, the following issues have
been surfaced in term of...
The value chain model focuses on how to effectively e-government turns input into outcomes1. IN this
model, there is an im...
A variant of the Heek’s EGOV value chain model is being developed at UNU and applied to an ongoing
National Level E-Govern...
The value chain approach explicitly emphasis value generation from e-governance program. This
therefore addresses an incre...
A hybrid model combines the value chain and the maturity model, with the value chain as the overall
framework (providing t...
EXAMPLES OF EGOVERNANCE STRATEGIES – NATIONAL
Hong Kong
2004 2008
o Customized Service – CRM
o Back-office integration
o S...
OUTLINE
1. Foundational Concepts
2. E-Governance Strategy Models
3. Local E-Governance Strategies
1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL...
We now consider concrete examples of local e-governance strategies:
1) National strategy for local e-government, Local Gov...
LOCAL E-GOVERNANCE STRATEGIES - CASE 1, UK - 1
What is Local EGOV?
It is about modernizing local
government through improv...
LOCAL E-GOVERNANCE STRATEGIES - CASE 1, UK - 2
The e-organization model
enables local councils to
determine their current
...
LOCAL E-GOVERNANCE STRATEGIES - CASE 1, NZ - 1
What is Local EGOV?
Providing interactive online access
to local government...
LOCAL E-GOVERNANCE STRATEGIES - CASE 1, NZ - 2
•Online interaction
•Online voting
•Core Information
•Core Services
•Consis...
OUTLINE
1. Foundational Concepts
2. E-Governance Strategy Models
3. Local E-Governance Strategies
1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL...
Three surveys on local e-government will be presented to identify sources of best practices:
Local e-Government Now: a wor...
BEST PRACTICE SURVEY 1 – SOCITM & I&DEA, 2002
Purpose
To inform local policy maker on:
o What has been achieved
What was b...
SURVEY 1 – SOCITM AND I&DEA, 2002 - FINDINGS
Involving every
one in visioning
Patterns of actions by local authorities
1-3...
BEST PRACTICE SURVEY 2 – RUTGERS, 2009
Purpose
Global benchmark of the big
cities in terms of information
Scope
100 cities...
SURVEY 2 – RUTGERS, 2009 - RESULTS
1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 38UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON ...
BEST PRACTICE SURVEY 3 – EUROCITIES, 2009
Purpose
The is a benchmarking
exercise based on
Scope
15 cities in Europe were
i...
SURVEY 2 – EUROCITIES, 2009 – BEST PRACTICES
A service is selected as a best practice if:
o The relative maturity is signi...
OUTLINE
1. Foundational Concepts
2. E-Governance Strategy Models
3. Local E-Governance Strategies
1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL...
The last part of the lecture will present success factors for local e-governance programs. Two
comprehensive sets of recom...
RECOMMENDATIONS - 1
The following critical success factors are crucial when planning, developing, and implementing new
inf...
Ten key success factors (individually necessary and sufficient as a whole) were identified in the European
study to attain...
1) Local EGOV is about transformational use of ICT for better local, self and democratic governance. It
is expected to hav...
Thank you for your attention.
Adegboyega Ojo
ao@iist.unu.edu
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Strategies for Local Electronic Governance

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Conceptualizes Local E-Government and identifies critical strategies for Local e-government.

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Strategies for Local Electronic Governance

  1. 1. Strategies for Local Electronic Governance Foundations, Cases and Success factorsFoundations, Cases and Success factors Adegboyega Ojo, Research Fellow Center for Electronic Governance United Nations University - IIST ao@iist.unu.edu
  2. 2. IDENTITY Dual - University and UN ESTABLISHED 1972 MISSION To contribute – through collaborative research, teaching, capacity development and advisory services – to efforts aimed at resolving the pressing global problems of sustainable human security, development and welfare that are the UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITY 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 2UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT security, development and welfare that are the concern of the United Nations, its Peoples and Member States. AIMS 1. Advancement of knowledge relevant to the role and work of the United Nations 2. Application of that knowledge in formulating sound principles, policies, strategies and programmes for action LOCATION Worldwide, with headquarters in Tokyo
  3. 3. UNITED NATIONS UNIVERSITY NETWORK INSTITUTES UNU-CRIS Regional Integration Belgium UNU-EHS Environment and Human Security Germany UNU-IAS Sustainable Development Japan UNU-IIGH Global Health Malaysia UNU-IIST ICT for Sustainable Development Macao SAR, China UNU-INRA Natural Resources Management Ghana 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 3UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT UNU-INRA Natural Resources Management Ghana UNU-INWEH Water, Environment and Health Canada UNU-ISP Sustainability and peace Japan UNU-MERIT Socio-Eco. Impacts of Technologies Netherlands UNU-WIDER Development Economics Finland PROGRAMS UNU-BIOLAC Biotechnology and Society Venezuela UNU-FNP Food and Nutrition Capacity USA UNU-FTP Fisheries Training Iceland UNU-GTP Geothermal Training Iceland UNU-LRT Land Restoration Iceland UNW-DPC Water Capacity Development Germany
  4. 4. CENTER FOR ELECTRONIC GOVERNANCE IDENTITY Center of Excellence on Electronic Governance research and practice, part of UNU-IIST. MISSION Supporting governments, universities and the UN in strategic use of ICT to enable good governance and sustainable development. 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 4UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT ACTIVITIES Conduct research, provide policy support to governments and the UN system, develop educational programmes, and build capacity of universities and governments to better understand how SD objectives impact EGOV programmes and how to evolve EGOV4SD solutions.
  5. 5. There are many reasons for the increasing prominence of local government, local governance and consequently local e-governance, including: 1) Centrality of decentralization to government reform programs, which involves devolution of more powers to local or assumption of more responsibilities in the context of deconcentration. 2) Participation is central to good governance and an important factor for LOCAL ELECTRONIC GOVERNANCE - WHY? 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 5UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT sustainable development1. E-Participation is also now accepted as core aspect of Electronic Governance. However, local authorities are closest to citizens and thus in a better position to effectively drive participation. 3) Increasing demand for public value from Electronic Governance programmes (EGOV4What?) is creating stronger linkages between e- governance and Development via good governance. o From an ICT4D perspective, all municipalities can adopt effective e- governance for social and local economic development2 Ascendancy of Local Governance Ref: 1UNDP, User’s Guide to Measuring Local Governance, UNDP Oslo Governance Center, 2Abrahams L & Newton-Reid L., E-Governance for Social and local economic development, LINK Policy research paper, no. 9, Nov. 2008;
  6. 6. Our goal is to seek answers to the following questions: 1) What do we understand by Local Electronic Governance (Local EGOV)and how does traditional central level electronic governance (EGOV) differs from Local EGOV? 2) What are the core requirements that any effective Local EGOV strategies must seek to address? 3) What good practice examples of Local EGOV programs are available and how can local governments OBJECTIVES 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 6UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT 3) What good practice examples of Local EGOV programs are available and how can local governments learn from these examples? 4) What are the critical success factors for a Local EGOV program? 5) *How can local governments develop their own Local EGOV strategies ?
  7. 7. OUTLINE 1. Foundational Concepts 2. E-Governance Strategy Models 3. Local E-Governance Strategies 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 7UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT 3. Local E-Governance Strategies 4. Best Practices in Local E-Governance 5. Summary and conclusions
  8. 8. The goal of this section is explore the meaning of Local Electronic Governance and Local Electronic Governance Strategy, by defining and relating the following concepts: 1) Governance 2) Local Governance CONCEPTUALIZING LOCAL E-GOVERNANCE Governance E-Governance Local Governance 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 8UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT 2) Local Governance 3) Electronic Governance 4) Local Electronic Governance 5) Strategy 6) Electronic Governance Strategy 7) Local Electronic Governance strategy Local E-GovernanceStrategy E-Gov Strategy Local E-Gov Strategy
  9. 9. CONCEPT 1 - GOVERNANCE Governance is the means through which government – an institution of the state; acts to perform its functions, and interact with various actors in the society1. Its activities include2,3: representation and regulation of societal actors and delivery of public services and policy-making. Governance activities1: o determining shared objectives, o influencing motivations, Emerging Governance Paradigm2,3: o Redistribution of powers hitherto concentrated within government 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 9UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT o influencing motivations, o allocating responsibilities and resources, o monitoring compliance, o imposing penalties, o organizing negotiations, o setting standards, and o resolving conflicts and disputes concentrated within government o Enhanced mechanisms for government-wide coordination in policy and info exchange; o Stronger regulation due to participation of non-state actors in service and policy delivery; and o Allowing citizens to express their collective voice and pursue action. Ref: 1Kemp, Rene and Gibson, Robert. Governance for Sustainable development: moving from theory to practice. International Journal of Sustainable Development, 8, 1/2 (2005), 12-30. 2Coleman, Stephen. Foundations of Digital Government. In Chen, Hsinchun et al., eds., Digital Government: E-Government Research, Case and Implementation. Springer, 2008. 3Finger, Matthias. Conceptualizing e-Governance. European Review of Political technologies, 1 (March 2005), 1-7.
  10. 10. CONCEPT 2 - LOCAL GOVERNANCE - DEFINITION First, we link the concept of Local Governance to that of Local Government - an entity created by state with a set of administrative authorities over a territorial space1. Local Government: A legal entity of the state with devolved or de- concentrated powers or authorities granted by Local Governance Comprises of state and non-state institutions, mechanisms and processes, through which2: 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 10UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT concentrated powers or authorities granted by a higher level government. Nature of LGs vary with countries … o US - counties, cities, town, township, school districts, etc. o Malaysia - city council, municipal Council, Town Council, Town Board, Rural District Council, and Local Council mechanisms and processes, through which2: 1) Public goods and services are delivered to citizens and 2) Citizens can articulate their interest and needs, mediate their differences and exercise their rights and obligations at the local government level. Ref:1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Local_government, 2UNDP, A User’s Guide to Measuring Local Governance, UNDP Oslo Gov Center
  11. 11. Attributes of Good Local Governance include1: 1) Quality, effectiveness and efficiency of local administration and public service delivery 2) Quality of public policy and decision making procedures, their inclusiveness, their transparency and their accountability 3) Good exercise of power at the local level CONCEPT 2 - LOCAL GOVERNANCE – ATTRIBUTES International IDEA Democracy at Local Level Local Governance Barometer 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 11UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT o Representative democracy – Equality, Equity o Participatory democracy – openness, fairness, transparency, responsiveness, accountability o Effectiveness o Transparency and rule of law o Accountability o Participation and civic engagement o Equity Good Governance for Local Development UN-HABITAT Urban Governance Index o Representation o Participation o Accountability o Transparency o Effectiveness o Security o Equity o Effectiveness o Equity o Participation o Accountability Ref:1UNDP, A User’s Guide to Measuring Local Governance, UNDP Oslo Gov Center
  12. 12. CONCEPT 3 - ELECTRONIC GOVERNANCE E-Governance includes: o delivering public services over e-channels, o ICT-enabled participation Related definitions3: E-Government is the is the use of ICT particularly the internet as a tool to achieve Note: 1) E-Governance is a broader concept than Electronic Governance entails strategic use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) to enable, support and transform governance activities to achieve desired good governance objectives. 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 12UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT o ICT-enabled participation of social actors in decision and policy making through ICT, and o using ICT to regulate the activities of actors o generation and circulation of official information in digital forms to reduce information asymmetry internet as a tool to achieve better government. E-Government = ICT-enabled service delivery E-Governance = E-Government + E-Participation (or E- democracy) (and not interchangeable with) e-government. 2) Support for the principles of good public governance should be the desired outcome of e-governance initiatives. Ref:2Coleman, Stephen. Foundations of Digital Government, Digital Gov: E-Government Research, Case and Implementation. Springer, 2008. 3Finger, Matthias. Conceptualizing e-Governance. European Review of Political technologies, 1 (March 2005), 1-7., 3OECD
  13. 13. CONCEPT 4 – LOCAL ELECTRONIC GOVERNANCE The transformational use of ICT, including the internet to achieve local good governance objectives. Use and integration of ICT at local levels of government is expected to1: o Enhance social and economic development by empowering officials and community reps Observation: Local E-Governance is seen as an ICT4D initiative at a local level. Consequently, it’s effective 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 13UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT empowering officials and community reps o Ensuring linkages, networking and community cohesion o Providing timely, efficient, transparent and accountable services o Improving the management of the services and operations o Facilitating planning and policy making process o Monitoring physical and social changes implementation is expected to impact directly on social and local development2. Ref: 1 G. Misuraca, E-Governance in Africa from Theory to Action – A Handbook on ICTs for Local Governance, IDRC, 2007,2Abrahams L & Newton-Reid L., E-Governance for Social and local economic development, LINK Policy research paper, no. 9, Nov. 2008;
  14. 14. CONCEPT 5 - STRATEGY There are different schools of thought on the notion of a strategy. Its conceptualization largely determines its contents and how it will be developed and implemented. Leading perspectives on the concept of strategy1: 1) Means of establishing organizational purpose – in terms of long term goals and resource allocation Definition A strategy is a coherent and integrative pattern of decision that determines and reveals the organizational purpose in terms of long-term 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 14UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT 2) Definition of the competitive domain of an organization – what should be the business 3) Coherent unifying and integrative blueprint of an organization as a whole 4) Response to opportunities and threats, and internal strengths and weaknesses 5) Central vehicle for achieving competitive advantage – Porter’s positioning principles organizational purpose in terms of long-term objectives, action programs and resource allocation priorities. Ref: 1 Hax, Arnold C. and Majluf, S. Nicolas. Strategy and the Strategy Formation Process. Working Paper WP# 1810-86, Sloan School of Management, MIT, 1986, 2Mintzberg, Henry. The Rise and Fall of Strategic Planning. Prentice Hall Financial Times, Harlow Essex, 1994 Process Realized Strategy as product of Deliberate and Emergent Strategy2
  15. 15. CONCEPT 6 - ELECTRONIC GOVERNANCE STRATEGY An E-Governance strategy specifies the contextual meaning of e-governance for a government, the long- term objectives and the necessary supporting set of actions on how ICT could be used to enable and support the transformation of the government towards effective and good governance. Traditional strategic perspective to address: 1) Providing quality services to citizens and business and engage them in decision making 2) Significantly improving the efficiency of Reasons for an explicit e-Governance Strategy1: 1) Creating the right policy and institutional framework from the start 2) Maximizing the use of ICT within government 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 15UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT 2) Significantly improving the efficiency of internal operations supporting services 3) Optimizing the use of financial resources and sustain the program through a sound business model 4) Instituting continuous learning and improvement for the resulting program 5) Ensuring that resulting program contribute to the overall organizational mission 2) Maximizing the use of ICT within government 3) Managing the increasing costs of ICT in government 4) Mapping path from pilot experiments to sustainable, scalable systems 5) Pursuing real economic development goals and not just technology Ref: 1 Deepak Bhatia, ISG Group WB
  16. 16. CONCEPT 7 - LOCAL E-GOVERNANCE STRATEGY Local E-Governance strategy specifies what e-governance really means in the a specific local government context, the long-term objectives and a coherent set of actions on how ICT could be used to enable and support the achievement of local good, self and democratic governance. 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 16UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT In addition to addressing the five strategic areas identified for traditional e-governance strategies, a local e-governance strategy is to explicitly indicate how it will support social and economic development of the inhabitants and the territory as a whole.
  17. 17. OUTLINE 1. Foundational Concepts 2. E-Governance Strategy Models 3. Local E-Governance Strategies 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 17UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT 3. Local E-Governance Strategies 4. Best Practices in Local E-Governance 5. Summary and conclusions
  18. 18. Electronic government strategies, particularly at the national level are largely driven by models underpinning international benchmark and measurement studies. There are several international e-government-related benchmarking series: o UNDESA Global E-Government Survey o Waseda University World e-Government Ranking o Brown University Global E-Government Survey Economist Intelligence Unit’s Digital Economy Rankings (formerly E-Readiness Ranking) E-GOVERNANCE STRATEGY MODELS - 1 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 18UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT o Economist Intelligence Unit’s Digital Economy Rankings (formerly E-Readiness Ranking) o Accenture E-Government Leadership survey UNDESA’s Global EGOV survey is the most comprehensive survey, covering UN member states; it assesses: o Online presence and sophistication o ICT infrastructure, o Human capital availability o Level of participation of citizens and businesses in government decision making Benchmarking systems rely on one or more E-Governance development model
  19. 19. Known E-Governance development models include: 1) E-Governance Maturity Model 2) E-Governance Value Chain Model 3) Hybrid model of the above models The E-Governance Maturity model is the most popular and by far has been the most influential model to date. E-GOVERNANCE STRATEGY MODELS - 2 Maturity Model Value Chain 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 19UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT by far has been the most influential model to date. With increasing awareness of the limitation of the maturity model approach, the value chain model have been increasingly deployed since 2005. Hybrid Model E-GOV Development Models
  20. 20. MATURITY MODEL APPROACH – DEFINITION AND EXAMPLES An E-Governance maturity model prescribes staged growth or evolutionary path for the development of electronic governance. An implicit assumption is that higher stages are better than lower ones. Therefore, progress is measured in terms of the stage reached. UNDESA WB Gartner OECD Examples of maturity models1,2: 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 20UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT Emerging Publish Publish Inform Enhanced Interact Interact Interact Transaction Transact Transact Transact Connected Deliver Integrate Transform The Layne and Lee Model2 Ref: 1 Adegboyega Ojo, Elsa Estevez, Strategic Planning for Electronic Governance, UNU-IIST, 2008. 2K.V. Andersen, H.Z. Henriksen, E- Government maturity models: Extension of the Layne and Lee model, GIQ, 23 (2006), 236 - 248;
  21. 21. As popular and influential as the e-government maturity model has been, the following issues have been surfaced in term of its usage and its normative value. Specifically, there are has been argued that1: 1) The implicit assumption that later phases (say phase IV) is better than earlier phases (e.g. phases I, II, and III) is not necessary true. In addition, practice has revealed that the individual phases occur simultaneously and are part of different elements of e-government. MATURITY MODEL APPROACH - OBSERVATIONS 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 21UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT simultaneously and are part of different elements of e-government. 2) The triggers for moving to one stage rather than another stage are more rewarding to focus on rather than observing whether or not government is at stage I or IV. 3) Consequently, the stages in the maturity model should be taken as possible concurrent rather than strictly as a continuum in the development process. Therefore, e-governance strategies need not necessary move from one stage to another or implicitly assume that “the more sophisticated is better”. Ref: 1K.V. Andersen, H.Z. Henriksen, E-Government maturity models: Extension of the Layne and Lee model, GIQ, 23 (2006), 236 - 248;
  22. 22. The value chain model focuses on how to effectively e-government turns input into outcomes1. IN this model, there is an implicit shift of emphasis and attention over time, from readiness to availability to uptake and finally impact. VALUE CHAIN DRIVEN STRATEGY 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 22UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT Ref: 1 Richard Heeks, Understanding and Measuring E-Government: International Benchmarking studies, Development informatics Group, IDPM, University of Manchester, 2006 Heels E-Government Value Chain1
  23. 23. A variant of the Heek’s EGOV value chain model is being developed at UNU and applied to an ongoing National Level E-Governance Strategy Initiative (EGOV.CM Project) in Cameroon. The model prescribes that a typical e-governance strategy comprises a prudent mix of the different strategy elements on producing concrete outputs, increasing adoption and usage, ensuring outcome and creating impact. VALUE CHAIN DRIVEN APPROACH – UNU’S EGOV.CM PROJECT WITH GOVT OF CAMEROON 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 23UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT EGOV.CM Strategy Model 1 Ref: 1 Adegboyega Ojo, et al., Conceptual Framework for EGOV.CM Strategy, April, 2010
  24. 24. The value chain approach explicitly emphasis value generation from e-governance program. This therefore addresses an increasing concern on concrete impacts produced from EGOV programs. Unlike in the maturity models where stages could be concurrently pursued, the value chain phases require some minimal capability in the earlier phases. Given concrete good and democratic governance goals as well as the socio-economic objectives of Local EGOV programs, value chain approach offers a good framework for linking actions to these goals. VALUE CHAIN DRIVEN APPROACH - OBSERVATIONS 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 24UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT EGOV programs, value chain approach offers a good framework for linking actions to these goals. Selecting the appropriate mix of strategies across phases. However, the concrete normative qualities of the maturity model is missing. A logical approach is to combine the concrete staged model prescribed by the EGOV maturity model and the strong impact orientation of the value driven approach.
  25. 25. A hybrid model combines the value chain and the maturity model, with the value chain as the overall framework (providing the bug picture) and the maturity model as lower level model for the output phase. See Figure below. HYBRID MODEL – INTEGRATING MATURITY AND VALUE CHAIN MODELS 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 25UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT
  26. 26. EXAMPLES OF EGOVERNANCE STRATEGIES – NATIONAL Hong Kong 2004 2008 o Customized Service – CRM o Back-office integration o Service optimization o Performance measurement o Citizen engagement o Smart-city applications – Intelligent Public Transport Information Optimization o Sector application – Electronic Health Record Japan 2001 2003 o Internal management o Eservices for business o E-Information o Infrastructure o Regulation o E-Information o Standards and interoperability o Local Governance o Improved management – outsourcing o Participation o Administrative reform and business processes o One-stop service o Digital archiving Singapore 2015 o E-engagement 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 26UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT o Digital archiving Malta 2006 2010 o Government information Sharing o Digitize all government services o Citizen-centric services o Interoperabiliy o Business process renginering o Customer relationship managementt o Partnership o E-participation and web 2.0 o National ID o E-Procurement o Integrated HIS o Uptake of e-services o E-engagement o E-Government for competitive advantage o Increasing reach and readiness o Shared data, processes and systems Korea 2006 o Customized services – CRM o Informatization of Legal system, Foreign relations o Disaster management o Internal management optimization o Security of government information o Participation and information o M-Government infrastructure o One-stop services o Smart city apps – transport o Aligning EGOV and Public Reform o National knowledge infrastructure o Information for Environment
  27. 27. OUTLINE 1. Foundational Concepts 2. E-Governance Strategy Models 3. Local E-Governance Strategies 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 27UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT 3. Local E-Governance Strategies 4. Best Practices in Local E-Governance 5. Summary and conclusions
  28. 28. We now consider concrete examples of local e-governance strategies: 1) National strategy for local e-government, Local Government Association, UK, 20021 2) Strategic plan for E-Local Government, New Zealand, 20032 Basis for Selection: Providing national level Local EGOV strategies that could be elaborated and implemented at specific LOCAL E-GOVERNANCE STRATEGIES 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 28UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT Providing national level Local EGOV strategies that could be elaborated and implemented at specific local government context. Each case provides the following: o Conceptualization of Local E-Government o Overall vision of the program o Major goals and objectives o Key performance areas Ref: 1 Office of Deputy PM, The National Strategy for Local E-Government, 2002, 2 NZ Society of LG, Strategic Plan for E-Local Government, Local Government Association, April 2003;
  29. 29. LOCAL E-GOVERNANCE STRATEGIES - CASE 1, UK - 1 What is Local EGOV? It is about modernizing local government through improving quality of service and local Vision and Goals 1) Transformation of services 2) Renewing local democracy Example of Key areas Nine priority service areas: 1) Services to business Local EGOV was part of the modernization agenda of the UK Government. It provides a national framework to support the twin objective of strong local leadership and quality public services1. 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 29UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT quality of service and local democracy: o Community planning to develop overall vision o Cost effective services that meets needs of customer o Comprehensive performance assessment o Efficient decisions and accountability 2) Renewing local democracy 3) Promoting local economic vitality 1) Services to business 2) Benefits and personal taxation 3) Transportation and travel 4) Education 5) Health 6) Citizens’ interaction with criminal justice 7) Land and property services 8) Agriculture services 9) E-Democracy Ref: 1 Office of Deputy PM, The National Strategy for Local E-Government, 2002
  30. 30. LOCAL E-GOVERNANCE STRATEGIES - CASE 1, UK - 2 The e-organization model enables local councils to determine their current position and build their future strategy1. 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 30UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT E-Organization Capabilities 1 Ref: 1 Office of Deputy PM, The National Strategy for Local E-Government, 2002
  31. 31. LOCAL E-GOVERNANCE STRATEGIES - CASE 1, NZ - 1 What is Local EGOV? Providing interactive online access to local government information and services and to build Vision and Mission Vision: For NZ to be a world leader in e-local government. Key Result Areas o Access o Innovation The e-Local Government strategy is to provide a framework which will allow local governments to collectively decide a strategic direction, the results sought and how to achieve the results. 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 31UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT and services and to build relationships to benefit all our people. Mission: o Access – easy access to inline information and services o Innovation – deliver innovative products and services to people o Participation – to ensure that peoples participation is higher than current o Leadership- effective local government leadership o Innovation o Participation o Online voting o Leadership o Management and funding
  32. 32. LOCAL E-GOVERNANCE STRATEGIES - CASE 1, NZ - 2 •Online interaction •Online voting •Core Information •Core Services •Consistency •IT facilitation Access Participation 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 32UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT •Education of business •Delivery of business services •Local and regional portal •Best Practice •Training and research awards LeadershipInnovation Ref: 1 NZ Society of LG, Strategic Plan for E-Local Government, Local Government Association, April 2003;
  33. 33. OUTLINE 1. Foundational Concepts 2. E-Governance Strategy Models 3. Local E-Governance Strategies 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 33UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT 3. Local E-Governance Strategies 4. Best Practices in Local E-Governance 5. Summary and conclusions
  34. 34. Three surveys on local e-government will be presented to identify sources of best practices: Local e-Government Now: a worldwide view, 2002, Socitm and I&DeA Digital Governance in Municipalities Worldwide , 2009, Rutgers-SKKU Local e-Government Bench-Learning Survey, 2009, Eurocities For each survey, we describe: BEST PRACTICES IN LOCAL E-GOVERNANCE 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 34UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT o The purpose o Scope o How it measures o Highlight of results o Cities providing good practice examples
  35. 35. BEST PRACTICE SURVEY 1 – SOCITM & I&DEA, 2002 Purpose To inform local policy maker on: o What has been achieved What was being done to Scope 1) 14 countries 2) Local e-governance Approach Selected cases in countries were analyzed using the change management framework below1. The survey was designed to address the gap in international e-governance studies which focuses on national e-government policy1. 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 35UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT o What was being done to transform local government and its interactions with citizens and customers in different country settings o Emerging local government best practices o Key building blocks o Ways of addressing the cultural, structural , process and technology changes to be 2) Local e-governance programs were classified into three: o E-services o E-governance o E-Knowledge management framework below1. Ref: 1 Socitm and I&DEA, Local e-Government now: a worldwide view, June 2002
  36. 36. SURVEY 1 – SOCITM AND I&DEA, 2002 - FINDINGS Involving every one in visioning Patterns of actions by local authorities 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 36UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT Focusing on what matters to citizens Collaborating and redesigning for better outcomes Searching for innovation Ref: 1 Socitm and I&DEA, Local e-Government now: a worldwide view, June 2002
  37. 37. BEST PRACTICE SURVEY 2 – RUTGERS, 2009 Purpose Global benchmark of the big cities in terms of information Scope 100 cities selected as follows: Approach Analyzes websites of municipalities for: The report series commenced in 2003 and surveys 100 cities from different parts of the world1. 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 37UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT cities in terms of information and services provided online and how these services are used. Africa – 16 Asia – 27 Europe - 36 North America – 10 South America – 9 Oceania - 2 municipalities for: o Security o Usability o Contents o Online services offered o Citizens response to participation Ref: 1 Rutgers, Digital Governance in Municipalities Worldwide, 2009
  38. 38. SURVEY 2 – RUTGERS, 2009 - RESULTS 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 38UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT
  39. 39. BEST PRACTICE SURVEY 3 – EUROCITIES, 2009 Purpose The is a benchmarking exercise based on Scope 15 cities in Europe were involved in the survey. Approach Assessment was based on a set of 81 services, grouped as The report intended to address the need of having information on the progress of local e-government initiatives across Europe1. 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 39UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT exercise based on measurement framework developed specifically for cities. To enable sharing of experience – a major driver to accelerate EGOV in Europe and in its EGOV action plan. involved in the survey. set of 81 services, grouped as follows 9 categories: Citizen engagement, Channeling, Education, Employment and business, Environment, lifecycle and social care. Ref: 1 Eurocities, Local e-Government Bench-learning Survey, Eurocities working group, 2009
  40. 40. SURVEY 2 – EUROCITIES, 2009 – BEST PRACTICES A service is selected as a best practice if: o The relative maturity is significantly higher than the European average (rho) o If the level of perceived adoption is at least 3. The highest is 5. 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 40UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT
  41. 41. OUTLINE 1. Foundational Concepts 2. E-Governance Strategy Models 3. Local E-Governance Strategies 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 41UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT 3. Local E-Governance Strategies 4. Best Practices in Local E-Governance 5. Summary and conclusions
  42. 42. The last part of the lecture will present success factors for local e-governance programs. Two comprehensive sets of recommendations are presented in this section for discussion: 1) Cook et al, Making a case for Local E-Government, CTG, 2002 2) Bermudez et al, European Study of E-Government City Models, 2007 SUCCESS FACTORS FOR LOCAL E-GOVERNANCE 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 42UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT
  43. 43. RECOMMENDATIONS - 1 The following critical success factors are crucial when planning, developing, and implementing new information technology initiatives in government1. Critical success factors 1) Rally leadership 2) Learn from other local governments Advice from Local E-Government Pioneers 1) Get buy in from people that can stop you 2) Deal with the cyclical life of local 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 43UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT 2) Learn from other local governments 3) Get the right people at the table 4) Develop successful vendor relationship 5) Acknowledge political differences 6) Share information constantly and consistently 7) Create innovative partnerships 8) Balance the right to privacy and the right to know 2) Deal with the cyclical life of local government 3) Prepare to overcome pr wait out resistance 4) Prepare for ongoing education and training 5) Sometimes you just have to do it Ref: 1 Cook et al, Making a case for Local E-Government, CTG, 2002
  44. 44. Ten key success factors (individually necessary and sufficient as a whole) were identified in the European study to attain local EGOV goals1: 1) The focus of the services should be towards the citizen, choosing that will make their life easier, and generate high impact and demand 2) Achieving a sustained political support 3) Assuring that the program is sustainable, in terms of effectiveness and efficiency 4) Having an explicit strategy RECOMMENDATIONS - 2 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 44UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT 4) Having an explicit strategy 5) Having a dedicated unit for the coordination and leadership of the program 6) Constructing a common architecture of information 7) Assuring the participation of the different interested parties through change management 8) Searching the massive social adoption through sound marketing and communication 9) Displaying the projects and the operations in a very professional way, from both a technical and managerial point of view 10) Establishing agreements and cooperation with other administrations and with the private sector Ref: 1 Bermudez et al, European Study of E-Government City Models, 2007
  45. 45. 1) Local EGOV is about transformational use of ICT for better local, self and democratic governance. It is expected to have socio-economic development impact on inhabitants and businesses. It must seen as an essential element of a national level EGOV program. 2) The emphasis on impact or outcome for Local EGOV requires much more than online delivery of information and service; characteristic of the “maturity model” based EGOV paradigms. An explicit and holistic Local EGOV strategy is essential. CONCLUSIONS 1-3 DECEMBER 2010, SEOUL, REPUBLIC OF KOREA- 45UNPOG - CAPACITY DEVELOPMENT PROGRAM ON LOCAL E-GOVERNMENT 3) While significantly less attention has been given to Local EGOV, we are beginning to see serious efforts at developing national and regional frameworks, as well as knowledge sharing platforms to accelerate the Local EGOV development in different parts of the world. 4) Concrete guidelines and factors are increasingly available to guide practitioners towards successful development and implementation of Local EGOV initiatives. However, well documented case studies remain essential in developing more accurate and robust framework for Local EGOV.
  46. 46. Thank you for your attention. Adegboyega Ojo ao@iist.unu.edu

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