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• Perfume takes its name from the
Latin word “perfumare” which
means to fill with smoke.
• The finest modern perfumes are
neither wholly synthetic nor
• The constituents of the perfume
are: Vehicle or solvent, fixative and
the odoriferous elements.
VEHICLE OR SOLVENT
• Helps to project the scent it carries
with its volatile nature, is fairly
inert to the solute and is not too
irritating to the human skin.
• The modern solvent for blending
and holding perfume materials is
highly refined ethyl alcohol mixed
with more or less water. The slight
natural odor of alcohol is removed
by “ deodorizing or prefixation”.
• a natural or synthetic substance
of lower volatility which is used to
reduce the evaporation rate of the
• Types of fixatives:
1. Animal fixative
2. Resinous fixative
3. Essential-Oil fixative
4. Synthetic fixative
• Is the soft, fatty secretion of the perineal
glands of civet cat.
• Is disagreable in odor due to skatole, on
dilution and aging, the skatole disapears
and the sweet and floral odor of
civetone, a cyclic ketone appears.
• A brownish orange exudate of the perineal
glands of the beaver.
• The odoriferous component s of the volatile oil
of castor are benzyl alcohol, acetophenone, and
castorin (a volatile resinous component
of unknown structure).
• Dried secretion of the preputial glands of
the male musk deer. The odor is due to the
cyclic ketone called “muskone”.
• The most useful of the animal fixative,
imparts body and smoothness to a perfume
• Is the least used, but probably best known of
the animal fixative. It is a secretion
developed by a sperm whale.
• It is composed of 80-85% ambrein, 12-15%
ambergris oil which is the active
• It is employed as a
tincture,which must be matured
before it is used. The odor of the
tincture is decidedly musty and has
great fixative powers.
• Is the newest animal fixative, derived from
the glands of the Louisiana Muskrat.
• About 90% of unsaponified material in
muskrat glands consist of large, odorless
cyclic alcohols which are converted to
ketones, inceasing the characteristic musk
odor nearly 50 times.
• Are normal or pathological exudates
from certain plants.
Hard resins, e.g, benzoin and gums.
- benzoin is the most important of all
the harder plant resin.
Softer resins, e.g, myrrh and
- labdanum is the most important in the
soft gums. An extract from this gum
has an odor suggestive of ambergris
and is marked ambrein.
Oleoresin oily material
Extracts from resin
• All these substances, when being
prepared for perfume compunding,
are dissolved and aged by methods.
If solution is brought about in the
cold, the mixture is called a
“tincture”. If heat is required to give
solution, the mixture is an
• Are used for their fixative properties
as well as their odor. The more
important of these are clary sage,
vetiver, patchouli, orris and
• Certain high boiling,
comparatively odorless esters
are used as fixatives to replace
some imported animal fixative.
Among them are glyceryl
• Most odorous substances used in
perfumery come under three
1. Essential Oils
3. Synthetic or Semisynthetic
• May be defined as as volatile,
odoriferous oils of plants.
• “Essential” does not mean “most
necessary”, An oil is "essential" in
the sense that it carries a distinctive
scent, or essence, of the plant.
• Essential oils are found in buds,
flowers, leaves, bark, stems, fruits,
seeds, woods, roots and rhizomes.
• Can yield an oil almost identical to
the hand-pressed product, and the
method used commercially. Of the
hand-pressed processes, the
sponge process is the most
important, since it produces the
highest quality oil.
• Peel trimmed and soaked in water
for several hours. Each peel is
pressed against a sponge and the
oil is ejected into the sponge,
which is periodically squeezed dry.
• Is a cold-fat extraction process
used on a few type of delicate
flowers like jasmine, tuberose, and
violet which yield no oil at all on
• This method is no longer used
The solvent must:
1. Be selective
2. Have a low boiling point
3. Be chemically inert to the oil
4. Evaporate completely without
leaving any odorous residue
5. Be low priced and non-flammable
• Are pure chemical compounds
whose source is an essential oil or
other natural perfume material.
Notable examples are eugenol from
clove oil, pinene from turpentine,
and anethole from anise oil.
SYNTHETICS AND SEMISYNTHETICS
• Coumarin- it is employed as
fixative and enhancing agent for
essential oils and tobacco
products. Perkin Reaction:
CHO CH=CHCOONA CH
OH OH O
• Diphenyl oxide or ether – is largely used
in the soap and perfume industries
because of its great stability and strong
• Ionone and its homologs possess the so
– called violet odor, thus constituting
the base of violet perfumes.
• Cinnamic Aldehyde has a cinnamon
odor. Although this aldehyde is
obtained from Chinese cassia oils, it
is sythesized by action of alkali upon
mixture of benzaldehyde and
• Benzyl Benzoate has a faint aromatic
odor, is a fixative and a flavoring
material. It occurs naturally in
balsams but is prepared
commercially by esterification
process of benzoic acid with benzyl
• Benzyl Acetate is another widely usesd
ester because of its low cost and floral
It is prepared by esterification of benzyl
alcohol, by heating with either an excess
of acetic anhydride or acetic acid with
• Phenylethyl alcohol has a rose like
odor and occurs in the volatile oil of
rose, orange flowers, and others.
C6H5Br C6H5MgBr C6H5.CH2CH2OMgBr
• Artificial Musks derives its odor
from macrocyclic compounds. A
practical and economical substitute
for the expensive natural fixative.
• Vanillin is one of the most widely
used flavors. It is used as a flavor in
perfumery and deodorizing
1. From eugenol from cloves, through
isoeugenol, followed by oxidation
to vanillin using nitrobenzene as
the oxidizing agent.
2.From lignin through an alkaline
pressure cook. The vanillin is
purified through the sodium
bisulfite compound and extraction
with benzene or isopropanol. Most
of the vanillin in the market is made
3.From phenol through guaiacol,
following the usual synthetic
• Heliotropin or piperonal – is an extract
of sassafras that has been used for
decades in the manufacture of
perfumes and soaps.
- Heliotropin is a derivative of safrole,
Although safroles are known to display
antibacterial and antiviral activity, their
use in foods has been banned because
they are carcinogenic and hepatoxic
(toxic to the liver).
• Anisaldehyde – is a colorless oily
liquid, whose odor is the same with
coumarin. It is made by the
oxidation of anethole.
CH = CHCH3 CHO
• Benzaldehyde – is used as a flavoring
agent, as an ingredient in
pharmaceuticals and as an
intermediate in chemical syntheses.
Air , catalyst
C6H5CH3 C6H5CHO + H2O
C6H5CH3 C6H5CHO + H2O
• Saccharin USP – is approximately
500 times sweeter than sugar. It has
been widely used by diabetics and
in diet drinks and foods. However,
In 1972, the FDA required that all
food and beverages containing a
saccharin have a warning label.
• Aspartame – is 200 times sweeter
than sugar. A combination of
saccharin and aspartame is sweeter
than either compound alone and
aspartame has no objectionable
aftertaste as saccharin does. Is not
very stable to heat and liquids.
• Terpineols – are among the cheapest
synthetics and are widely used in
soap because of their woodsy and
and floral odors. Is made from
turpintine oil. Pine is an imporatant
• Menthol – has long been extracted as
the levo from oil of Japanese
Peppermint and used in cigarettes
and many other products as an
antiseptic cooling flavor.
Hydrogenation from β-pinene yields
l-menthol after fractional distillation
• Acetals of aldehydes – have an odor
only slightly modified from that of
aldehydes but have great alkali
resistance. Hence, these acetals are
used in soap.
A single fragrance may contain 50
to 100 different compounds and
subcompounds. In fact, as many
as 300 ingredients may be used.
The foundation odors are from
eugenols, methyl ionone, and
• The majority of domestic perfume houses do
not manufacture their own scents; they
usually import natural floral oils and have
have their synthetics custom- made by
• High quality from batch to batch is ensured by
standard tests, such as specific gravity, optical
rotation , refractive index, acid
• The best flavoring essences are
natural products altered and
reinforced by synthetics.
• In addition to alcohol as a
vehicle, glycerin and isopropyl alcohol
• The same fixatives are
used, especially vanillin and
coumarin, animal types are used
Natural Fruit Concentrates
• Distillation and Extraction of the fruit
extraction with petroleum ether
Removal of ether
• Extraction of the juice
- In this system the expressed and
filtered juice is extracted directly
• Concentration of the Juice
- the expressed and filtered juice is
concentrated in vacuum evaporators
with a low degree of heat until the
water is largely driven off and the sugar
concentration is high enough to inhibit
• An alternative method is freezing.
This is the optimum method of
producing concentrates since there
is a little injury from heat.
- preparation of vanilla extract: one
hundred pounds of a blend of
Mexican and Bourbon beans are
finely cut up and macerated cold
with three successive portions of
35% alcohol of 45 kg each. These
extracts are combined to make a fine
• Chocolate and Cocoa
- From cacao bean.
Splitting Fermentation Drying
Dehusking Cracking Cooling Heating
Degerminating Cacao Nibs
To work up the cacao into chocolate:
sugar Mixing Concher Chocolate
• Monosodium Glutamate
- Is an important flavoring agent, yet has
no flavor of its own. It accentuates the
hidden flavors of food in which it is
• When Steffens beet-sugar wastes are
used, the steps are:
1. Concentration and collection of
2. Hydrolysis, usually with Caustic
3. Neutralization and acidification of
4. Partial removal of the inorganic
5. Crystallization , separation and
purification of the Glutamic Acid.
The present production of MSG is
largely from fermentation
• Are those chemicals combined with
foods by the manufacturer to effect
certain modifications involving
preservation, color, flavor
enhancement, and stabilization.
1. Intentional additives – are substances
added in carefully controlled amounts
to preserve the quality of foods,
improve its nutritive value, or add
2. Incidental Additives – are those that,
although having no function in
finished food become part of it
through some phase of production,
processing, storage, or packaging.
• Natural Accessory Chemicals
Potatoes contain so much solanine (a
deadly poison) that if the amount
consumed by the average person in a
year was concentrated into a single dose,
it would be sufficient to kill a horse.
Natural foods are not necessarily better or
safer than properly prepared food
containing carefully tasted and controlled