5072458

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5072458

  1. 1. TEORI & MODEL KEPIMPINAN
  2. 2. Definition <ul><li>Leadership is a complex process having multiple dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Defined in terms of group processing, personality, behavior and power. </li></ul><ul><li>An instrument of goal achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>A process in which an individual influences other individuals to achieve one or more goals. </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship of leader and followers. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Characteristics <ul><li>Innate or inborn traits vs. learned behaviors. </li></ul><ul><li>Assigned vs. emergent position of leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Position power vs. personal power </li></ul><ul><li>Coercion with threats vs. positive motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership vs. management. </li></ul>
  4. 4. 5 SOURCES OF POWER <ul><li>REWARD </li></ul><ul><li>COERCIVE </li></ul><ul><li>LEGITIMATE </li></ul><ul><li>REFERENT </li></ul><ul><li>EXPERT </li></ul>
  5. 5. LEADERSHIP VS. MANAGEMENT <ul><li>LEADERSHIP’S PRIMARY FUNCTION IS TO PRODUCE CHANGE/MOVEMENT </li></ul><ul><li>MANAGEMENT’S PRIMARY FUNCTION IS TO PRODUCE ORDER AND STABILITY </li></ul>
  6. 6. Parting Thought…………. <ul><li>“ Managers are people who do things right and leaders are people who do the right thing.” </li></ul><ul><li>~ Warren Bennis and Burt Nanus </li></ul>
  7. 7. Trait Theory
  8. 8. OBJECTIVE <ul><li>To identify personality characteristics that can be used to define a leader. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Description <ul><li>Early 1900s, leadership traits were studied to determine what made certain people great leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Great man’ theories </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on innate qualities and characteristics held by great men and women (e.g. Abraham Lincoln & Mahatma Gandhi). </li></ul><ul><li>Believed that people were born with traits & only great people have them. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Mid-1900s, trait approach was challenged. </li></ul><ul><li>The traits of one leader may not be those of other leaders. </li></ul><ul><li>Traits such as intelligence, self-confidence, determination, integrity and sociability. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership was reconceptualized as a relationship between people in a social situation </li></ul><ul><li>Personal factors continued to be important but they are to be considered as relative to the requirements of the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Traits most valued in one situation may not be valued in other situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Currently, it has shifted back to reemphasize the critical role of traits in effective leadership. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Application <ul><li>Focused exclusively on the leader & not on the followers /the situation – more straight forward that other approaches. </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on leaders & their traits – what traits & who has them? </li></ul><ul><li>Having a person with a specific set of traits is crucial to effective leadership. </li></ul><ul><li>Suggests that organizations work better if managers have designated leadership profiles (e.g. personality assessment instruments). </li></ul><ul><li>A trait profile is used to determine if a person fits a certain job. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Application… <ul><li>Also used for personal awareness & development – managers can determine own strength and weaknesses. </li></ul><ul><li>People with gifts that can do extraordinary things. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be open to a subjective selection of personality characteristics </li></ul>
  13. 13. Strengths <ul><li>Appealing </li></ul><ul><li>Century of research as backing </li></ul><ul><li>Highlights the leader in the leadership process </li></ul><ul><li>Provides benchmarks of what to look for in leaders </li></ul>
  14. 14. Criticisms <ul><li>No definitive list of traits </li></ul><ul><li>Fails to take situations into account </li></ul><ul><li>Highly subjective list of “important” leadership traits </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to look at traits in relationship to leadership outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Not a useful approach for training & development </li></ul>
  15. 15. Usefulness <ul><li>Still provides valuable information about leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used by individuals at all levels & in all types of organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Does provide direction regarding which traits are good to have if one aspires to take a leadership position. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals can gain insight into whether or not they have important select traits </li></ul>
  16. 16. Style Approach
  17. 17. OBJECTIVE <ul><li>To integrate the two major behavioral aspects of the leader, task and relationship, in order to influence subordinates to reach a predefined goal. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Definition <ul><li>Focus is on the behavior of the individual in terms of what leaders do and how they act. </li></ul><ul><li>Includes the actions of leaders toward subordinates in various contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration on 2 general kinds of behaviors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the integration of task (initiating) and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relationship (consideration) behavior to influence others to reach their goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maximize the impact on the satisfaction and performance of followers. </li></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Task behaviors – help group members to achieve objectives </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship behaviors – help subordinates feel comfortable with themselves & others </li></ul><ul><li>The main purpose of the style approach – explains how leaders combine these 2 kinds of behaviors to influence subordinates to reach the goal. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Research Studies <ul><li>The Ohio State Studies: </li></ul><ul><li>Task and relationship separate </li></ul><ul><li>LBDQ-XII developed by Stodgill </li></ul><ul><li>most widely used </li></ul><ul><li>Task : organizing, defining responsibilities, scheduling </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship : respect, trust, camaraderie </li></ul>
  21. 21. Research Studies <ul><li>Michigan State Studies : employee orientation/ production orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Initially viewed as on continuum, then separate, looking for universal theory </li></ul><ul><li>Employee Orientation : human relations </li></ul><ul><li>Production Orientation :technical aspects </li></ul><ul><li>Studies inconclusive </li></ul>
  22. 22. Managerial (Leadership) Grid <ul><li>Concern for production/concern for people </li></ul><ul><li>Joins the two on a grid creating 5 styles </li></ul><ul><li>Authority-Compliance (9,1): controlling, demanding, hard driving </li></ul><ul><li>Country Club Management(1,9): </li></ul><ul><li>agreeable, eager to help, comforting </li></ul>
  23. 23. Blake and Mouton Styles <ul><li>Impoverished Management (1,1): </li></ul><ul><li>resigned, apathetic, indifferent </li></ul><ul><li>Middle-of-the-Road Management (5,5) </li></ul><ul><li>expedient, soft-pedals disagreement </li></ul><ul><li>Team Management (9,9): </li></ul><ul><li>open-minded, determined, likes participation, follows through </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Blake and Mouton Grid </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>9 1, 9 9,9 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>8 Country Club Team </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P 7 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E 6 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>O 5 5, 5 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>P 4 Middle </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>L 3 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>E 2 Impoverished Authority-Compliance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 1,1 9,1 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>R E S U L T S </li></ul></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Blake/Mouton Added…. <ul><li>Paternalism/Maternalism : “benevolent dictator” uses 1,9 and 9,1 </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunism : combination of 5 styles for purpose of personal advancement </li></ul>
  26. 26. Strengths <ul><li>Marked major shift in research </li></ul><ul><li>Studies validate basic ideas </li></ul><ul><li>Increased understanding of task/relationship as core to leadership process </li></ul><ul><li>Hueristic, provides a broad conceptual map to understand complexities of leadership </li></ul>
  27. 27. Criticisms <ul><li>Does not adequately show how leader style affects outcomes </li></ul><ul><li>Failed to find universal style effective in almost every situation </li></ul><ul><li>Implies that most effective style is high-high, research does not support this conclusion </li></ul>
  28. 28. Application <ul><li>Suggests that leaders should modify their behavioral style in order to increase their effectiveness. </li></ul><ul><li>People sometimes use different styles just to get what they want at that point in time. </li></ul><ul><li>Trade-off between task and relationship is not the same for all situations. </li></ul><ul><li>Employee satisfaction is not always the best measurement of leadership. </li></ul>

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