Leadership is an influence process; therefore, leaders are people who, by their actions, encourage a group of people to move toward a common or shared goal. A leader is an individual; leadership is the function that the individual performs. Individuals within an organization who have authority are often referred to as leaders, regardless of how they act in their jobs. But, just because someone is supposed to be a formal leader in an organization, he or she may or may not exercise leadership. In fact, informal or emergent leaders can exhibit leadership even though they do not hold formal leadership positions. Harvard’s John Kotter compares management and leadership. Management, he says, is about dealing with complexity: drawing formal plans, designing organizational structures, and monitoring outcomes. Leadership, in contrast, is about coping with change. Leaders establish direction by developing a vision; then they communicate this vision to people and inspire them to overcome obstacles. Robert House of the Wharton School of Business concurs and says that mangers use formal authority to obtain compliance from organizational members. Management consists of implementing the vision and strategy provided by leaders, coordinating and staffing the organization, and handling day-to-day problems. While both management and leadership promote organizational effectiveness, most companies are over-managed and under-led.
Tannenbaum and Schmidt attempted to answer that question by developing a continuum of leader behaviors. According to their research, leadership behaviors range all the way from boss-centered (autocratic) to employee-centered (democratic) to Laissez-faire. Appropriate leadership behavior depends on several variables: 1. Forces within the leader, such as comfort level with the chosen leadership style) 2. Forces within the employees (such as readiness to assume responsibility) 3. Forces within the situation (such as time pressures). Tannenbaum and Schmidt proposed that managers should move toward more employee-centered styles in the long run because of the positive influence such behavior would have of the following: the motivation, decision quality, teamwork, morale, and development of employees.
The most comprehensive of the behavioral theories resulted from research that began at Ohio State in 1940. These researchers sought to identify independent dimensions of leader behavior and discovered that two categories (initiating structure and consideration) accounted for most of the behavior of leaders. Initiating structure includes behavior that attempts to organize work, goals, and work relationships. The leader who is high in initiating structure could be described in terms such as “assigns group members to particular tasks,” or “emphasizes the meeting of deadlines.” Consideration includes concern for the comfort, status, satisfaction, and well-being of subordinates. A leader who is high in consideration helps subordinates with personal problems, is friendly and approachable, and treats all subordinates as equals.
The path-goal proposes two classes of situational variables: Environmental factors that are outside a subordinate’s control and those that are part of a subordinate’s personality. Environmental factors determine the type of leader behavior required to maximize subordinate outcomes; personal characteristics of the subordinate determine how the environment and leader behavior are interpreted. According to the path-goal model, an employee’s performance and satisfaction will improve if the leader compensates for elements that are lacking in either the environment or the employee. However, an employee may resent a leader explaining tasks that are already clear.
Tatap Muka Dasar Bisnis & Manajemen 25 Arissetyanto Nugroho Hartri PutrantoKEPEMIMPINAN Fakultas Ekonomi