Leadership Theory An Historical Context1


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Leadership Theory An Historical Context1

  1. 1. LEADERSHIP THEORY: An Historical Perspective by Judy Barth 4/2007 Based in part on “Leadership From the Ground Up” by Deborah J. Young
  2. 2. Leadership: a process to influence or change the behavior of others in order to accomplish organizational, individual, or personal goals. <ul><li>Goals for today: </li></ul><ul><li>Can you learn to be a leader? </li></ul><ul><li>Review theories and approaches </li></ul><ul><li>Define leadership vs. management </li></ul>
  3. 3. ACTIVITY <ul><li>What’s your opinion? </li></ul>
  4. 4. Can you teach leadership? <ul><li>While leadership cannot be taught, it can and must be learned (Cronin and Wren, 1995). </li></ul><ul><li>Learning leadership requires more than formal instruction or teaching. </li></ul><ul><li>But, managerial skills must be learned before you can be an effective leader. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Environment or genetics? <ul><li>Some people are born leaders. But there aren't enough of them to go around. </li></ul><ul><li>We need to find individuals with innate intelligence, an eagerness to learn, and a desire to work with others, and give them the tools and encouragement they need to become effective leaders. </li></ul>
  6. 6. The ideal leadership training: <ul><li>Includes experiences that help you describe your current strengths and level of effectiveness, as well as areas that need improvement (assessment). </li></ul>
  7. 7. The ideal leadership training: <ul><li>Includes different experiences that teach different things at different points in one’s life. To expand your repertoire of leadership skills, seek new types of experiences. </li></ul>
  8. 8. The ideal leadership training <ul><li>Provides opportunities to improve your ability to learn. </li></ul>
  9. 9. The ideal leadership training <ul><li>Provides support and gives individuals a chance to shine at what they are good at doing. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The ideal leadership training <ul><li>Your gender, race and nationality are important contextual factors that shape your developmental experiences. </li></ul><ul><li>From Center for Creative Leadership </li></ul>
  11. 11. Hard-wired leadership <ul><li>“ Everyone, regardless of organizational status, has the capacity--the mental wiring--to lead effectively.” </li></ul><ul><li>From R. Pearman, 1998 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Who do you see as a leader? <ul><li>Leadership is &quot;a process of giving purpose to collective effort and causing willing effort to be expended to achieve that purpose“. From Elliott Jacques, 1978. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Who do you consider a leader?
  14. 14. ACTIVITY <ul><li>Think of someone you consider to be a leader. Why do you consider them to be a leader? What do they do, how do they act, what is it about them that makes them a leader in your mind? </li></ul><ul><li>Share with the person next to you. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Leadership – Theories <ul><li>Leaders have existed since the beginning of mankind. </li></ul><ul><li>The study of leadership began in the late’40s and early ’50s. </li></ul>
  16. 16. “ Great person” theory describes people who . . . <ul><li>have reshaped the world, led great political or moral crusades, or transformed companies. </li></ul><ul><li>teach us important lessons -- about courage, high ideals and determination. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Charismatic leaders <ul><li>Leaders who exert powerful effects on their followers and to whom several special traits are attributed. </li></ul><ul><li>Charismatics sway people and shape the future by their sheer presence and personality. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The Beginning of Leadership Theory: Trait theory <ul><li>Leaders possess special traits that set them apart from others. </li></ul><ul><li>These traits are responsible for their assuming positions of authority. </li></ul>
  19. 19. Leadership based on trait approaches: <ul><li>The individual is more important than the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek to identify the distinguishing human characteristics of successful leaders. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Single trait studies <ul><li>By 1950 there were over 100 studies of this kind. </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence, birth order, socio-economic status, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>However, only 5 per cent of the traits identified were common throughout. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Traits associated with leadership: <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Honesty and integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Initiative: drive and ambition </li></ul><ul><li>Self-confidence </li></ul><ul><li>The desire to lead and influence others </li></ul><ul><li>Deep technical knowledge related to their field </li></ul>
  22. 22. Trait Theory Example: First born or oldest <ul><li>Viewed as dominant-aggressive, a quality that reflects strength. </li></ul><ul><li>Independent, goal setters, high achievers, perfectionists, responsible, organized, rule keepers, determined, and detailed people. </li></ul><ul><li>Overrepresented among college students, graduate students, college faculty, and other learned groups. </li></ul><ul><li>First-born children are directly associated with leadership. </li></ul>
  23. 23. If you’re not the first born … <ul><li>Middle child is flexible, diplomatic, peacemaker, generous, social, and competitive. </li></ul><ul><li>Youngest child is risk taker, outgoing, an idea person, creative, humorous, empathetic, and questioning of authority </li></ul>
  24. 24. Women as leaders <ul><li>Studies show equal effectiveness of male and female leaders in the aggregate, when generalized across a variety of studies in a variety of settings. </li></ul><ul><li>Leadership behaviors exhibited by male and female leaders may differ and may be evaluated differently depending on the extent to which the particular role is defined in masculine terms. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Women as leaders <ul><li>Women in male-dominated areas or fields tend to be seen as less effective than their male counterparts. </li></ul><ul><li>Likewise women may be evaluated negatively when they violate gender role expectations by failing to exhibit consideration or affective leadership behaviors. </li></ul>
  26. 26. No single trait or combination of traits fully explained leaders' abilities. <ul><li>Individuals' ratings of traits associated with successful leadership vary in self-serving patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>When rating the traits associated with leadership, individuals tend to rate positive traits that they believe themselves to possess as more highly typical of leadership than traits they do not believe themselves to possess (Dunning, Perie, & Story, 1991). </li></ul>
  27. 27. Behavioral Theories of Leadership: Learned and Taught <ul><li>Two dimensional </li></ul><ul><li>“ Initiating structure” and “Consideration” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Channels of communication, methods, procedures, organizational structure AND friendship, mutual trust, warm relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Production orientation vs. Employee orientation (Katz & Kahn) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Employee Orientation = Increased group productivity & employee satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blake and Mouton’s Managerial Grid </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Concern for People vs. Concern for Task </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Next: Situational Leadership (Contingency Theory) <ul><li>Multi-dimensional </li></ul><ul><li>Situational factors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>characteristics of the group, the environment, and the leader - all effect leadership behaviors and effectiveness </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The person who becomes the leader of a specific group is determined largely by situational factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Different situations require different types of leadership. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Examples of Situational/Contingency Theories of Leadership: <ul><li>Least-preferred co-worker (Fiedler) </li></ul><ul><li>Situational Leadership (Hershey & Blanchard) </li></ul><ul><li>Leader Participation Model (Vroom & Yetton) </li></ul>
  30. 30. Is Situational Leadership the Answer? <ul><li>Situational leadership revealed the complexity of leadership but still proved to be insufficient because the theories could not predict which leadership skills would be more effective in certain situations. </li></ul>
  31. 31. The next wave: Transformational Leadership <ul><li>Transcends self interest for the sake of the organization or team </li></ul><ul><li>Appealing to higher order needs leads to exceptional results </li></ul>
  32. 32. Transactional leadership <ul><li>Leaders who engage in “transactions” with employees, such as using rewards to encourage good performance and punishment for inadequate performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional leaders rely heavily on power from their organizational position and status. </li></ul><ul><li>Research shows that most men describe themselves this way. </li></ul>
  33. 33. Transformational leadership <ul><li>“ Transformational” leaders are focused on “transforming” their employees’ priorities to reflect the interest of the group. This involves the use of collaboration and open communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational leaders influence people and events. </li></ul><ul><li>Most women identify themselves this way. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Transformational vs. transactional style <ul><li>Compared to transactional leadership, transformational leadership was associated with decreases in quantitative performance but increases in qualitative performance, leadership satisfaction, and group cohesiveness. Hoyt and Blascovich (2003) </li></ul><ul><li>TQM is an example of the attempted use of transformational leadership. </li></ul>
  35. 35. More Examples: (A return to roles and behaviors) <ul><li>Visionary Leadership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bennis, Nanus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Leadership Challenge - Kouzes and Posner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Challenging the process </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inspiring a shared vision </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enabling others to Act </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modeling the way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Encouraging the heart </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Current thought: The Servant Leader <ul><li>Listening </li></ul><ul><li>Empathy </li></ul><ul><li>Healing </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Persuasion </li></ul><ul><li>Conceptualization </li></ul><ul><li>Foresight </li></ul><ul><li>Stewardship </li></ul><ul><li>Commitment to the Growth of People </li></ul><ul><li>Building Community </li></ul>
  37. 37. ACTIVITY <ul><li>Deelie Bobbers </li></ul>
  38. 38. Leadership vs. Management <ul><li>Addresses ‘why’ </li></ul><ul><li>Inspiration/Vision </li></ul><ul><li>Service Focus </li></ul><ul><li>Strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation </li></ul><ul><li>Fulfillment </li></ul><ul><li>Versatility </li></ul><ul><li>Alignment </li></ul><ul><li>Addresses ‘how’ </li></ul><ul><li>Clarification </li></ul><ul><li>Profit focus </li></ul><ul><li>Operations </li></ul><ul><li>Improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Performance </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul>
  39. 39. Leadership: <ul><li>Creates an environment for FULFILLMENT. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourages people to grow and reach their potential. </li></ul><ul><li>Helps people make connections between what they can contribute and a larger purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>Inspires people to see the opportunity and possibilities that can come with change. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Management: <ul><li>Creates an environment for PERFORMANCE. </li></ul><ul><li>Establishes processes and systems that make work easier. </li></ul><ul><li>Provides directions to assure that results are achieved. </li></ul><ul><li>Allocates resources in a cost-effective way. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Words Describing Leadership vs. Management <ul><li>Visionary </li></ul><ul><li>Transformational </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitation </li></ul><ul><li>Servant </li></ul><ul><li>Collaborator </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Expectations </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Maker </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Transactional </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive </li></ul><ul><li>Structure </li></ul><ul><li>Process </li></ul><ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Servant </li></ul><ul><li>Coaching </li></ul><ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Guidance </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Decision Maker </li></ul><ul><li>Implementer </li></ul>
  42. 42. What is the key difference between leaders and managers? <ul><li>My Opinion… </li></ul><ul><li>Vision </li></ul><ul><li>People Orientation </li></ul>
  43. 43. What makes an effective leader? <ul><li>A vision </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders facilitate the development of a shared vision </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders value the human resources of their organizations </li></ul>
  44. 44. Vision <ul><li>Vision is defined as &quot;the force which molds meaning for the people of an organization&quot; (Manasse, 1986). </li></ul><ul><li>A compelling vision is one that takes people to a new place. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders must be able to translate that vision into reality&quot; (Bennis, 1990). </li></ul>
  45. 45. Shared vision <ul><li>&quot;Vision comes alive only when it is shared&quot; (Westley & Mintzberg, 1989). </li></ul><ul><li>Whether the vision of an organization is developed collaboratively or initiated by the leader and agreed to by the followers, it becomes the common ground, the shared vision that compels all involved. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Valuing human resources <ul><li>Leaders provide an environment that promotes individual contributions to the organization's work. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaders form teams, support team efforts, develop the skills groups and individuals need, and provide the necessary resources, both human and material, to fulfill the shared vision. </li></ul>
  47. 47. Leadership/Management Questions
  48. 48. <ul><li>Good managers make good leaders. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disagree </li></ul></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Good leaders are good managers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disagree </li></ul></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>Providing directions to assure that results are achieved is a responsibility of: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>Being supportive is associated with: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Management </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Both </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>Coaching, decision making, and motivation are associated with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Leaders are born. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Agree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Disagree </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>The situation determines the leader. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Agree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Disagree </li></ul></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Leadership can be learned. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) True </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) False </li></ul></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>Leadership can be taught. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Agree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Disagree </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Leadership/Management Questions
  58. 58. <ul><li>Good managers make good leaders. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disagree </li></ul></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Good leaders are good managers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Agree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disagree </li></ul></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>Providing directions to assure that results are achieved is a responsibility of: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>Being supportive is associated with: </li></ul><ul><li>(1) Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>(2) Management </li></ul><ul><li>(3) Both </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Coaching, decision making, and motivation are associated with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Management </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Both </li></ul></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>Leaders are born. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Agree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Disagree </li></ul></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>The situation determines the leader. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Agree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Disagree </li></ul></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>Leadership can be learned. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) True </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) False </li></ul></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>Leadership can be taught. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(1) Agree </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(2) Disagree </li></ul></ul>
  67. 67. A Story <ul><li>I Went on a Search… </li></ul><ul><li>I went on a search to become a leader. I searched high and low. I spoke with authority; people listened. But at last there was one who was wiser than I and they followed him. I sought to inspire confidence but the crowd responded, “Why should we trust you?” I postured and assumed the look of leadership with a countenance that glowed with confidence and pride. But the crowd passed by and never noticed my air of elegance. I ran ahead of the others, pointing new ways to new heights. I demonstrated that I knew the route to greatness. And then I looked back and I was alone. “What shall I do?” I queried. “I’ve tried hard and used all that I know.” And then I listened to the voices around me. And I heard what the group was trying to accomplish. </li></ul>
  68. 68. A Story <ul><li>I rolled up my sleeves and joined in the work. As we worked I asked, “Are we all together in what we want to do, and how we’ll get the job done?” And we thought together and we struggled towards our goal. I found myself encouraging the faint hearted. I sought the ideas of those too shy to speak out. I taught those who knew little at all. I praised those who worked hard. When our task was completed, one of the group members turned to me and said, “This would not have been done but for your leadership.” At first I said, “I did not lead; I just worked with the rest.” And then I understood—leadership isn’t a goal. I lead best when I forget about myself as a leader and focus on my group, their needs and their goals. </li></ul><ul><li>To lead is to serve, to give, to achieve together. </li></ul>
  69. 69. Thank you