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Leadership models, UW EMHA


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  • This leadership model by Ed Walker is very useful to potential and those currently occupying the position of leadership for efficient, effective and quality leadership results. This slids presentation is also a guide and reference to other presenters like me. I will reference Ed Walker in my presentation of the ideas I will adapt from his presentation. I recommend both potential and current leaders and authors in the field of leadership to read this slid presentation. Thank you Ed Walker for setting the space.
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Leadership models, UW EMHA

  1. 1. Leadership: an introduction Ed Walker MD, MHA Director, UW Healthcare Leadership Development Alliance
  2. 2. What is your definition of leadership? Pick a word or phrase that best describes what you think leadership is
  3. 3. Four important components of a definition of leadership <ul><li>Leadership is a </li></ul><ul><li>1) process whereby an </li></ul><ul><li>2) individual influences a </li></ul><ul><li>3) group of individuals to </li></ul><ul><li>4) achieve a common goal . </li></ul>
  4. 4. But what exactly is it? <ul><li>Trait of the leader? </li></ul><ul><li>Skill set? </li></ul><ul><li>Situational moment? </li></ul><ul><li>Stylistic process </li></ul><ul><li>A set of transactions? </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to influence or manipulate? </li></ul><ul><li>A transformational experience of inspiration? </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of people and their motivations? </li></ul><ul><li>Clear understanding of goals and paths? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Trait vs. Process Leadership <ul><li>Certain individuals have special innate or inborn characteristics or qualities that differentiate them from nonleaders. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resides in select people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Restricted to those with inborn talent </li></ul></ul>Trait definition of leadership: LEADER FOLLOWERS Leadership <ul><li>Height </li></ul><ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Extroversion </li></ul><ul><li>Fluency </li></ul><ul><li>Other Traits </li></ul>
  6. 6. Trait vs. Process Leadership <ul><li>Leadership is a property or set of properties possessed in varying degrees by different people (Jago, 1982). </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observed in leadership behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be learned </li></ul></ul>Process definition of Leadership: LEADER Leadership (Interaction) FOLLOWERS
  7. 7. Assigned vs. Emergent Leadership <ul><li>Leadership based on occupying a position within an organization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CEO </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chief of Staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Director of HR </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Department heads </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An individual perceived by others as the most influential member of a group or organization regardless of the individual’s title </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerges over time through communication behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The virtual org chart </li></ul></ul>Assigned Emergent
  8. 8. Leadership & Power <ul><li>Five Bases of Power </li></ul>
  9. 9. Leadership & Management Kotter (1990) Major activities of management and leadership are played out differently; BUT, both are essential for an organization to prosper.
  10. 10. My gender? My skills and learned behaviors? My ability to capitalize on circumstance? My personal style? My ability to influence and negotiate? My group’s ability to form a team? The culture of my organization? My flexibility to adapt? My genes? What makes me a good leader? Who I am Who I lead How I lead
  11. 11. Is leadership a trait?
  12. 12. Historical Shifts in Trait Perspective Great Man Theories Early 1900s <ul><li>Research focused </li></ul><ul><li>on individual </li></ul><ul><li>characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>that universally </li></ul><ul><li>differentiated </li></ul><ul><li>leaders </li></ul><ul><li>from nonleaders </li></ul>Traits Interacting With Situational Demands on Leaders 1930-50s <ul><li>Landmark Stogdill (1948) </li></ul><ul><li>study - analyzed and </li></ul><ul><li>synthesized 124 trait studies </li></ul><ul><li>- Leadership </li></ul><ul><li>reconceptualized </li></ul><ul><li>as a relationship between </li></ul><ul><li>people in a social situation </li></ul><ul><li>Mann (1959) reviewed 1,400 </li></ul><ul><li>findings of personality and </li></ul><ul><li>leadership in small groups </li></ul><ul><li>- Less emphasis on situations </li></ul><ul><li>- Suggested personality traits </li></ul><ul><li>could be used to discriminate </li></ul><ul><li>leaders from nonleaders </li></ul>Revival of Critical Role of Traits in Leader Effectiveness <ul><li>Stogdill (1974) </li></ul><ul><li>- Analyzed 163 new studies </li></ul><ul><li>with 1948 study findings </li></ul><ul><li>- Validated original study </li></ul><ul><li>- 10 characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>positively identified with </li></ul><ul><li>leadership </li></ul><ul><li>Lord, DeVader, & </li></ul><ul><li>Alliger (1986) meta-analysis </li></ul><ul><li>- Personality traits can be </li></ul><ul><li>used to differentiate </li></ul><ul><li>leaders/nonleaders </li></ul><ul><li>Kirkpatrick & Locke (1991) </li></ul><ul><li>- 6 traits make up the </li></ul><ul><li>“ Right Stuff” for leaders </li></ul>1970’s - Early 90s Innate Qualities Situations Personality / Behaviors Today <ul><li>Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Confidence </li></ul><ul><li>Determination </li></ul><ul><li>Integrity </li></ul><ul><li>Sociability </li></ul>5 Major Leadership Traits
  13. 13. 5-Factor Personality Model & Leadership Big Five Personality Factors
  14. 14. Emotional Intelligence & Leadership <ul><li>People who are more sensitive to their emotions & their impact on others will be more effective leaders </li></ul>Underlying Premise Definition <ul><li>Ability to perceive and : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>apply emotions to life’s tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reason/understand emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>express emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use emotions to facilitate thinking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>manage emotions within oneself & relationships </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Is leadership more of a well developed skill set?
  16. 16. Basic Administrative Skills – Katz (1955) Management Skills Necessary at Various Levels of an Organization <ul><li>Leaders need all three skills – but, skill ability/ importance changes based on level of management </li></ul>
  17. 17. Skills Model Skills Model of Leadership
  18. 18. Maybe leadership is a matter of interactive style?
  19. 19. Balancing people and productivity Blake-Mouton Grid
  20. 20. Ok, maybe leadership is just the flexibility to adapt to a given situation?
  21. 21. Blanchard and Hersey Telling Participating Delegating Selling
  22. 23. How Does The Situational Approach Work? Followers Developmental level D1 Low Competence High Commitment D2 Some Competence Low Commitment D3 Mod-High Competence Low Commitment D4 High Competence High Commitment Leaders Leadership style S1 – Directing High Directive-Low Supportive S2 – Coaching High Directive-High Supportive S3 – Supporting High Supportive-Low Directive S4 – Delegating Low Supportive-Low Directive How Does The Situational Approach Work?
  23. 24. Perhaps leadership is just staying out of the way and letting people do their jobs?
  24. 25. Path-Goal Theory
  25. 26. Is leadership more than just getting the job done?
  26. 27. Transformational Leadership… <ul><li>A process of charismatic and visionary leadership that changes and transforms individuals </li></ul><ul><li>A form of influence that moves followers to accomplish more than what is expected of them </li></ul><ul><li>Concerned with emotions, values, ethics, standards, and long-term goals </li></ul><ul><li>assesses followers’ motives, satisfying their needs, and treating them as full human beings </li></ul><ul><li>both specific (one-to-one with followers) and broad (whole organizations or entire cultures) </li></ul><ul><li>follower(s) and leader are inextricably bound together in the transformation process </li></ul>
  27. 28. Transformational Leadership Factors <ul><li>Leaders who exhibit TL: </li></ul><ul><li>have a strong set of internal values & ideals </li></ul><ul><li>are effective in motivating followers to support greater good over self-interest </li></ul>
  28. 29. Transformational Leadership <ul><li>TLs empower and nurture followers </li></ul><ul><li>TLs stimulate change by becoming strong role models for followers </li></ul><ul><li>TLs commonly create a vision </li></ul><ul><li>TLs require leaders to become social architects </li></ul><ul><li>TLs build trust & foster collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Describes how leaders can initiate, develop, and carry out significant changes in organizations </li></ul>Focus of Transformational Leaders Overall Scope
  29. 30. An example of Transformational Leadership <ul><li>Model the Way </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Exemplary leaders set examples by their own behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspire a Shared Vision </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Effective leaders inspire visions that challenge others </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Challenge the Process </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders are willing to innovate, grow, take risks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enable Others to Act </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders create environments where people can feel good about their work & how it contributes to greater community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Encourage the Heart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leaders use authentic celebrations & rituals to show appreciation & encouragement to others </li></ul></ul>Kouzes & Pozner (1987, 2002)
  30. 31. Wait, maybe it’s not about the leader at all – it’s about the team that’s being led
  31. 32. Team Leadership <ul><li>Team Leadership is about performing functions </li></ul>
  32. 33. Wait – we’ve gotten too far from the focus on the leader and the complexity of the kinds of people we really are
  33. 34. Psychodynamic Approach <ul><li>Function of leader – To become aware of his or her own personality type and the personalities of followers </li></ul><ul><li>Underlying assumptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personality characteristics of individuals are deeply ingrained and virtually impossible to change in any significant way </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People have motives & feelings that are unconscious </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Person’s behavior results from observable actions, responses AND from emotional effects of past experience </li></ul></ul>
  34. 35. Eric Berne and Transactional Analysis
  35. 36. <ul><li>Four dimensions important in assessing personality: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Where a person derives energy – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>internally or externally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Way in which a person gathers information – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>precise, sequential way or more intuitive & random way </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Way in which a person makes decisions – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>rationally & factually or in a subjective, personal way </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How the person is oriented to the world -- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>planning & organized or , more spontaneous & pliant </li></ul></ul></ul>Carl Jung & Personality Types
  36. 37. Carl Jung and Personality Types Psychological Preferences and Leadership
  37. 38. Sixteen Types and Leadership Psychological Types and Leadership
  38. 39. Maybe it’s all about gender – do men or women make better leaders?
  39. 40. <ul><li>Overall, multiple meta-analyses show that men and women were equally effective , but with some differences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>women and men were more effective in leadership roles congruent with their gender </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>women were less effective to the extent that leader role was masculinized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>women were </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less effective than men in military positions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>more effective than men in education, government, and social service organizations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>substantially more effective than men in middle management positions; interpersonal skills highly valued </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>less effective than men when they </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>supervised a higher proportion of male subordinates </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>greater proportion of male raters assessed the leaders’ performance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>Meta-analysis of Gender and Leadership Effectiveness (Eagly et al, 1995)
  40. 41. What about culture? Does that make a difference?
  41. 42. Dimensions of Culture <ul><li>House et al’s (2004) research on the relationship between culture and leadership resulted in the GLOBE research program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiated in 1991 – this program involved more than 160 investigators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used quantitative methods to study the responses of 17,000 managers in more than 950 organizations, 62 different cultures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed a classification of cultural dimensions – identified nine cultural dimensions </li></ul></ul>Research
  42. 43. Dimensions of Culture <ul><li>GLOBE research program – nine cultural dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty Avoidance: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extent to which a society, organization, or group relies on established social norms, rituals, and procedures to avoid uncertainty </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Distance: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>degree to which members of a group expect and agree that power should be shared unequally </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional Collectivism: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>degree to which an organization or society encourages institutional or societal collective action. </li></ul></ul></ul>Research
  43. 44. Dimensions of Culture <ul><li>GLOBE research program – nine cultural dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>In-Group Collectivism: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>degree to which people express pride, loyalty, and cohesiveness in their organizations or families </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender Egalitarianism: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>degree to which an organization or society minimizes gender role differences and promotes gender equality </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assertiveness: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>degree to which people in a culture are determined, assertive, confrontational, and aggressive in their social relationships </li></ul></ul></ul>Research
  44. 45. Dimensions of Culture <ul><li>GLOBE research program – nine cultural dimensions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Future Orientation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extent to which people engage in future-oriented behaviors such as planning, investing in the future, and delaying gratification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Performance Orientation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extent to which an organization or society encourages and rewards group members for improved performance and excellence </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humane Orientation: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>degree to which a culture encourages and rewards people for being fair, altruistic, generous, caring, and kind to others. </li></ul></ul></ul>Research
  45. 46. <ul><li>GLOBE researchers divided the data from 62 countries into regional clusters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clusters provide a convenient way to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze similarities & differences between cultural groups </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make meaningful generalizations about culture & leadership </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clusters were found to be unique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regional clusters represent 10 distinct groups </li></ul></ul>Clusters of World Cultures
  46. 47. Clusters of World Cultures
  47. 48. <ul><li>Characteristics include - </li></ul><ul><li>Anglo – competitive and result-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Confucian Asia – result-driven, encourage group working together over individual goals </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Europe – forceful, supportive of co-workers, treat women with equality </li></ul><ul><li>Germanic Europe – value competition & aggressiveness and are more result-oriented </li></ul><ul><li>Latin America – loyal & devoted to their families and similar groups </li></ul>Characteristics of Clusters Observations
  48. 49. <ul><li>Characteristics include - </li></ul><ul><li>Latin Europe – value individual autonomy </li></ul><ul><li>Middle East – devoted & loyal to their own people, women afforded less status </li></ul><ul><li>Nordic Europe – high priority on long-term success, women treated with greater equality </li></ul><ul><li>Southern Asia – strong family & deep concern for their communities </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-Sahara Africa – concerned & sensitive to others, demonstrate strong family loyalty </li></ul>Characteristics of Clusters Observations
  49. 50. Developing Leadership with Strategic Thinking Balancing Rigor and Relevance
  50. 51.
  51. 52. FALL Winter SPRING Self Personal Readiness (Once) Team Team Dynamic (Three times) Your Leadership Peer & Self Rating (Three times) Global Mindset Self (Once)
  52. 53.
  53. 54. <ul><li>For Team Dynamics we repeat the same team measures 3 times </li></ul>
  54. 55. <ul><li>Authentic Leadership Model: </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency </li></ul><ul><li>Balanced Processing </li></ul><ul><li>Moral/Ethical Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Full Range Leadership (Transformational - TF): </li></ul><ul><li>Four Is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>I ndividualized Consideration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I ntellectual Stimulation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I dealized Influence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I nspirational Motivation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Contingent Reward (Transactional - TA) </li></ul>
  55. 56. Transactional Contingent Reward “ Utilities” Self-Awareness Transparency Balanced Processing Moral/Ethical Behavior Transformational “ Walls” Authentic “ Foundation” Strategic “ Crown”
  56. 57. Clapp-Smith Model
  57. 58. <ul><li>Focus on state-like attributes (not traits) </li></ul><ul><li>Leverage experience (trigger moments) </li></ul><ul><li>Increase self-awareness </li></ul><ul><li>Develop reflective learning capabilities (e.g., journaling, after action reviews, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide challenge, feedback and support </li></ul>
  59. 60. A leader trained in an evidence-based system of development … <ul><li>Knows his or her strengths and is always self-aware </li></ul><ul><li>Continuously reflects by thinking about how he or she thinks </li></ul><ul><li>Has a clear self concept and goal orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Is motivated to learn and motivated to lead </li></ul><ul><li>Maintains and appreciates perspective and is morally grounded </li></ul><ul><li>Is adaptable , tolerant of ambiguity and is self efficacious in the face of adversity </li></ul><ul><li>Is socially and culturally aware </li></ul><ul><li>Balances individual and team effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Becomes an authentic leader: self aware, balanced processing, moral perspective, transparent </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrates psychological capital: self-efficacy, hope, optimism and resiliency </li></ul>
  60. 61. So what have we learned?