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Topic 1: Systems
• SYSTEM: an assemblage of parts and their relationship forming a
  functioning entirety or whole.
Topic 1: Systems
• 1970’s James Lovelock proposes the GAIA
  hypothesis

• The planet acts like a single biological
  bein...
Physical Climate System
                                                                  Atmospheric Physics/Dynamics    ...
Topic 1: Systems
• Systems involve:   Inputs of Water, Carbon Dioxide
                               and Sunlight
        ...
Topic 1: Systems
• Individual systems can be sub-units of bigger systems
Topic 1: Systems
  • Individual systems can be sub-units of bigger systems




Inputs of Water, Carbon Dioxide
           ...
Topic 1: Systems
• All systems include inputs, processes and outputs
Topic 1: Systems
• All systems include inputs, processes and outputs




             Input             Output




       ...
Topic 1: Systems
• All systems include inputs, processes and outputs




             Input             Output   Input    ...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.2: Types of System
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.2: Types of System


                   • Open Systems
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.2: Types of System


                   • Open Systems

                   • Closed Systems
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.2: Types of System


                   • Open Systems

                   • Closed Systems

        ...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.2: Types of System

Open Systems

• exchange matter and energy with its surroundings.
               ...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.2: Types of System

Closed Systems

• exchange energy but not matter.
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.2: Types of System
                                    Light Energy
Closed Systems                   ...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.2: Types of System
                                    Light Energy
Closed Systems                   ...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.2: Types of System

Closed Systems

• Biosphere 2
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.2: Types of System

Isolated Systems
• An isolated system exchanges
  neither matter nor energy.

• I...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.3: Energy in Systems

Energy in all systems is
subject to the Laws of
Thermodynamics
Topic 1: Systems
  1.1.3: Energy in Systems

  The First Law:
• Energy is neither created
  nor destroyed..
• Energy can o...
Topic 1: Systems
  1.1.3: Energy in Systems

  The First Law:
• Energy is neither created   Incoming solar radiation (ligh...
Topic 1: Systems
  1.1.3: Energy in Systems

  The First Law:
• Energy is neither created   Consumers (herbivores) eat the...
Topic 1: Systems
  1.1.3: Energy in Systems

  The First Law:
• Energy is neither created   Consumers (carnivores) eat oth...
Topic 1: Systems
  1.1.3: Energy in Systems

  The First Law:
• Energy is neither created   No energy has been created or ...
Topic 1: Systems
  1.1.3: Energy in Systems

  The First Law:
• Energy is neither created
  nor destroyed..
• Energy can o...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.3: Energy in Systems

The First Law:
• Energy is neither created
  nor destroyed..
• Of the sunlight ...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.3: Energy in Systems

The Second Law:
• The entropy of an isolated
  system not in equilibrium
  will...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.3: Energy in Systems

The Second Law:
• The entropy of an isolated
  system not in equilibrium
  will...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.3: Energy in Systems

The Second Law:
• The entropy of an isolated
  system not in equilibrium
  will...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.3: Energy in Systems

The Second Law:
• The entropy of an isolated
  system not in equilibrium
  will...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.3: Energy in Systems

The Second Law:
• The entropy of an isolated
  system not in equilibrium
  will...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.3: Energy in Systems

The Second Law:
• The entropy of an isolated
  system not in equilibrium
  will...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.3: Energy in Systems

The Second Law:
• The entropy of an isolated
  system not in equilibrium
  will...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.3: Energy in Systems
                                                      Heat
The Second Law:
• Can...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.4: Equilibria



      Open systems tend to exist in a state of balance
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.4: Equilibria

Two types of Equilibrium

                    •Static

                    •Dynamic
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.4: Equilibria


•Static:
Where components of the
system remain constant
over a long period of time
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.4: Equilibria                                         80



•“Dynamic”:                     Number of...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.5: Feedback

A system are continually
affected by and react to
information (stimuli)
The final outcome...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.5: Feedback
Negative feedback
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.5: Feedback
                                                             80
Negative feedback



    ...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.5: Feedback
                                                             80
Negative feedback



    ...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.5: Feedback
                                                             80
Negative feedback



    ...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.5: Feedback
                                                                              80
Negative...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.5: Feedback
Positive feedback
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.5: Feedback
 Positive feedback
• Amplifies or increases
  change; it leads to
  exponential deviation ...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.5: Feedback                Higher temperatures

 Positive feedback
• Amplifies or increases
  change; ...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.5: Feedback                Higher temperatures

 Positive feedback                                   ...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.5: Feedback                Higher temperatures

 Positive feedback                                   ...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.5: Feedback                Higher temperatures

 Positive feedback                                   ...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.5: Feedback                                    Higher temperatures

 Positive feedback               ...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.5: Feedback                                         Higher temperatures

 Positive feedback          ...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems

• A transfe...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems

• A transfe...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems

• A transfe...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems

Transfers c...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems

Transfers c...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems

Transfers c...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems

Transfers c...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems

Transformat...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems

Transformat...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems

Transformat...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations
Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems

Transformat...
Topic 1: Systems
1.1.7: Flows and Storages
Both energy and matter flows (inputs and outputs) through
ecosystems but at time...
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Environmental Systems

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This presentation supports the IB Environmental System and Societies Diploma Programme course.

Extensive support material can be found at www.sciencebitz.com

Additional review and revision material is available as an iTunesU course at
https://itunesu.itunes.apple.com/enroll/DEZ-HWS-HNJ

Published in: Education, Technology, Business

Environmental Systems

  1. 1. Topic 1: Systems • SYSTEM: an assemblage of parts and their relationship forming a functioning entirety or whole.
  2. 2. Topic 1: Systems • 1970’s James Lovelock proposes the GAIA hypothesis • The planet acts like a single biological being made up of individual and interconnected units • A SYSTEM
  3. 3. Physical Climate System Atmospheric Physics/Dynamics Climate Sun Change Terrestrial Ocean Dynamics Strotspheric Chemistry/ energy/moisture External Forcing Human Activities Dynamics Global Moisture Soil CO2 Land Marine Terrestrial Use Volcanoes Biogeochemistry Ecosystems Tropospheric chemistry CO2 Biogeochemical System Polluntants
  4. 4. Topic 1: Systems • Systems involve: Inputs of Water, Carbon Dioxide and Sunlight Light energy is trapped by the chlorophyll inside the chloroplasts • Inputs • Outputs • Processes Oxygen is realesed Energy is released, splitting to the atmosphere water into hydrogen and oxygen The hydrogen combines with carbon dioxide to make glucose
  5. 5. Topic 1: Systems • Individual systems can be sub-units of bigger systems
  6. 6. Topic 1: Systems • Individual systems can be sub-units of bigger systems Inputs of Water, Carbon Dioxide Light energy is trapped and Sunlight by the chlorophyll inside the chloroplasts • A food chain includes photosynthesising plants Oxygen is realesed Energy is released, splitting to the atmosphere water into hydrogen and oxygen The hydrogen combines with carbon dioxide to make glucose
  7. 7. Topic 1: Systems • All systems include inputs, processes and outputs
  8. 8. Topic 1: Systems • All systems include inputs, processes and outputs Input Output Process
  9. 9. Topic 1: Systems • All systems include inputs, processes and outputs Input Output Input Output Input Output Process Process Process
  10. 10. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System
  11. 11. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System • Open Systems
  12. 12. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System • Open Systems • Closed Systems
  13. 13. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System • Open Systems • Closed Systems • Isolated Systems
  14. 14. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System Open Systems • exchange matter and energy with its surroundings. Atmospheric Carbon dioxide Combustion Respiration Photosynthesis Higher Consumers Fossil fuels and Wood Primary Consumers Fossils and Detrivores Detritus Sediments
  15. 15. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System Closed Systems • exchange energy but not matter.
  16. 16. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System Light Energy Closed Systems From the Sun • exchange energy but not matter.
  17. 17. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System Light Energy Closed Systems From the Sun • exchange energy but not matter. Long wave energy (heat) returned to space
  18. 18. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System Closed Systems • Biosphere 2
  19. 19. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.2: Types of System Isolated Systems • An isolated system exchanges neither matter nor energy. • Isolated systems do not exist naturally • Possible to think of the entire Universe as an isolated system
  20. 20. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems Energy in all systems is subject to the Laws of Thermodynamics
  21. 21. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The First Law: • Energy is neither created nor destroyed.. • Energy can only change from one form to another • Often called: The Law of Conservation of energy
  22. 22. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The First Law: • Energy is neither created Incoming solar radiation (light energy) is trapped by plants and converted to sugars (stored chemical energy) nor destroyed.. • Energy can only change from one form to another • Often called: The Law of Conservation of energy
  23. 23. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The First Law: • Energy is neither created Consumers (herbivores) eat the plants (producers) and the stored chemical energy gets passed up the food chain nor destroyed.. • Energy can only change from one form to another • Often called: The Law of Conservation of energy
  24. 24. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The First Law: • Energy is neither created Consumers (carnivores) eat other consumers (herbivores) and the stored chemical energy gets passed up the food chain again nor destroyed.. • Energy can only change from one form to another • Often called: The Law of Conservation of energy
  25. 25. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The First Law: • Energy is neither created No energy has been created or destroyed in the food chain it has only nor destroyed.. moved or changed form • Energy can only change from one form to another • Often called: The Law of Conservation of energy
  26. 26. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The First Law: • Energy is neither created nor destroyed.. • Energy can only change from one form to another • Often called: The Law of Conservation of energy
  27. 27. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The First Law: • Energy is neither created nor destroyed.. • Of the sunlight falling on Earth not all of it is used for photosynthesis.
  28. 28. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The Second Law: • The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time • Energy conversions are never efficient and the more conversions in a system the greater the total inefficiency
  29. 29. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The Second Law: • The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time • Energy conversions are never efficient and the more conversions in a system the greater the total inefficiency
  30. 30. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The Second Law: • The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over Heat generated during work time e.g. respiration • Energy conversions are never efficient and the more conversions in a system the greater the total inefficiency
  31. 31. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The Second Law: • The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over Heat generated during work time e.g. respiration • Energy conversions are never efficient and the more conversions in a system the greater the total inefficiency
  32. 32. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The Second Law: • The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over Heat generated Heat generated during work during work time e.g. respiration e.g. respiration • Energy conversions are never efficient and the more conversions in a system the greater the total inefficiency
  33. 33. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The Second Law: • The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over Heat generated Heat generated during work during work time e.g. respiration e.g. respiration • Energy conversions are never efficient and the more conversions in a system the greater the total inefficiency
  34. 34. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems The Second Law: • The entropy of an isolated system not in equilibrium will tend to increase over Heat generated Heat generated Heat generated during work during work during work time e.g. respiration e.g. respiration e.g. respiration • Energy conversions are never efficient and the more conversions in a system the greater the total inefficiency
  35. 35. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.3: Energy in Systems Heat The Second Law: • Can be thought of as a Input Energy Useful Energy simple word equation Work • Energy = Work + Heat (and other waste products) • Or the spreading out of Conversion energy process
  36. 36. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.4: Equilibria Open systems tend to exist in a state of balance
  37. 37. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.4: Equilibria Two types of Equilibrium •Static •Dynamic
  38. 38. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.4: Equilibria •Static: Where components of the system remain constant over a long period of time
  39. 39. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.4: Equilibria 80 •“Dynamic”: Number of pelts (1000s) 60 Difficult concept 40 A system is in a steady state because the inputs and 20 outputs that affect it approximately balance over a long period of time 0 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 Year Snowshoe Hare Lynx
  40. 40. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback A system are continually affected by and react to information (stimuli) The final outcome of the process is governed by feedback •Negative •Positive
  41. 41. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Negative feedback
  42. 42. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback 80 Negative feedback Number of pelts (1000s) • tends to damp down, 60 neutralize or counteract any deviation from an equilibrium, 40 and promotes stability. 20 0 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 Year Snowshoe Hare Lynx
  43. 43. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback 80 Negative feedback Number of pelts (1000s) • tends to damp down, 60 neutralize or counteract any deviation from an equilibrium, 40 and promotes stability. 20 0 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 Year Snowshoe Hare Lynx
  44. 44. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback 80 Negative feedback Number of pelts (1000s) • tends to damp down, 60 neutralize or counteract any deviation from an equilibrium, 40 and promotes stability. 20 0 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 Year Snowshoe Hare Lynx
  45. 45. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback 80 Negative feedback Number of pelts (1000s) • tends to damp down, 60 neutralize or counteract any deviation from an equilibrium, 40 and promotes stability. Prey population 20 Prey population falls grows More food Less food 0 1900 1905 1910 1915 1920 Less hunting More hunting Year Snowshoe Hare Lynx Predator population Predator population falls grows
  46. 46. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Positive feedback
  47. 47. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Positive feedback • Amplifies or increases change; it leads to exponential deviation away from an equilibrium.
  48. 48. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Higher temperatures Positive feedback • Amplifies or increases change; it leads to exponential deviation away from an equilibrium.
  49. 49. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Higher temperatures Positive feedback Land and sea • Amplifies or increases temperatures rise change; it leads to exponential deviation away from an equilibrium.
  50. 50. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Higher temperatures Positive feedback Land and sea • Amplifies or increases temperatures rise change; it leads to exponential deviation away from an equilibrium. Increased evaporation
  51. 51. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Higher temperatures Positive feedback Land and sea • Amplifies or increases temperatures rise change; it leads to exponential deviation away from an equilibrium. Increased evaporation More water vapour
  52. 52. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Higher temperatures Positive feedback Land and sea • Amplifies or increases temperatures rise change; it leads to exponential deviation away from an equilibrium. Wetter Atmosphere Increased evaporation More water vapour
  53. 53. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.5: Feedback Higher temperatures Positive feedback More heat trapped Land and sea • Amplifies or increases by atmosphere temperatures rise change; it leads to exponential deviation away from an equilibrium. Wetter Atmosphere Increased evaporation More water vapour
  54. 54. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
  55. 55. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems • A transfer is when the flow does not involve a change of form
  56. 56. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems • A transfer is when the flow does not involve a change of form • A transformation is a flow involving a change of form
  57. 57. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems • A transfer is when the flow does not involve a change of form • A transformation is a flow involving a change of form • Both types of flow use energy - transfers being simpler use less
  58. 58. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
  59. 59. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
  60. 60. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
  61. 61. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
  62. 62. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems Transfers can involve:
  63. 63. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems Transfers can involve: • The movement of material through living organisms (carnivores eating other animals)
  64. 64. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems Transfers can involve: • The movement of material through living organisms (carnivores eating other animals) • The movement of material in a non-living process (water being carried by a stream)
  65. 65. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems Transfers can involve: • The movement of material through living organisms (carnivores eating other animals) • The movement of material in a non-living process (water being carried by a stream) • The movement of energy (ocean currents transferring heat)
  66. 66. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems
  67. 67. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems Transformations can involve:
  68. 68. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems Transformations can involve: • Matter (glucose converted to starch in plants)
  69. 69. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems Transformations can involve: • Matter (glucose converted to starch in plants) • Energy (Light converted to heat by radiating surfaces)
  70. 70. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.6: Transfers and Transformations Both Material and Energy move or flow through ecosystems Transformations can involve: • Matter (glucose converted to starch in plants) • Energy (Light converted to heat by radiating surfaces) • Matter to energy (burning fossil fuels)
  71. 71. Topic 1: Systems 1.1.7: Flows and Storages Both energy and matter flows (inputs and outputs) through ecosystems but at times is also stored (stock) within the ecosystem:

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