Topic 2.2 prokaryotes

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Topic 2.2 prokaryotes

  1. 1. 2.2: Prokaryotes Scien cebitz. com Scien cebitz. com
  2. 2. Pro = before karyote = nucleus From the Greek κάρυον = nut so prokaryotes do not have “membrane bound nuclei” Bacteria and Archaea The First Cells Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells http://www.ecoliblog.com/2007/04/ Scien cebitz. com
  3. 3. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  4. 4. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  5. 5. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) Ribosome http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  6. 6. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) Ribosome Capsule http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  7. 7. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) Ribosome Cell wall Capsule http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  8. 8. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) Ribosome Cell wall Plasma membrane Capsule http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  9. 9. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) Ribosome Cell wall Plasma membrane FlagellumCapsule http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  10. 10. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) Ribosome Cell wall Plasma membrane Flagellum Pili Capsule http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  11. 11. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) Ribosome Cell wall Plasma membrane Flagellum Pili Cytoplasm Capsule http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  12. 12. Generalised Prokaryote Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Nucleoid (area with naked DNA) Ribosome Cell wall Plasma membrane Flagellum Pili Cytoplasm Capsule Plasmid http://i.telegraph.co.uk/multimedia/archive/01456/Ecoli_1456133c.jpg Scien cebitz. com
  13. 13. What’s it really look like Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Scien cebitz. com
  14. 14. What’s it really look like Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Scien cebitz. com
  15. 15. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Scien cebitz. com
  16. 16. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA Plasmid Scien cebitz. com
  17. 17. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA Plasmid Contains all the enzymes needed for all metabolic reactions, since there are no organelles Cytoplasm Scien cebitz. com
  18. 18. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA Plasmid Contains all the enzymes needed for all metabolic reactions, since there are no organelles The smaller (70 S) type. Cytoplasm Ribosomes Scien cebitz. com
  19. 19. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA Plasmid Contains all the enzymes needed for all metabolic reactions, since there are no organelles The smaller (70 S) type. The region of the cytoplasm that contains DNA. It is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane. Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid Scien cebitz. com
  20. 20. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA Plasmid Contains all the enzymes needed for all metabolic reactions, since there are no organelles The smaller (70 S) type. The region of the cytoplasm that contains DNA. It is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane. Always circular, and not associated with any proteins to form chromatin Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA Scien cebitz. com
  21. 21. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA Plasmid Contains all the enzymes needed for all metabolic reactions, since there are no organelles The smaller (70 S) type. The region of the cytoplasm that contains DNA. It is not surrounded by a nuclear membrane. Always circular, and not associated with any proteins to form chromatin Small circles of DNA, used to exchange DNA between bacterial cells Cytoplasm Ribosomes Nucleoid DNA Plasmid Scien cebitz. com
  22. 22. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Flagellum Pili Scien cebitz. com
  23. 23. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Flagellum Pili Made of phospholipids and proteinsCell Membrane Scien cebitz. com
  24. 24. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Flagellum Pili Made of phospholipids and proteins Made of murein (not cellulose), which is a glycoprotein (i.e. a protein/carbohydrate complex, also called peptidoglycan). Cell Membrane Cell Wall Scien cebitz. com
  25. 25. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Flagellum Pili Made of phospholipids and proteins Made of murein (not cellulose), which is a glycoprotein (i.e. a protein/carbohydrate complex, also called peptidoglycan). A thick polysaccharide layer outside of the cell wall, like the glycocalyx of eukaryotes Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Scien cebitz. com
  26. 26. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Flagellum Pili Made of phospholipids and proteins Made of murein (not cellulose), which is a glycoprotein (i.e. a protein/carbohydrate complex, also called peptidoglycan). A thick polysaccharide layer outside of the cell wall, like the glycocalyx of eukaryotes A rigid rotating helical-shaped tail used for propulsion Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Flagellum Scien cebitz. com
  27. 27. Contents of the cell Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Flagellum Pili Made of phospholipids and proteins Made of murein (not cellulose), which is a glycoprotein (i.e. a protein/carbohydrate complex, also called peptidoglycan). A thick polysaccharide layer outside of the cell wall, like the glycocalyx of eukaryotes A rigid rotating helical-shaped tail used for propulsion Used to exchange genetic material between cells Cell Membrane Cell Wall Capsule Flagellum Pili Scien cebitz. com
  28. 28. Cell shapes Before the nucleus 2.2: Prokaryotic cells Bacili SpirilliCocci Scien cebitz. com

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